Vlachs – Romanic continuity


The Vlachs, who call themselves Aromani or Arman, first appear in the historical record during the Middle Ages, primarily in the region south of the Balkans. They traditionally claim to be descendants of the Romans who in the 2nd century bce occupied ancient Macedonia and what is now northern and northeastern Greece and who by the 2nd century ce occupied Dacia, a Roman province located in Transylvania and the Carpathian Mountains of present-day Romania. After the Romans evacuated Dacia (271 ce), the area was subjected to a series of barbarian invasions. According to some scholars, the Romanized Dacians remained in the area, probably taking refuge in the Carpathian Mountains. They remained there for several centuries as shepherds and farmers, until conditions settled and they returned to the plains.

The Vlachs also lived in Macedonia, Epirus, and Thessaly. According to the 12th-century Byzantine historian Anna Comnena, they founded the independent state of Great Walachia, which covered the southern and central Pindus Mountain ranges and part of Macedonia. (After the establishment of the Latin empire at Constantinople in 1204, Great Walachia was absorbed by the Greek Despotate of Epirus; later it was annexed by the Serbs, and in 1393 it fell to the Turks.) Another Vlach settlement, called Little Walachia, was located in Aetolia and Acarnania. In addition, Vlachs known as Morlachs, or Mavrovlachi, inhabited areas in the mountains of Montenegro, Herzegovina, and northern Albania as well as on the southern coast of Dalmatia, where they founded Ragusa (modern Dubrovnik). In the 14th century some Morlachs moved northward into Croatia. In the 15th century others, later called Ćići, settled in the Istrian Peninsula.

Columbia University in the City of New York


Albania has the second largest Aromanian community, living mostly the southern region of the country, especially around Gjirokaster and Permeti. Aromanian colonies can be found in towns in the south-eastern part of Albania, such as Kastoria, Florina, Monastir, Ohrid and Korca. Another concentration is around Vlora. They inhabit the north-western part of the Pindus Mountains of Greece and southern Albania as well.

In Macedonia, they are concentrated around Bitola, Resen and Krusevo.

Greece: Greece has by far the largest Aromanian community, the majority of them, lives in northern Greece, in scattered rural communities. The main areas inhabited by these populations are the Pindus Mountains, Meglan, around lake Prespa, and around the mountains of Olympus and Vermion.

Macedonia and then Greece were eventually incorporated into the Roman Empire and the Balkans and Macedonia marked the zone between Latin and Greek speaking cultures. The official language was Latin from the Danube down to a line marked by Durres, Ohrid, Skopje and Sofia and then east to the Black Sea; south of this line Greek predominated. Hence, even if by the 2nd century AD most inscriptions are in Greek this only indicates the official language of towns. The native peoples may have been Latin speaking.

Throughout the early Middle Ages the bulk of the Romanic population lay south of the Danube. It was in the Balkan lands that the Romanic race and language took their characteristic mould. It is here that this new Illyrian Romance first rises into historic prominence. Already in the 6th century, as we learn from the place names, such as Sceptecasas, Burgualtu, Clisura, &c., given by Procopius, the Romanic language was assuming, so far as its Latin elements were concerned, its typical form. In the somewhat later campaigns of Cornmentiolus (587) and Priscus, against the Avars and Slavs, we find the Latin-speaking soldiery of the Eastern emperor making use of such Romance expressions as torna, fratre! (Turn back, brother!), or sculca (out of bed) applied to a watch (cf. Romanian a se culca, Italian coricarsi+ex-(s-) privative).

Soon after, the historical sources mentioned this warrior Romanized population as largely incorporated in the Bulgarian kingdom, and, if we are to judge from the names Paganus and Sabinus, already supplying it with rulers in the 8th century.

The fact that these peculiarities are common to the Romanized populations north of the Danube, whose idiom is a different dialect of that spoken by their peers south of Danube, shows that it was this southern branch that had been domineering during earlier periods of the history of Romanized populations in the area. As a result of many historical "accidents", the linguistic particularities of the populations south of Danube irradiated to the northern bank of the river. Little by little, the center of gravity shifted from south to north.

The first mention of Vlachs in a Byzantine source is about the year 976, when Kedrenos (ii. 439) writes about the murder of the Bulgarian tsar Samuel’s brother by certain Vlachian wayfarers, at a spot called the Fair Oaks, between Castoria and Prespa. From, this period onwards the Romanized inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula are constantly mentioned by this name, and we find a series of political organizations and territorial divisions connected with the name of Vlachiia.

