The Vinča Culture – is the is the oldest Neolithic culture in South-eastern Europe – the First European Metallurgists, the First European Writing. The ‘Old European’ Vinca pottery, artefacts and writing all show an immediately noticeable similarity to what was originally thought to be an earlier Ubaid Sumerian influence from the middle east. In addition, the Cycladian/Cretan cultures are suspected of having close close artistic and possibly religious connections with the Vinca. Both of these cultures appeared following the demise of the Old European Heartland, perhaps not so coincidentally, at the same time as several other important civilisations (Egyptian, Indus Valley, Western European, Maltese Etc) appeared in the prehistoric record.
Several eminent archaeologists of the time (such as Childe, Hood, Vlassa, Maccay), were convinced that the Vinca had somehow been influenced or ‘cradled into being’ by the mistaken belief at the time that the Sumerians were the ‘Mother race’. However, much to everyone surprise, more recent discoveries of earlier Vinca settlements have shown quite clearly that events must have occurred the other way round as the Old European settlements, along with writing, pottery, metallurgy and ‘Ubaid‘ style art, date to a thousand years before the first Sumerian fingerprint, suggesting remarkably that it was actually a Western European culture that influenced Sumerian development.
The First Temperate Neolithic (FTN) is an archaeological horizon consisting of the earliest archaeological cultures of Neolithic Southeastern Europe, dated to c. 6400–5100BCE. The cultures of the FTN were the first to practice agriculture in temperate Europe, which required significant innovations in farming technology previously adapted to amediterranean climate. The constituent cultures of the FTN are:
the Poljanica group, c. 6300–5200 BCE, northeast Bulgaria;
and the West Bulgarian Painted Ware culture, c. 6200–5200 BCE, western Bulgaria.
The Starčevo culture, sometimes included within a larger grouping known as the Starčevo–Kőrös–Criş culture, is anarchaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, dating to the Neolithic period between c. 5500 and 4500 BCE (according to other source, between 6200 and 5200 BCE). The village of Starčevo, the type site, is located on the north bank of the Danube in Serbia (Vojvodina province), opposite Belgrade. It represents the earliest settled farming society in the area, although hunting and gathering still provided a significant portion of the inhabitants’ diet. The culture was preceded by Mesolithic Romania, Körös culture, Sesklo culture, Dimini culture, Neolithic Greece, and followed by Vinča culture, Gumelnița–Karanovo culture.
The Vinča culture occupied a region of Southeastern Europe (i.e. the Balkans) corresponding mainly to modern-day Serbia andKosovo, but also parts of Romania, Bulgaria, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia, and Greece. This region had already been settled by farming societies of the First Temperate Neolithic, but during the Vinča period sustained population growth led to an unprecedented level of settlement size and density along with the population of areas that were bypassed by earlier settlers. Vinča settlements were considerably larger than any other contemporary European culture, in some instances surpassing the cities of the Aegean and early Near Eastern Bronze Age a millennium later. One of the largest sites was Vinča-Belo Brdo, it covered 29 hectare and had up to 2,500 people. Early Vinča settlement population density was 50-200 people per hectare, in later phases an average of 50-100 people per hectare was common. The Divostin site 4900-4650 B.C. had up to 1028 houses and a maximum population size of 8200 and could perhaps be the largest Vinča settlement. Another large site was Stubline from 4700 B.C. it may contained a maximum population of 4000. The settlement of Parţa maybe had 1575 people living there at the same time.
Les Pélasges Vinciens sont venus d’Anatolie pour s’installer en Grèce en même temps que les Pélasges Diminiens (4400 av.jc). Comme eux ils utilisaient des poteries noires lustrées et incisées. Leurs maisons sont ovales et semi-enterrées ou carrées en argile, torchis ou bois. Leur civilisation se subdivise ainsi dans le temps :
-Vinca-Tördös (4400 av.jc / 5500 BC) : Poteries noires polies, lustrées, incisées,gravées, incrustées et cannelées.
-Vinca-Gradac (4300 av.jc / 5300 BC) : Poteries noires lissées, incisées, incrustées et cannelées. Début de l’utilisation du cuivre.
