Enel Green Power – 9GW – hydro, geothermal, wind, biomass and solar. Worldwide geothermal capacity will double by 2030. Worldwide photovoltaic capacity has been growing every year at an average rate of 35% in the last 10 years!


De ce nu avem în vestul țării sonde geotermice în loc de sonde de fracturare hidraulica? România este a treia țară din Europa, după Grecia și Italia, ca potențial geotermic.
Începând cu 2007 Enel investește în medie câte 1miliard€/an – 4miliarde în primii 5 ani, 6.1miliarde în 2014-2018 și înfiinteaza în dec 2008 divizia Enel Green Power S.p.A. În Iulie 2010 – Enel inaugurează centrala solara Archimede din Sicilia de 5MW. În noiembrie 2013 Enel începe extinderea centralei geotermice din Toscana, prima centrală din lume care combină energia din biomasă cu energia geotermică, astfel centrala mixta ajunge la 13Mw cu un randament în crestere, care duce la un output de 37GWh pe an. În iulie 2014 Enel cumpără 3Sun una din cele mai mari companii de panouri fotovoltaice din Europa. Enel Green Power S.p.A. are la sfârșitul lui 2011 6.5GW capacitate instalată din energii regenerabile, va ajunge la 10,4Gw în 2015, cu 716 unități de producție in 16 țări. În prezent (sf.2014) Enel Green Power produce în Italia 2,830 MW/an prin centrale hidro, geo, de vânt, de biomasă si solare!
În acest timp guvernele din România iau credite de câte 1miliard€ CHIAR înainte de alegerile din 2012, 2014, continuă sa lichideze cai ferate, ultimele fabrici gen Oltchim, ni se senzabagă pe gât fracturarea hidraulică și cianurarea (la Certej), se cedeaza toate resursele se distrug cele care nu se cedează (apa prin fracturare). Pamântul este dat la străini la prețurile cele mai mici din Europa în timp ce Ungaria încearca sa interzica vânzarea de păminturi la străini.
Băncile romănești care ar putea finanța proiecte pentru energii regenerabile nu mai există, au fost date la străini, companiile de producție și distribuție de energie au fost date la străini, care ne colonizează economic.
Benzina este în România peste 1.3€ în timp ce în Italia e la 0,90€ și în SUA la 0.45€/litru!! La sfârșitul lui 2012 Enel Green Power are în România 5 ferme de vânt cu o capacitate instalată de 292Mw, alte 206Mw în construcție. Construite în mare măsură din subvenții de stat cu bani colectați pe fiecare factura de energie de la fiecare cetățean și din profituri făcute de Enel în România.

Decembrie 2006Enel investeste 4 mld. euro in energie regenerabila Planul include trei directii de actiune: energii regenerabile, eficienta energetica si productie distribuita, emisii zero si frontiera hidrogenului. Pentru sectorul energii regenerabile, investitiile prognozate vor fi de 3,3 miliarde de euro in noi unitati de productie si de 200 milioane de euro in proiecte inovatoare in proiecte de biomasa si biocarburanti. În Decembrie 2008 se înfiițează Enel Green Power S.p.A.

Iulie 2010 – Enel inaugurează centrala solara din Sicilia.
ArchimedeArchimede with 5 MW capacity is the first concentrated solar power plant to use molten salt for heat transfer and storage which is integrated with a combined-cycle gas facility. It uses technology developed by ENEA and Archimede Solar Energy, a joint venture between Angelantoni Industrie and Siemens Energy. Archimede is owned and operated by Enel.
The solar thermal power plant consists of a field of about 30,000 square metres of mirrors (the parabolic collectors) that concentrate sunlight onto 5,400 archimede-324x230metres of pipe carrying the molten salt fluid. Molten salt is used as the heat transfer fluid in solar field and is heated to 550 °C. The thermal energy is then stored in a hot tank and is used to produce high pressure steam to run steam turbines for electricity generation, reducing the consumption of fossil fuels and, as a result, enhancing the environmental performance of the combined-cycle plant. The solar collectors (the parabolic mirrors and pipes or receivers), together with a steam generator and two heat storage tanks – one cold and one hot – make up the solar portion of the system.
When the sun shines, the thermal fluid drawn from the cold tank is circulated through the network of parabolic collectors, where it is heated to a temperature of 550 °C (1,022 °F) Archand injected into the hot tank, where the thermal energy is stored. The fluid is then drawn from the hot reservoir to produce steam at high pressure and temperature, which is sent to Enel’s nearby combined-cycle plant, where it contributes to electricity generation. This system enables the plant to generate electricity at any time of the day and in all weather conditions until the stored thermal energy is depleted.