The Bulgarian-Vlach Empire. After the overthrow of the older Bulgarian rulers by Basil Bulgaroktonos (976-1025), the Vlachian population of the former territory of Thrace, Haemus and the Moesian lands passed once more under Byzantine dominion; in 1185 a heavy tax, levied in kind on the cattle of these warlike mountain shepherds, stirred the Vlachs to revolt against the emperor Isaac Angelus; under the leadership of two brothers, Peter and Asan, they founded a new Bulgarian-Vlachian empire, which ended in 1257. The dominions of these half-Slavonic half-Roman emperors extended north of the Danube over a great deal of what is now Romania, and it was during this period that the Vlachian population north of the river seems to have been most influential in the area. The 13th century French traveler Rubruquis speaks of all the country between Don and Danube as a seas land or Blakia.

Great Walachica. It is from Anna Comnena, in the second half of the 11th century, that we first hear of a Vlachian settlement, the nucleus of which was the mountainous region of Thessaly. In the 12th century, Benjamin of Tudela gives an interesting account of this Great Walachia, then completely independent. It embraced the southern and central ridges of Pindus, and extended over part of Macedonia, thus including the region in which the Roman settlers mentioned in the Acts of St. Demetrius had fixed their abode. After the Latin conquest of Constantinople in 1204, Great Walachia had been included in then larger principality of Epirus, but soon reappeared as an independent principality under its old name, which, after passing under the yoke of the Serb emperor Dushan, was finally conquered by the Turks in 1393.

The Morlachs (Mavrovlachos). These had been mentioned as "Nigri Latini"(Black Latin Speakers) by the presbyter of Dioclea as early as 1150; they inhabited the old Dalmatian littoral and the mountains of what is now Montenegro, Herzegovina and North Albania. Other colonies extended through a great part of the old Serbian interior, where there is a region still called Stara Vlaka or Old Walachia. They were to be found great commercial towns of the east Adriatic shores in the Venetian republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik); the republic itself seems to have been a Roman settlement, and many Vlach traces were found in the dialect that would later be spoken there. Philippus de Diversis, who described Ragusa as he saw it was in 1440, writes that the various officers of the republic do not make use either of Slav or Italian, in which they converse with strangers, but a certain other dialect only partially intelligible to us Romance-language speakers; he cites words with strong Romanian affinities. In the mountains above Ragusa a number of Vlach tribes are mentioned in the archives of that city, and the original relationship between the inhabitants of the city of Ragusa and the nomadic Alpine representatives of the Roman provincials, who preserved a traditional knowledge of the old lines of communication throughout the peninsula explains the extraordinary development of the Ragusan commerce. In the 14th century the Mavrovlachos or Morlachs extended themselves towards the Croatian borders, and a large part of maritime Croatia and northern Dalmatia began to be known as Morlacchia. A Major Vlachia was formed about the triple frontier of Bosnia, Croatia and Dalmatia, and a Little Walachia as far north as Po~ega. The Morlachs have now become Slavonized.

The Romanic communities in the extreme northwest (Istria) are still represented by the Cici of Val d’rsa and the adjoining Istrian districts. They represent a 15th-century Morlach colony from the Isles of Veglia which formerly extended to Trieste and to the counties of Gradisca and Gorz. The Cici have almost entirely abandoned their native tongue, which is the last remaining representative of the old Morlach, and forms a connecting link between the Daco-Roman dialect (the contemporary literary Romanian) and the Illyrian or Macedo-Roman dialects.


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3 Responses to Vlachs – Romanic continuity

  1. Mike T says:

    The Romanians were known in the past as:
    VALACHUS (By the Catholic West)
    FLACI(By catholic West)
    IFLAK (By the Turks)
    VLASI & VOLOH (By the Slavs)
    OLAH &BLACH (By the Hungarians)
    OLAHOK (By the Hungarians)
    OLASZOK (The Hungarian name for the Italians)
    WALACH (By the Germans)
    WALSCHER (The German name for the Italians)
    BLACHOS & VLACHOS (By the Greeks)
    BLOCH (By the Saxons in Transilvania)
    WOLOSZY (By the Polish)
    WLOCHI (The Polish name for the Italians)
    In old German WALH = ROMAN
    In old slavonic VLAST = POWER(considered of Gothic origin)
    In old slavonic VLAST = GIGANTE
    Romanians always called themselves ROMANS & RUMANS, RUMANI and the neighbors called them Vlachs,Vlasi,Olahs,etc.
    Since The language of the Church was Old Slavonic where RUM = ROME
    The Vlachs called themselves Ruman
    The other people in Europe who claim roots from Rome are in Switzerland and call themselves “Romanish”