-Vinca-Plocnik (4150 av.jc / 5150 BC) : Poteries noires lissées, cannelées, à spirales incrustées ou à peinture pateuse de l’ouest (Butmir), poteries graphitées à spirales incrustées ou à peinture pateuse de l’est (Karanovo 5 / Marica). Les maisons sont en poteaux de bois ou en torchis sur clayonnage.
-Vinca-D (3800-2800 av.jc / 4700-3500 BC) : Devant les 1ères invasions Indo-Européennes dans les Balkans (vers -3800 av Jc / 4700 BC), les Vinciens occidentaux (avec poteries noires lustrées, incisées, incrustées et cannelées) se replient vers la cote dalmate pour créer la culture de Nakovanj et les Vinciens orientaux (avec poteries graphitées de Marica) se replient vers l’ouest des Balkans (cultures de Shuplevec-Gradeshnica-Krivodol en Macédoine-Yougoslavie orientale). Mais ces deux groupes finiront quand même par succomber dans la 2ème phase des invasions.
The Vucedol culture developed from two older eneolithic cultures: the Baden culture mainly in the pannonian plain and the Kostolac (Cotofeni) culture in northern Serbia and western Romania. The Vučedol civilization was contemporary with the Sumer period in Mesopotamia, the Early Dynastic period in Egypt and the early Troy (I and II).
Following the Baden culture, another wave of Indo-European people came to the banks of the Danube. One of the major places they occupied is present-day Vučedol (“Wolf’s Valley”), named after Vučedol, a location six kilometers downstream from the center of the town of Vukovar, Croatia.
The early stages of the culture tenanted locations not far from mountain ranges, where copper deposits were located, because of their main invention: making tools from arsenical copper in series employing reusable, double, two-part moulds. The center of the culture was Vučedol in modern day Croatia. It is estimated that the site had once been home to about 3000 inhabitants, making it one of the largest and most important centers of its time.
Around 1500 BC when the Acheans of Phthia decided to name themselves Ellines (remember we read like in Spanish) after their King (Ellin) the area looked like this. Before the Illyrians the area is inhabited by the Vucedol culture (not pelasgians). Illyrians are known to have migrated together with Italics and Celts.
c. 5000 bc. Indo-Arian homeland: The Danube River valley (Wallachia and Hungary). There are many reasons for choosing the Danube River valley: Farming is possible, learned from the people of Asia Minor. The flora and fauna, as well as for other natural features such as hills and rivers, are represented by the oldest words we can reconstruct; it includes the natural ranges of wild horses which, when later domesticated, would become the Indo-European’s “ace card”; the area is central to the eventual expanse of the Indo-Europeans, with due allowance for the more rapid expanse commonplace over steppe-lands; the area is also in close proximity to some of the most conservative recent representatives of the family.
The most compelling reason is the presence of the Danubian culture, with its linear incised pottery, at this same time. The culture spreads soon after in exactly the directions that would account for the spread of PIE.
There are, of course, many other possibilities. The most common suggestion is the steppes north of the Black Sea, for many similar reasons. I believe that the strong tribal social structure suggests that the Indo-Europeans were farmers before they were pastoralists. It is highly unlikely that they went straight from steppe hunter-gatherers to sophisticated pastoralists in one step.
c. 4000 bc. Proto-Anatolians – into the northern Caucasus. Proto-Tokharians – into the Ukraine. There is plenty of evidence of ox-drawn wagons with disk wheels in the western steppes. A western dialect emerges on the upper Danube and beyond.
c. 3000 bc. Copper working, learned from the people of Asia Minor, begins in Thrace and the Danube valley and reaches Germany by 3000 bc. Domestication of the horse spreads from the Ukraine. Within a thousand years, horsemanship spreads from the Ukraine throughout the Indo-European area, even into Scandinavia. It is the steppe inhabitants who change most dramatically into true pastoral societies. In the more wooded areas of Europe, horse ownership begins to differentiate a warrior nobility from commoners. Of course, use of the horse spreads to the non-IE societies of the Middle East as well. The disk-wheel wagon has spread from Russia across Europe to Holland.
The Proto-Anatolians move from the Caucasus to Asia Minor. The Proto-Tokharians continue east to the steppes, towards the Tarim Basin in northwestern China. They may be the people known to the Chinese as the Yüeh-chi, and may have been the core of the Kushan Empire of the first century AD.
