Transylvania&Transnistria. Farmers&Warriors. Cremation&Tumulus. Big Bang&Swarming.


Historically, Christian burials were made supine (lying on the back) east-west, with the head at the western end of the grave. << en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burial The traditional Christian method of positioning the coffin or shroud covered body in the grave was to have the body with the head to the west, feet to the east. The body was placed face up. When it was not practical to use the west-east position for the grave, a north-south positioning was the next best option. There the body would then be laid on its side, head to the north and facing east. Not all burials followed the tradition nor did all cemeteries. The reason for the east facing position is offered by Tom Kunesh: Note that in Christianity, the star (of the Jewish astronomers from Iraq [Babylon]) comes from the east. Then there is Matthew 24:27 (NKJ): “For as the lightning comes from the east and flashes to the west, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be …” thus for the Christian believer in the resurrection of the dead, placing the body facing east will allow the dead to see the Second Coming of Jesus. 
Throughout history, across many different cultures, people have expected salvation from the East. Ancient Egyptians built temples facing the East, as did the ancient Greeks. The Yumanas of South America buried their dead in a sitting position facing East, medieval Tartars placed statues facing eastward in mounds over their graves. First century historian Josephus tells of the legendary Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem being opened to the East and closed to the West. Alternatively, the West has been associated with evil. Worshippers of Kali, the Hindu death deity, revered the West. << theepochtimes.com/why-do-graves-face-the-east

Burial rite of Unetice Culture displays strong uniformity; deceased were buried always in N-S alignment, with head facing E, and the body lying in a “crouched” position. << The Demise of the Únětice Culture due to the Reduced Availability of Natural Resources for Bronze Production – Author Serge Svizzero