    From “De administrando imperio”.Constantine’s surname,
    PORPHYROGENITUS(that is, born in the Purple Chamber of the Imperial
    Palace in CONSTANTINOPLE).
    “The emperor Diocletian was much enamored of the country of Dalmatia,and
    he brought folk with their families from ROME and settled them in this
    same country of Dalmatia,and they were called ROMANI (VLACHS) from their
    having been removed from ROME, and this title attaches to them until this
    “The territory possessed by the ROMANI used to extend as far as the river
    (Constantine shows that the ROMANS(Latins, NOT Greek Romans or
    Byzantines) or Vlachs are the original Romans.
    “The country of the ZXHLUMI was previously possessed by the ROMANS, I
    mean, by those ROMANI whom Diocletian the emperor translated from ROME”
    (Constantine is talking about the Imperial Romans,who are going to be
    known under the name of VLACHS).

    “The country of Diocleia was also previously possessed by the
    ROMANI(Vlachs) whom the emperor Diocletian translated from ROME”
    “The country in which the Pagani now dwell was also previously possessed
    by the ROMANI(Vlachs) whom the emperor Diocletian translated from ROME
    and settled in Dalmatia”.
    “At that time when the Avars had fought and expelled from those parts the
    ROMANI(Vlachs) whom the emperor Diocletian had brought from ROME and
    settled there,and who therefore called ROMANI from their having been
    translated from ROME to those countries”
    SUMMARY: In his description of the Greek Roman Empire,we can definitely
    identify two people,the Imperial Romans(VLACHS-those Romans who
    initiated the empire),called by Constntine,ROMANI, and the Greek
    Romans(BYZANTINES-those Romans who adopted GREEK as the language of the
    State and Church).

    POPE CLEMENT VI (1342-1352).
    “Olachi Romani,commorantes in partibus Ungariae,Transilvanis,Ultralpinis
    et Sirmus”
    (In Hungary,Transilvania,Muntenia and Sirmia live the Roman-Vlachs)
    “Tam nobilibus quam popularibus Olachis Romanis”
    SUMMARY: Romanians = Romans (Vlachs).
    POPE PIUS II (1458-1464) (Commentarium rerum memorabilium)
    “VALACHI lingua utuntur Italica, verum imperfecta, et admodum corrupta;
    sunt qui legiones Romanas eo missas olim censeant adversus Dacos, qui eas
    terras incolebant; legionibus Flaccum quendam praefuisse, a que Flacci
    primum,deinde Valachi, mutatis litteris, sint appellati;quorum posteri
    (ut ante relatum est) ”
    (The Vlachs are a people of Roman origin,born from an antic Roman
    Imperial colony,speaking a language close to Latin or Italian)

    NICOLAUS MACHINENSIS, episcop of Modrussa ( DALMATIA)
    “Inferiora vero quaecumque Ister Boristenesque intercipt usque ad Ponti
    ripas Valacchi obtinent,
    romani quondam vel exules vel milites, a duce Flacco ita cognominati,
    nunc immutatione litterae Vlacchi appellati: quo vocabulo non modo ea
    gens sed omnes quoque finitimae nationes hodie Italos nominant. Valacchi
    originis suae illud praecipuum prae se ferunt argumentum quod, quamvis
    Mysorum lingua quae illyrica est omnes utantur, vernaculo tamen sermone,
    hoc est latino haud prorsus obsoleto ab incunabulis loquuntur; et cum
    ignotis congressi, dum linguae explorant comertium, an ROMANAE loqui
    norint interrogant”.
    ( Romanians/Vlachs = Romans)
    Janus Pannonius,Hungarian Humanist/Poet (1434-1472)
    “Sarmatici montes et vos septemplici Istri
    Caerulea Euxinio cornua mixta Mari,
    Ac tu Romanis olim possessa colonis
    Sed iam corrupto, barbara rerra, sono
    Quid dominum lentis longe retinetis in armis?”
    (Romanians/Vlachs = Romans)
    Alessandro Cortesi (1469-1491),Poet.
    “An procul expusos Nomadas, serasque luentes
    Pastores rupto Siculos pro foedere poenas?
    Trinacriae Siculos quondam, Schythiaeque colonos,
    Fortia magnanimos praebentes colla Valachos,
    Qui referunt prisca Roamanam ab origine gentem?”
    POPE Innocent III (in a latter from 1203).
    “Therefore, we, who have been appointed by the will of GOD and Father,
    unworthy as we are, as vicars and successors of the Apostolic See, to
    prove by the force of facts our fatherly love for the Church of the
    Bulgarians and ROMANIANS (VLACHS),who are said to be THE DESCENDENTS OF
    THE ROMANS,by their flesh and blood”