Iulie 2014 Enel cumpără 3Sun – fabrică/companie mare de panouri fotovoltaice – The potential of solar power worldwide, with particular reference to photovoltaic (PV) energy, is huge: according to the EPIA (European Photovoltaic Industry Association) the photovoltaic sector has been growing at an average rate of 35% in the last ten years. Enel Green Power intends to play a leading role in this market, too. This activity also includes a plant for the manufacturing of innovative 3SUN photovoltaic panels through a joint venture between Enel Green Power, 3sunfactorySharp and STMicroelectronics. It is the largest PV panel production plant at national level, and one of the largest in Europe. The plant will initially produce multi-junction thin film solar panels for 160 MW per year, employing about 280 people. The objective of the plant is to meet the market’s demand for solar energy in Europe, the Middle Ease and Africa (EMEA), using both ongoing production and the sales networks of Sharp and Enel Green Power. To this end, Enel Green Power and Sharp have established a new joint venture, ESSE (Enel Green Power & Sharp Solar Energy) to develop, build and manage photovoltaic plants for over 500 MW in the EMEA region, by 2016, using the panels manufactured in the plant.
Worth mentioning in the field of cutting-edge technology is the testing activity conducted on concentrating solar power (CSP), which Enel has launched through the Archimede project developed at the plant at Priolo Gargallo (Siracusa, Sicily). It is the first world-wide application of an integrated solar combined cycle power based on a highly innovative technology developed by the Enea Institute.

Enel Green Power S.p.A. has an installed capacity from renewables of 9,149 MW, produced by over 715 plants in 16 countries.
It is an Italian multinational renewable energy corporation, headquartered in Rome. The company was formed as a subsidiary of the power generation firm Enel in December 2008, grouping its global renewable energy interests. Enel Green Power has operations in over 16 countries across Europe, North and South America and generates energy principally from hydroelectricity, wind, solar power, geothermal electricity and biomass sources. At the end of September 2011, the company’s total worldwide installed capacity was 6,490 MW a figure which it intends to increase to 10,400 MW by 2015.
More than half of Enel Green Power’s plants are located in Italy for a net installed capacity of around 2,830 MW. The production mix includes Geothermal electricity, hydroelectricity, wind, Solar power, whose development had a strong boost in 2011 and will be increasingly present in the coming years. Enel Green Power is also a leader in geothermal with 34 power plants located in Tuscany, representing a capacity of 728 MW, providing an annual production of over 5 billion kWh. The company is a world reference for this technology, with a presence in the area of Larderello in Tuscany, as early as the beginning of last century. Wind energy has been the source that in the last decade has seen the greatest growth in Italy and to which Enel Green Power will contribute in a meaningful way. In the field of solar energy, Enel Green Power can count on strong skills acquired in Italy through the franchisee model of Enel Green Power Retail. In addition, a thin-film photovoltaic panels factory was inaugurated in 2011 in Catania, through a joint venture with Sharp and ST-Microelectronics. The generation of electricity from solar energy is coming from 67 MW installed in 2011, (data as of the end of September)
Enel Green power has a presence in the Iberian Peninsula thorough a total installed capacity of 1,707 MW and 120 plants. This presence is the result of the integration of renewable energy activities of Enel and Endesa. The wind technology, with about 90 plants for a net installed capacity of 1,530 has the biggest share, but the production mix also includes mini-hydro with about 10 plants for 57MW, solar with 3 plants for 14MW and cogeneration andbiomass with 20 plants representing 107MW.
Enel Green Power has substantial presence in Romania, which has recently launched a major program to support investments in renewables. At the end of 2012, Enel Green Power had five operating wind farms with an installed capacity of 292MW, and another 206MW under construction.[3] Enel Green Power is also present in Bulgaria with two wind farms representing 42 MW.
In France Enel Green Power, currently has 10 wind farms with an installed capacity of 166 MW and its strategy is to significantly develop its presence in on shore wind, while continuing to evaluate possible investments in photovoltaic. Enel Green Power is present in Greece, with 14 wind farms for a net installed capacity of 172 MW and 5 hydroelectric plants for 14 MW. In North America, Enel Green Power has an overall capacity of 786 MW across four technologies. In the United States Enel Green Power owns more than 60 hydroelectric plants (313 MW of installed capacity), 21 wind farms (378 MW of net installed), 2 geothermal plants (47 MW of net installed) and in Canada a biomass plant (21 MW of net installed capacity) and a wind farm (27 MW of net installed capacity). With a strong focus on innovation, EGP started operations of the first hybrid solar-geothermal plant at the Stillwater site in Nevada. 17MW of geothermal are also in development in Cove Fort, while for wind Enel Green Power completed at the end of 2011 the 200MW of the Caney River wind farm in Kansas, and initiated construction of the 150MW Rocky Ridge plant in Oklahoma.
Enel Green Power has a presence in Central and South America with 34 plants spread across Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Chile and Brazil. In addition Enel Green Power owns a stake in a company in El Salvador which operates a geothermal plant. Enel Green Power currently has 32 hydroelectric plants with an installed capacity of 645MW of which one plant in Panama accounting for 300 MW – the second infrastructure after the Canal – generating 25% of the country. It is also building in Guatemala, in the region of Quiche, the run of the river hydroelectric plant in Palo Viejo with a capacity of 85 MW and in Costa Rica the Chucas hydroelectric plant with a capacity of 50MW. Enel Green Power also owns a 24 MW of wind farm in Tilaran, Costa Rica, and has recently won an the auction in Brazil to develop an additional 193MW to be added to the 90MW awarded at a previous auction.