The Proto-Celts separate from the rest of the western dialect and expand west into southern Germany and France. The remaining western dialect tribes edge into the modern Slovenia-Croatia area as well as northern Germany. The main body of Indo-Europeans expands into Thrace, the Ukraine, Bohemia, and Poland, and begins to differentiate into a northern dialect (Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary, represented by the Funnel Beaker culture) and a southern dialect (Wallachia, Thrace, and Ukraine, continuing the Danubian culture). The original inhabitants north and west of the Carpathians, likely speakers of Uralic languages, are pushed further north and east.
c. 2000 bc. The main body of the southern Satem dialect expands into the Ukraine to become the Cimmerians, leaving the Dacians in the original homeland. The people of Thrace probably also had a southern Satem dialect. These people develop the steppe version of the Battle Ax culture. The main body of the northern Satem dialect – Proto-Balto-Slavic – expands north from Poland into Belarus and the Baltic coast. With the Germans, they constitute the northern version of the Battle Ax culture.
The Celts expand further into western Europe and, in a retrograde move, back into Hungary. A powerful society, they pressure the original peoples of western Europe, as well as their own relations to the east. They develop the Bell-beaker culture and, later, the Urnfield culture. A second wave of Hellenics (Doric Greeks) moves into Greece from Macedonia.
c. 1500 bc. Proto-Phrygians – possibly a branch of the Cimmerians – move from Thrace across the Bosporus to northwestern Asia Minor. The Phrygians would move into the power gap left by the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1200 bc. The western Celts expand into western Iberia and the British Isles, where they absorb most of the prior inhabitants. The Balto-Slavics differentiate into Baltic and Slavic. Both begin to expand east- and northward, at the expense of the hunter-gatherer Finno-Ugric people. The Indo-Iranians differentiate into Indic and Iranian. The Indic group rapidly expands across northern India as far as Magatha. The ”Iranians” split into powerful tribes, notably the Persians and the Medes, by the 800’s bc. The Iranians remaining in the steppes would come to be known as the Scyths and Sakas. The powerful Scyths expand westward at the expense of the remaining Cimmerians.
c. 1000 bc. Iron working begins in the Balkans by 1000 bc. The “Age of Empires” begins in earnest.
At its peak of power, the empire of Burebista streched from Slovakian Carpathians to the Balkans and from the Middle Danube to the Black Sea. Strabo claims that the Getae could raise up to 200,000 soldiers in wartime, a rather improbable number, but which could represent the total number of able males, not the number of any army. Burebista was a worthy adversary for the Romans, as his army would cross the Danube and plunder the Roman towns as far as in Thrace, Macedonia and Illyria. The development of a La Tène-based economy in 3rd-2nd century BC allowed the consolidation of political power through tribal unions. Such regional unions were found both among the Transylvanian Dacians (under the rule ofRubobostes) and the Moldavian and Wallachian Getae (with a center of power in Argedava). Burebista was the first to create a union of tribes of both Dacians and the Getae. This tribe alliance was probably a weakly-centralized state, with a military organization, similar to the one of the Hellenistic Kingdoms.
The heart of Burebista’s empire, in the Orăştie Mountains, close to the iron and gold mines where they built a system of stone fortifications on higher ground.
Celtic peoples – R1b, ”Iranian”/Scytian/Sarmatian people – R1a, Thracian – I2/J2 substratum mixed with R1a and R1b. An example of the ”yugoslav” mix is Vojvodina – there are more than 26 ethnic groups in the province, which has six official languages.
In the Neolithic period, two important archaeological cultures flourished in this area: the Starčevo culture and the Vinča culture. Indo-European peoples first settled in the territory of present-day Vojvodina in 4200 BC. During the Eneolithic period, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, several Indo-European archaeological cultures were centered in or around Vojvodina: the Vučedol culture, the Vinkovci culture, the Vatin culture, the Belegiš culture, the Bosut culture, etc. Before the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC, Indo-European peoples of Illyrian, Thracian and Celtic origin inhabited this area. The first states organized in this area were the Celtic State of the Scordisci (3rd century BC-1st century AD) with capital in Singidunum (Belgrade), and the Dacian Kingdom of Burebista (1st century BC).