R1b1b2 is thought to have arrived in central and western Europe around 2500 BCE, by going up the Danube from the Black Sea coast. The archeological and genetic evidence (distribution of R1b subclades) point at several consecutive waves towards the Danube between 2800 BCE and 2300 BCE – beginning of the Unetice culture. It is interesting to note that this also corresponds to the end of the Maykop culture (2500 BCE) and Kemi Oba culture (2200 BCE) on the northern shores of the Black Sea, and their replacement by cultures descended from the northern steppes. It can therefore be envisaged that the (mostly) R1b population from the northern half of the Black Sea migrated westward due to pressure from other Indo-European people (R1a) from the north, like the burgeoning Proto-Indo-Iranian branch, linked to the contemporary Poltavka and Abashevo cultures. It is undeniable that the following Unetice (2300-1600 BCE), Tumulus (1600-1200 BCE), Urnfield (1300-1200 BCE) and Hallstatt (1200-750) cultures were linked to the spread of R1b to Europe, as they abruptly introduce new technologies and a radically different lifestyle. Unetice R1b is associated with the diffusion of Proto-Germanic and Proto-Celto-Italic speakers. Emergence of chiefdoms. Long-distance trade in bronze, amber and gold prestige goods. Widespread use of bronze. Gold, copper and bronze objects include torcs, flat axes, halberds, flat triangular daggers, bracelets with spiral-ends, disk- and paddle-headed pins and curl rings. Coarse pottery typically decorated with twisted cord impressions, and sometimes with other types of impressions or incisions. The dead were inhumed in flat graves or in barrows/tumuli for richer burials. Corpses were accompanied by ceramic vessels, jewellery, personal items made of bronze or bone, and occasionally flint tools. Coffins were sometimes used.rab[11]First base of R1b in Europe is Transylvania! From Transylvania, between 2500-2000BCE, R1b invades Central and Western Europe. Unetice is a mix of R1a and R1b, Bell Beaker in W Eu is a mix of I2&R1b. From 2000 to 1500BCE R1a expands again to W and S. Tezciniec culture pushes W the boundary between R1a/R1b domination, proto Greek & Macedonians & Thracians go down from N/Central Eu to Balkans & Greece. After 1500BCE R1b founds a new power base in Erzberg region, the metal mines and trades gives them wealth, power and military superiority. They thrive and start the huge expansion E, W and S. They totally dominate Western and Central Europe, they invade Greece. First “Greeks” were “Afrikans” E-V13 and J1/2 “Asians”, second wave of “Greeks”, the Mycenians were “Slavs” ie R1a and finnally the last wave of “Greeks”, the Dorians were “Celts” R1b.  Smile This huge wave of R1b expansion with the Hallstatt epicenter wiped out all Middle East, invaded the Levant and Egypt (the Sea People), but they went over Thrace and the SE of Europe. (Hence the difference between R1a Macedonians and R1b Spartans.)
The origins of the cremation / Urnfield Culture  (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) is also linked to Transylvania via the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture of modern-day northeastern Romania and Ukraine – practicing cremation rituals as early as approximately 5500 BC. The Únětice culture practiced skeletal inhumations, however occasionally cremation was also practised. A typical Úněticean cemetery was situated near a settlement, usually on a hill or acclivity and in the vicinity of a creek or river. The distance between the cemetery and the adjacent settlement very rarely exceeds a kilometer. Cemeteries were usually spatially organized, with symmetrical rows or alleys.[27]Burials of the Únětice culture are orientated according to stars and the relative position of the sun on the horizon during the year, which indicate possibly quite advanced prehistoric astronomical observations. One of the most prominent characteristic is the position of the body in grave pit. Deceased were buried always in north-south alignment, with head south facing east. The body lied in a grave usually in slightly contracted position. Exceptions from this rule are sporadic. In classic phase (approx. 1850-1750 BC), Úněticean burial rite displays strong uniformity, regardless of the gender or age of the deceased. Men and women were buried in the same N-S position.
Neolithic Europeans either cremated their dead (e.g. Cucuteni-Tripolye culture) or buried them in collective graves (this was the case of Megalithic cultures). In the steppe, each person was buried individually, and high-ranking graves were placed in a funeral chamber and topped by a circular mound. The body was typically accompanied by weapons (maces, axes, daggers), horse bones, and a dismantled wagon (or later chariot). These characteristic burial mounds are known as kurgans in the Pontic steppe. Men were given more sumptuous tombs than women, even among children, and differences in hierarchy are obvious between burials. The Indo-Europeans had a strongly hierarchical and patrilinear society, as opposed to the more egalitarian and matrilinear cultures of Old Europe. The proliferation of status-conscious male-dominant kurgans (or tumulus) in Central Europe during the Bronze Age is a clear sign that the ruling elite had now become Indo-European. The practice also spread to central Asia and southern Siberia, two regions where R1a and R1b lineages are found nowadays, just like in Central Europe. The Indo-European superiority was not cultural but military, thanks to horses, bronze weapons and an ethic code valuing individual heroic feats in war (these ethic values are known from the old IE texts, like the Rig Veda, Avesta, or the Mycenaean and Hittite literature). Metal-mining and stockbreeding explain R1b dominance in Atlantic fringe. Looking at a map of metal-rich zones in Europe, and more specifically where copper, tin, silver and gold mines had been established in the Copper and Bronze Age we can see that the richest regions were the Anatolia, North Caucasus, the Carpathians (Romania), the Balkans (especially central Bulgaria), the Alps, and the Atlantic fringe of Europe ( Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany). This was exactly the migration route of R1b1b2. R1b people were evidently metal workers.
Same with the Indo-Iranian branch in Central Asia. The eastern expansion of the Indo-Europeans started with the occupation of the eastern Ural mountains, as far as the Tobol and Ishim valleys, all copper-rich regions. The newly acquired resources of the Proto-Indo-Iranians of the Sintashta culture boosted the bronze production, which combined with the newly invented war chariot permitted a full-scale invasion of Central Asia. The Indo-Iranians aimed for the metal-rich regions, such as the valleys of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya in Bactria, the Tian Shan and the Altai mountains. All are hotspots of R1a (with some R1b) nowadays. The mining region of Bactria was a base for the subsequent conquest of the Indian subcontinent and Persia. Copper and tin were vital for IE Bronze-age society. Indo-European rulers from the Maykop and Yamna cultures were also notoriously avid of gold and silver, as attested by objects and jewellery found in Kurgan graves.