    POPE Innocent III (in a letter addressed to IONITA, lord of the
    Bulgarians and Romanians,from 1203)

    “Thus, taking this into account, we have decided since long, through our
    envoy or our letters, that we should pay a visit to your lordship, so
    that,realizing your faith to the Roman Church,Your Mother, we might then
    ROMANS…As, he (God the Father) will help you to be a ROMAN in this
    wordily life and for your Eternal Salvation by your own striving, the
    same as you are BY YOUR DESCENT; and he shall help the people of your
    country, which say that they are the ROMANS,blood and flesh”.
    Enea Silvio Piccolomini, “Cosmography” 1501.
    “Transilvania…,it is inhabited by three peoples: the Saxons, the
    Szecklers and the ROMANIANS.
    The Saxons had come from Saxony,and are strong men,used to the struggle…
    The Szecklers are considered the most ancient Hungarians…,The ROMANIANS
    are of Italian stock…, A colony of the ROMANS was settled there (Dacia)
    to keep a tight rein over Dacians under the leadership of a certain
    Flaccus, after whose name the coutry was called Flacohia and its
    inhabitants were called VLACHS instead of Flacci. This people speaks now
    a ROMAN idiom, although partly changed,and hardly understood by an
    Francesco della Valle,1532,(Secretary of Aloisio Gritti,a natural son to
    Doge Andrea Gritti).
    “The Romanians(Vlachs) are of Italian stock, and according to them, they
    are the descendants of the OLD ROMANS”.
    The anonymous notary of King Bela,Gesta Hungarorum.

    “For, after king Attila’s death,the ROMANS called the soil of Panonia a
    graze field as,their herds used to graze in the country of Panonia.And
    they were right in calling the Panonian soil the grazing fields of the
    ROMANS, as even nowadays, the ROMANIANS(Vlachs) feed their sheep on the
    Hungarian estates”.

    IOAN KINNAMOS(Imperial secretary under two Byzantine emperors, Manuel I &
    “It is said about the Vlachs that they are the old descendents of those
    from Italy”.

    Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459),”Disceptationes convivales”, Florentine
    “Apud superiores Sarmatas colonia est ab Traiano ut aiunt derelicta, quae
    nunc etiam inter tantam barbariem multa retinet latina vocabula, ab
    Italis, qui eo profecti sunt, notata.
    Oculum dicunt, digitum, manum,panem,multaque alia quibus apparet ab
    Latinis, qui coloni ibidem relicti fuerunt, manasse eamque coloniam
    fuisse latino sermoneusam”.
    Summary: Romanians(Vlachs = Romans).
    Flavio Biondo(1392-1463), Humanist.
    “Et qui e rgione Danubio item adiacent Ripenses Daci, sive Valachi,
    originem, quam ad decus prae se ferunt praedicantque ROMANAM, loquela
    ostendunt, quos catholice christianos ROMAN quotannis et Apostolorum
    limina invisentes, aliquando gavisi sumus ita loquentes audiri, ut, quae
    vulgari communique gentis suae more dicunt, rusticam male grammaticam
    redoleant latinitatem”
    Summary: Romanians(Vlachs= Romans).
    NICOLAUS MACHINENSIS, Episcop of Dalmatia, under Pope Pius II.
    “Inferiora vero quaecumque Ister Boristenesque intercipt usque ad Ponti
    ripas Valacchi obtinent, romani quondam vel exules vel milites, a duce
    Flacco ita cognominati, nunc immutatione litterae Vlacchi appellati: quo
    vocabulo non modo ea gens sed omnes quopue fimitimae nationes hodie
    Italos nominant”.
    Summary: Romanians (Vlachs) = Romans.
    Janus Pannonicus (1434-1472), The most important Hungarian Humanist.
    “Sarmatici montes et vos septemplicis Istri
    Caerulea Euxinio cornua mixta Mari,
    Ac tu Romanis olim possessa colonis
    Sed iam corrupto, barbara terra, sono
    Quid domimum lentis longe retinetis in armis?”.
    Summary: Romanians (Vlachs) = Romans.
    Filippo Buonaccorsi Callimaco (1438-1496), Italian Political Annalist.
    “Sed utcunque immensus uel infinitus potios, eadem ubuque lingua et
    praeter Romanorum coloniam Valachiam gentes omnes eadem primordia