The Scordisci was a Celtic tribe formed after the Gallic invasion of the Balkans, or rather a “Celtic political creation” having mixed with the local Thracians and Illyrians. The Scordisci (Greek: Σκορδίσκοι, Serbian: Скордисци) were a Gallic Iron Age tribe centered in the territory of present-day Serbia, at the confluence of the Savus (Sava), Dravus (Drava) and Danube rivers. They were historically notable from the beginning of the third century BC until the turn of the common era.
In 279 BC, after their clash with the Greeks, Scordisci started progressing towards Pannonia, settling at the point where Moesia and Balkans end, at the confluence of two rivers, Sava and Danube, where they erected fortresses in Singidunum and Taurunum, founding today’s city of Belgrade!!
Celtic expansion reached the Carpathians in the beginning of the 4th century BC. According to a Celtic legend, the Celts that migrated to Italy and Illyria numbered 300,000. The Celts established themselves in Pannonia, subjugating the Pannonians, and in the end of the 4th century they renewed raids into the Balkans. By the early 3rd century BC, Pannonia had been Celtiziced. !!
The Celts, retreating from Delphi (280–278 BC), settled on the mouth of the Sava and called themselves Scordisci. The Scordisci established control to the north of the Dardani. There is no mention of the Scordisci until the reign of Philip V of Macedon (r. 221–179 BC), when they emerge as Macedon allies against the Dardani and Rome.
The Scordisci, having conquered the important Sava valley, the only route to Italy, in the second half of the 3rd century BC, “gradually became the most important power in the northern Balkans”.
The Banat is geographically referred to as a part of the Pannonian Basin bordered by the River Danube to the south, the River Tisa to the west, the River Mureș to the north, and the Southern Carpathian Mountains to the east. Its historical capital was Timișoara, now in Timiș County in Romania. The first known inhabitants of present-day Banat were the various Thracian tribes: Agathyrsi, Getae, Dacians and Singi. In the 3rd century BC, Celtic tribes settled in this area. The region was part of the Dacian kingdom under Burebista in the first century BC, but the balance of power in the area partially changed during the campaigns of Augustus. At the beginning of the 2nd century A.D., Trajan led two wars against the Dacians: the campaigns of 101-102, and 105-106. Eventually, the territory of Banat fell under Roman rule. It became an important link between Dacia province and the other parts of the Empire.
Glad – (Bulgarian: Глад, Hungarian: Galád, Romanian: Glad, Serbian: Глад) was the ruler of Banat (in present-day Romania and Serbia) at the time of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin around 900, according to the Gesta Hungarorum. Anonymus wrote that Cumans, Bulgarians, and Vlachs, or Romanians, supported Glad against the invading Magyars. The Gesta presents Ahtum, who ruled the Banat at the beginning of the 11th century, according to the longer version of the Life of St Gerard, as Glad’s descendant.
Ajtony was a powerful prince who had his seat in a stronghold on the Mureș (urbs Morisena), according to the Life of St Gerard. His realm stretched from the Criș in the north to the Danube in the south, and from the Tisza in the west to Transylvania in the east. He was a wealthy ruler who owned horses, cattle and sheep. He commanded so many warriors that he did not fear of setting up custom offices and guards along the Mureș and levying tax on the salt carried to Stephen I of Hungary on the river. Although originally a pagan, Ajtony was baptised according to the “Greek rite” in Vidin. Ajtony established a monastery for Greek monks in his seat and dedicated it to St John the Baptist shortly after his baptism. However, he remained polygamic and had seven wives even after his baptism. St Gerard’s legend also stated that Ajtony “had taken his power from the Greeks”, suggesting that he accepted the Byzantine Emperor’s suzerainty.
The Austrians united Vojvodina and Banat in one province. The Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar or Serbian Voivodeship and Banat of Temeschwar was a province (duchy) of the Austrian Empire that existed between 1849 and 1860. An Austrian governor seated in Temeschwar ruled the area, and the title of Voivode belonged to the emperor himself. The full title of the emperor was “Grand Voivod of the Voivodeship of Serbia” (German: Großwoiwode der Woiwodschaft Serbien). Even after the Voivodeship was abolished, the emperor kept this title until the end of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918.