Strategic plan 2014-2018 Enel Green Power confirms an investment plan of 6.1 billion euro in the period 2014-2018 total (5.4 billion euro available for growth). The plan continues in the direction already taken in the past plans, confirming the unique and balanced mix of renewable technologies – hydro, geothermal, wind, biomass and solar. Also in 2013, we strengthened our presence in the 16 countries where we operate since or listing, installing more than 900 MW of additional capacity and reaching a generation fleet of approximately 8.9 GW. In the next five years, we intend to develop further 4.6 GW bringing our final installed capacity to about 13.4 GW at the end of 2018. We will continue to leverage on our integrated and global O&M (Operations & Maintenance) approach setting new goals in terms improvement of the “lost production factor” and of cost efficiencies. The business plan for 2014-2018 includes Uruguay, Ecuador, Kenya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Russia, in addition to the 16 countries in which Enel Green Power currently operates and to the new countries already announced, such as Colombia, Peru, Turkey, South Africa and Morocco.

Noiembrie 2013 Enel începe extinderea centralei geotermice din Toscana.
In Tuscany, first plant in the world to Integrate Geothermal and Biomass “A lot of people can do solar or wind, but geothermal is quite complex,” Enel Green Power Chief Executive Officer Francesco Starace said in an interview. “The fact that we’re already ahead of others is an advantage. It’s a good hedge against risks for us.”
Enel Green Power has begun construction of a plant powered with locally sourced forest biomass that will supplement the output of the “Cornia 2” geothermal plant.
Geo powerThe 5 MW of capacity from biomass will be added to the geothermal plant that currently has an installed capacity of 13 MW. The geothermal plant’s annual power output will be boosted by approximately 37 GWh. Enel Green Power is investing more than 15 million euros in the project, with construction due to be completed by the first half of 2015. Thanks to the biomass, (locally collected within a radius of 70 km from the plant), the steam entering the plant will be heated to raise the initial temperature to between 370°-380° from 150°-160°, thereby increasing net capacity for power generation, thanks to both the greater enthalpy of the steam and the enhanced efficiency of the cycle due to lower humidity in the generation phase.
The most common form of geothermal power costs about $64.20 a megawatt-hour, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance, below the $78.30 for coal, $82.61 for onshore wind turbines and $142.68 for traditional solar panels.
Tuscany has the largest number of geothermal resources, together with Sardinia. Most of the Italian geothermal energy estracted every year come from plants of Larderello (the first geothermal power plant mappa_geotermica_italianaof the world) and Montieri: about 4 billion kilowatt hours. But the Tuscan territory has also a lot of little resources, not sufficient to produce electric energy, but useful to other purposes as home heating. Just to bridge the gap that separates Italy from other European countries, the Consortium for the Development of Geothermal Areas (Co.Svi.G.) organized many conferences with operators and simple citizens to show the great potential of this kind of energy and to discuss how to extend research and production in this field.
Worldwide geothermal capacity will probably double by 2030, with the pace of growth accelerating after 2020 as government policies change to promote investment, according to a New Energy Finance report in June. The rising price of electricity and the low cost of geothermal compared with other renewables will make it increasingly attractive, BNEF said. “In numerous countries across Latin America, East Asia, Southeast Asia, geothermal is not just an option for renewable power but is the least-cost option for power generally, better than coal, gas and hydro,” Mark Taylor, one of the authors, said by e-mail. “If a country has plentiful and powerful geo resources, geo will be highly competitive with all power and generally represent a growth opportunity.”
Globally, 13.2 gigawatts of geothermal projects are in the pipeline, with Israeli developer Ormat Industries Ltd. leading the way, followed by France’s GDF Suez SA and Supreme Energy of Indonesia, according to BNEF. In the U.S., Enel Green Power is installing a further 25 megawatts at its plant in Cove Forth, Utah, as part of its 600 million-euro overseas investment strategy. The company plans to expand in Turkey, where it has 142 licenses to explore with local partner Uzun Group as part of a government push to install 600 megawatts of capacity by 2015.