    “Fama nouae coloniae aliquamdiu motus Scuthios compescuit.Deinde non
    solum propulsantibus, sed egregie etiam inferentibus bellum Romanis datae
    acceptaeque sunt utrinque paene innumerabiles clades, cum pleraque a
    caesaribus supplementa et auxilia suis mitterentur”.
    Summary: Romanian (Vlachs) = Romans.
    Jan Dlugosz (1415-1480),Polish Chronicler.
    “(1359) Stephano Moldaviae Voievodae, apud Valachos mortuo, quorum
    maiores et aboriginarii de Italiae Regno pulsi ( genus et natio Volscorum
    esse fuisseque creduntur) veteribus Dominis et colonis Ruthenis, primum
    sudole, deinde abundante in dies multitudine, “.
    Summary: Romanians(Vlachs )= Romans.
    Raffaelo Maffei Volterano (1506),Italian Humanist.
    “Eo quod Romanos, ut dixi, accepere colonos, pleraque uocabula loquuntur
    lingua semijtalica,argumento est nomen Valachiam enim appellant, quod
    Valach Italicum lingua ipsorum dicatur”.
    Summary: Romanians ( Vlachs = Romans).
    Marcantonio Coccio(1436- 1506), Italian Historian.
    “Valachi italicum genus hominum: horum terram Daci olim tenuerunt: nunc
    Teutones, Siculi et Valachi tenent… Valachorum nobilissimi qui
    agriculturam et qui pecuariam exercent”.
    Summary: Romanians(Vlachs) = Romans.
    Felix Petancici(1445-1517), Humanist from Ragusa.
    “Haec est provincia Dacia dicta apud veteres, Romanorum colonia(unde eius
    aborigines hac etiam nostra tempestate) passim latino utuntur colloquio”.

    Summary: Romanians(Vlachs) = Romans.
    Joachim Vadian(1484-1551),Swiss Humanist.
    “Supra Cataractas Danubius, infra vero Ister dicitur, sunt autem hae
    maximae, intre montes Dacorum Straboni, eos hodie Iazigibus et
    Transiluanis subiunctos, Walachos nominant, vocabulo Boemis Sarmatisque
    uernaculo, quod inde natum uidetur, namque 奏y Vlasschi’ Italos nominant
    quos ibi consedisse ex Pannonicis Sarmaticisque Romanorum bellis constant,
    cum ne hodie quidem eorum lingua ab Italica multum sit absona”.
    Summary: Romanians (Vlachs) = Romans.
    Stephan Taurinus (1485-1519), Moravian Humanist.
    “Valachia vulgo Latinis Vlaccia dicitur, provintia Pannoniae
    Cisdanubianae contermina in pontum usque descendens cum Damubo, veteres
    inferiorem Moesiam dixere, vide superius loco suo. Inde Vlacci Vlacciae
    populi, quos vulgus Valachos appellant”.
    Summary: Romanians (Vlachs) = Romans.
    Johann Boemus (1520), German Humanist.
    “Sed ea Thraciae pars quae Gethica olim dicebat, vbi Darius Hidaspis
    filius pene perijt, hodie Valachia appellatur, a Flaccis quiritum gente,
    Rhomani enim Gethis superatis et deletis Flacci cuiusdam ductu eo
    Coloniam miserunt, vnde prumum Flaccia, dein corrupta voce Vallacia
    Summary: Romanians (Vlachs) = Romans.
    Sebastian Franck (1499-1543), German Humanist.
    “In didem landt (Walachia) haben ettwan das volck Gethe gewonet, die
    gross krieg gebraucht haben, zu letst mit den Rhomischen waffen ernider
    gerruckt, abgetilckt vnd mit yhrem volck besetzt, vnder dem Rhomischen
    hauptmann Flacco, von dem sy Flaccia nachmals vnlang Walachia gnant
    worden ist, das diss volcks spraach noch heut her meysttheyl Rhomisch ist,
    doch also corrumpiert, daz sy einem Rhomer kaum verstendtlich seind”
    Summary: Romanians(Vlachs) = Romans.
    Georg Rithaymer(1563), Austrian Humanist.
    “Valachi Italicum genus hominum in colonias huc missum, plane in mores
    Getarum abierunt, ita nihil antiquae originis suae retinent, praeter
    linguam quam barbare et corrupte conant”.
    Summary: Romanians (Vlachs) = Romans.
    Nicolaus Olahus(1493-1568),Romanian(Vlach) Humanist.
    “Lingua, ritu, religione eadem Moldavi utuntur, qua Transalpini; vestitu
    aliqua saltem ex parte differunt…Sermo eorum et aliorum Valachorum fuit
    olim Romanus, vt qui sint coloniae Romanorum: nostra tempestate, maxime
    ab eo differt; praeterquam quod multa eorum vocabula, latinis sint
    intelligibilia…Valachi, Romanorum coloniae esse traduntur. Eius rei
    argumentum est, quod multa habeant communia cum idiomate Romano, cuius
    populi pleraque numismata, eo laci reperiuntur; haud dubie, magna
    vetustatis imperiique Romani istic indicia”.

