c. 18,000 BC—15,000 BC: Last Glacial Maximum. Mean Sea Levels are believed to be 110 to 120 meters (361 to 394 ft) lower than present, with the direct implication that many coastal and lower riverine valley archaeological sites of interest are today under water. * c. 18,000 BC: Spotted Horses, Pech Merle cave, Dordogne, France are painted. Discovered in December 1994. * c. 18,000 BC—11,000 BC: Ibex-headed spear thrower, from Le Mas d’Azil, Ariege, France, is made. It is now at Musee de la Prehistoire, Le Mas d’Azil. * c. 18,000 BC—12,000 BC: Mammoth-bone village in Mezhirich, Ukraine is inhabited. * c. 17,000 BC: Spotted human hands, Pech Merle cave, Dordogne, France are painted. Discovered in December 1994. * c. 17,000 BC—15,000 BC: Hall of Bulls, Lascaux caves, is painted. Discovered in 1940. Closed to the public in 1963. * c. 17,000 BC—15,000 BC: Bird-Headed man with bison and Rhinoceros, Lascaux caves, is painted. * c. 17,000 BC—15,000 BC: Lamp with ibex design, from La Mouthe cave, Dordogne, France, is made. It is now at Musee des Antiquites Nationales, St.-Germain-en-Laye. * c. 16,500 BC: Paintings in Cosquer cave, where the cave mouth is now under water at Cap Margiou, France were made. * c. 15,000 BC: Bison, Le Tuc d’Audoubert, Ariege, France. * c. 14,000 BC: Bison, on the ceiling of a cave at Altamira, Spain, is painted. Discovered in 1879. Accepted as authentic in 1902. * c. 14,000 BC: Domestication of Reindeer. * 13,000 BC: Beginning of the Holocene extinction event.
en.wikipedia.org/Venus_of_Dolni_Vestonice This figurine, dated to 29,000–25,000 BCE (Gravettian industry), which was found at a Paleolithic site in the Moravian basin south of Brno, is the oldest known ceramic in the world, predating the use of fired clay to make pottery. It has a height of 111 millimetres (4.4 in), and a width of 43 millimetres (1.7 in) at its widest point and is made of a clay body fired at a relatively low temperature.The palaeolithic settlement of Dolní Věstonice in Moravia, a part of Czechoslovakia at the time organized excavation began, now located in the Czech Republic, has been under systematic archaeological research since 1924, initiated by Karel Absolon. In addition to the Venus figurine, figures of animals –bear, lion, mammoth, horse, fox, rhino and owl – and more than 2,000 balls of burnt clay have been found at Dolní Věstonice. The figurine was discovered on 13 July 1925 in a layer of ash, broken into two pieces.
The Venus of Willendorf, also known as the Woman of Willendorf, is an 11 cm (4.3 in) high statuette of a female figure estimated to have been made between 22,000 B.C.E. and 21,000 B.C.E.. It was discovered in 1908 by archaeologist Josef Szombathy at a paleolithic site near Willendorf, a village inLower Austria near the city of Krems. It is carved from an oolitic limestone that is not local to the area, and tinted with red ochre. Since this figure’s discovery and naming, several similar statuettes and other forms of art have been discovered. They are collectively referred to as Venus figurines, although they pre-date the mythological figure of Venus by millennia. “Venus of Willendorf” is part of the collection of the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna.
The Venus of Brassempouy (French: la Dame de Brassempouy, meaning “Lady of Brassempouy”, “Lady with the Hood”) is a fragmentary ivory figurine from the Upper Palaeolithic. It was discovered in a cave at Brassempouy, France in 1892. About 25,000 years old, it is one of the earliest known realistic representations of a human face. 20,000—15,000 BC, Lascaux, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
13,000 BC: earliest evidence of warfare
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Indo-European_Urheimat_hypotheses The Proto-Indo-European Urheimat hypotheses are designed to explain the origins of the Proto-Indo-European language and the people. The identity of the Proto-Indo-Europeans has been a recurring topic in Indo-European studies since the 19th century. Many hypotheses for an Urheimat have been proposed, but none of them has gained general acceptance among the linguistic community.The only thing known for certain is that the language must have been differentiated into unconnected daughter dialects by the late 3rd millennium BC.
- the 4th millennium BC (excluding the Anatolian branch) in Armenia, according to the Armenian hypothesis (proposed in the context of Glottalic theory);
- the 4th or 5th millennium BC to the east of the Caspian Sea, in the area of ancient Bactria–Sogdiana, according to Johanna Nichols‘ Sogdiana hypothesis;
- the 5th millennium BC (4th excluding the Anatolian branch) in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, according to the Kurgan hypothesis;
- the 6th millennium BC or later in Northern Europe according to Lothar Kilian’s and, especially, Marek Zvelebil’s models of a broader homeland;
- the 6th millennium BC in India, according to Koenraad Elst‘s Out of India model
- the 7th millennium BC in Anatolia (the 5th, in the Balkans, excluding the Anatolian branch), according to Colin Renfrew‘s Anatolian hypothesis;
- the 7th millennium BC in Anatolia (6th excluding the Anatolian branch), according to a 2003 Bayesian analysis study;
- before the 10th millennium BC, in the Paleolithic Continuity Theory.
- Pontic-Caspian: Chalcolithic (5th to 4th millennia BC)
- Anatolia: Early Neolithic (7th to 5th millennia BC)
- Baltic hypothesis: Mesolithic to Neolithic (Ertebølle to Corded Ware horizon, 6th to 3rd millennia BC)
- Balkans: before the 10th millennium BC, in the Paleolithic Continuity Theory.