România este a treia țară din Europa, după Grecia și Italia, ca potențial geotermic. Se estimeaza ca până în 2030 capacitatea de producție de energie geotermică se va DUBLA în lume.  Energia geotermică face parte din clasa energiilor regenerabile (verzi) şi reprezintă căldura care provine din interiorul Pământului (prin roci şi fluide subterane); se obţine prin captarea apei fierbinţi şi a aburilor din zonele cu resurselor-geotermale-in-Romania.activitate vulcanică şi tectonică sau a căldurii subpământene. Poate fi folosită pentru încălzire (a locuinţei, a apei), dar şi pentru producerea curentului electric.
Orașul Beiuș se bazează în totalitate pe energia geotermală pentru încălzirea locuințelor. Resursele geotermale sunt folosite şi de municipiul Oradea, dar şi în judeţul Timiş; localizarea acestor resurse în regiunea de vest a României (Banat, munţii Apuseni, Bihor) ar putea însemna o şansă verde pentru zonă, dar investiţiile în domeniu se lasă aşteptate. Studiile pre-forare şi forarea în sine sunt extrem de costisitoare: un foraj nou costă între 2 – 3 milioane de euro, iar studiile pre-foraj sunt şi mai costisitoare de atât. Soluţia stă, ca şi în alte cazuri, în fondurile europene, care ar putea fi accesate în acest scop prin proiecte fundamentate şi susţinute inclusiv de autorităţi locale, regionale şi naţionale. Potenţialul geotermal al României a fost relevat de forări şi exploatări experimentale din ultimii 25 de ani; nu este specific exclusiv zonei de vest, ci există astfel de resurse şi în alte regiuni din ţară. Rata de succes a sondelor geotermale săpate între anii 1995 – 2000 la adâncimi între 1.500 – 3.000 de metri a fost de 86%.

Cel mai bun exemplu de orientare către beneficiile energiei geotermale este Islanda, unde se extrage apă fierbinte de la adâncimi variate – de la 500 de metri adâncime, apă de 150 de grade Celsius, iar de la 1.000 de metri adâncime, apă de 300 de grade. „Islanda a început exploatarea cu zeci de ani în urmă, cu 70 de ani. Ei au realizat că, în loc să aibă cenuşă toxică de la termocentrale, mai bine folosesc apa caldă de sub ei. Acum, 80% din energia lor este din resurse geotermale, iar 12% din alte resurse regenerabile. Aproape toate locuinţele din capitala statului, Reykjavik, sunt încălzite cu apă termală, de acolo vine şi apa caldă menajeră, energia electrică este obţinută tot din resurse geotermale, prin folosirea căldurii şi aburilor” Islanda se plănuiește să exporte energie electrică printr-un cablu submarin în valoare de 320 de milioane de euro pe an. În Ungaria, islandezii au planificat dezvoltarea a 30 de centrale pentru producţie de energie din resurse geotermale (bogate în Câmpia Panonică) şi deja două oraşe sunt încălzite cu energie de acest tip.
Resursele geotermale din Islanda ating temperaturi extrem de ridicate, pe care nu le regăsim în cazul României: aici nu avem temperaturi de peste 100 de grade Celsius la adâncimi mai mici de 3.000 de metri. Acesta este şi unul din motivele pentru care energie geotermală nu este văzută drept o soluţie care să înlocuiască complet alte surse de energie, ci doar ca o energie ajutătoare.
Estimări optimiste la nivel european spun că, datorită dezvoltării tehnologiilor în domeniul utilizării resurselor geotermale, în aproximativ 50 de ani Europa va putea produce până la 10-20% din totalul de necesar energetic al continentului din astfel de resurse. Un studiu făcut de Shell sugera că exploatarea celor mai mari resurse geotermale de pe continent poate echivala cu actualul program nuclear.
Și gospodării individuale ar putea să funcţioneze pe baza energiei geotermale, independent de sisteme centralizate: un mecanism pentru încălzire în acest fel, spre exemplu, este format dintr-o pompă de căldură şi un sistem de ţevi îngropate, prin care curge un fluid (de obicei, un amestec de apă cu antigel). Iarna, fluidul respectiv absoarbe energia din pământ şi o duce în locuinţă, căldura fiind concentrată către pompe şi distribuită în interior, la o temperatură mai ridicată. Vara, procesul este inversat – excesul de căldură din locuinţă este extras cu pompa şi dispersat în pământ (sau, acest exces poate încălzi apa menajeră). Procedura scuteşte locuitorii casei de efectele nedorite ale aerului condiţionat, pentru că realizează controlul climatului de interior prin extragerea căldurii din locuinţă, nu prin introducerea de aer rece. Un avantaj al sistemelor geotermale de încălzire este lipsa de periculozitate – nu există risc de incendii, nu emană gaze toxice, nu există combustie chimică; instalaţia este silenţioasă, întreţinerea nu este costisitoare.

About Alex Imreh

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