    Summary: Romanians(Vlachs) = Romans.
    Theodor Bibliander(1548),Swiss Humanist.
    “Post irruptiones Gothorum et Germanicarum gentium et Sclavinorum, atque
    lacerationem et ruinam, imperij, sermo provincialis degeneravit longius a
    sua origine, ut in provincia Daciae Vualachorum lingua, Vlasky enim
    Italum aut Walhen sonat Slavis. Idem accidit in Hispanijs, in Gallia,
    denique in ipsa Italia, in Latio, in urbe domina gentium et sede Romanae
    Summary: Romanians(Vlachs) = Romans.
    Iacob Heraclid,Despot-Voda, prince of Moldovia.
    “Con voi valenti homeni et gente bellicosa discesi dali balorosi Romani,
    quali hano fatto trmer il mondo… Et a questo se faremo cognoscer a
    tutto il mondo li veri Romani et discesi da queli et il nome nostro sara
    immortale et conergeremo l’imagine di nostri padri”.
    Summary: Romanians (Vlachs) = Romans.
    Stanislaw Orzechowski(1513-1566),Polish Humanist.
    “Hi (sc. Daci) erant ex Italis Romanisque proceati, qui Duce Lucio
    Valerio Flacco cum Daciam occupavissent, in hisque Regionibus uxores
    duxissent, ac consenuissent, hoc Dacos reliquerunt, qui eorum lingua
    Romini a Romanis, nostra Walachi, ab Italis appellantur. Wloszy enim
    Polonis idem est, quod Itali Latinis”.
    Summary: Romanians (Vlachs) = Romans.
    Martin Opitz(1597-1639), The father of modern German literature.
    “Doch ewre (der Romer) Sprache bleibt noch hier auff diesen Tag,
    Darob man dich gewiss gar billich wundern mag.
    Italien hat selbst nicht viel von seinem alten
    Ingleichen Spanien vnd Gallia behalten:
    Wie wenig diese nun den Romern ehnlich sein,
    So nahe sind verwandt Walachisch und Latein”
    “Es steckt manchs edles Blut in kleinen Bawrenhutten,
    Das noch den alten brauch vnd der Vorfahren sitten
    Nicht gantzlich avgelegt. Wie dann jhr Tantz anzeigt,
    In dem so wunderbar gebuckt wird und geneigt,
    Gesprungen in die hoh, auff art der Capreolen,
    Die meine Deutschen sonst auss Franckrich mussen holen,
    Bald wird ein Kreiss gemacht, bald wiederumb zutrant,
    Bald gehn die Menscher recht, bald auff der lincken hand,
    Die Menscher, die noch jtzt fast Romisch muster tragen,
    Zwar schlecht, doch witzig sein, viel dencken, wenig sagen”
    Romanians(Vlachs) = Romans.
    Or( Romanian Foreign Sources on the Romanians).

  2. Pingback: Vlachs – Romanic continuity | radupopescublog

  3. Vlachs did not found Ragusa, but Romans did. It was a Byzantine then Venetian, then autonomous Ottoman posession before entered Napoleon’s Dalmatia. Vlachs did business there from 1300s per available documents.

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