The Italo-Celtic branch (S28/U152) Starting circa 1300 BCE, a new Bronze Age culture flourished around the Alps thanks to the abundance of metal in the region, and laid the foundation for the classical Celtic culture. It was actually the succession of three closely linked culture: the Urnfield culture, which would evolve into the Hallstatt culture (from 1200 BCE) and eventually into the La Tène culture (from 450 BCE). After the Unetice expansion to Western Europe between 2300 and 1800 BCE, the Urnfield/Hallstatt/La Tène period represents the second major R1b expansion that took place from Central Europe, pushing west to the Atlantic, north to Scandinavia, east to the Danubian valley, and eventually as far away as Greece, Anatolia, Ukraine and Russia, perhaps even until the Tarim basin in north-west China (=> see Tarim mummies.
The expansion of the Urnfield/Hallstatt culture to Italy is evident in the form of the Villanovan culture (c. 1100-700 BCE), which shared striking resemblances with the Urnfield/Hallstatt sites of Bavaria and Upper Austria. The Villanova culture marks a clean break with the previous Terramare culture. Although both cultures practised cremation, whereas Terramare people placed cremated remains in communal ossuaries like their Neolithic ancestors from the Near East, Villanovans used distinctive Urnfield-style double-cone shaped funerary urnsand elite graves containing jewellery, bronze armour and horse harness fittings were separated from ordinary graves, showing for the first time the development of a highly hierarchical society, so characteristic of Indo-European cultures. Quintessential Indo-European decorations, such as swastikas, also make their appearance.

The Neolithic transition is the shift from hunting–gathering into farming and stock breeding. The dynamics of this major transition in human prehistory is very well known in Europe and the Near East, because in this area hundreds of Early Neolithic sites have been dated. The oldest Neolithic sites are located in the Near East. From there, the Neolithic spread westwards and northwards across Europe. There are two main models of the Neolithic transition in Europe. The demic diffusion model assumes that farming spread due to the migration of farmers into new regions [1], whereas the cultural model assumes that hunter–gatherers (HGs) learnt agriculture from neighbouring farming populations [2]. Some authors have argued for the importance of both demic and cultural diffusion, and pointed out that they might have dominated the process in different regions [3]. 
In the red regions, the Neolithic spread was slow and due to cultural diffusion. In the yellow regions, the spread was faster and dominated by demic diffusion. In the blue regions, the speed was still faster and either demic or cultural diffusion could have dominated (this conclusion is due to parameter uncertainty).Evolution of the Indo-European Language
ie

IEUMesolithic Europe was dominated by I (&E) haplogroups before the coming of farmers.Expansion of agriculture from the Middle East to Europe (9500-3800 BCE)Map of early Neolithic cultures in Europe - EupediafarmingBronzeEnglish version Grafik DER SPIEGEL 41/2010 Seite 180ChariotSpread of horse and chariots

# Farmers coming from Near East create Vinca, Cris and than the Cucuteni cultures.
# The Cucuteni culture was the most advanced culture, placed at the cultural frontier with the Pontic Steppes. Here will meet all the technological, cultural and genetic admixtures that will form the IndoEuropean mixture: @ farming, @ cattle herding, @ bronze, metal working, @ chariots, @ city builders, @warriors. This cultural and technological MIX will create the most advanced populations and the POPULATION GROWTH/DENSITY that will produce the SWARMING of indo-europeans. brunHaplogroup_I2a (Custom)
# Genetically the first Big Bang was between the I populations that dominated Europe after the last Ice Ageand the J/G farmers coming from the Middle East. The second Big Bang was between the southern Steppe R1b culture  culture + the northern forest-steppe R1a culture AND Old Europe I2+J1/E1/G Cucuteni farming culture. The second big bang is based also on a second wave of ”technologies”: the Salt mining coming from the Carpathians and the horse domestication coming from the Sredny Stog culture on Dnieper. salt
Trade was essential : salt, tin, copper, amber, gold was source of power and hierarchy, which produced exploration and swarming.
pie culture# Third Big Bang was the meeting between the indo-europeans and the BMAC culture.
The Afanasievo culture is the earliest Eneolithic archaeological culture found until now in south Siberia. Radiocarbon estimates give a date of around 3300 BC for the start of the culture. The culture is mainly known from its inhumations, with the deceased buried in conic or rectangular enclosures, often in a supine position, reminiscent of burials of the Yamna culture.

According to Anthony, the development of the Proto-Indo-European cultures started with the introduction of cattle at the Pontic-Caspian steppes.[81] Until ca. 5200–5000 BCE the Pontic-Caspian steppes were populated by hunter-gatherers.[82] According to Anthony, the first cattle herders arrived from the Danube Valley at ca. 5800–5700 BCE, descendants from the first European farmers.[83] They formed the Criş culture (5800–5300 BCE), creating a cultural frontier at the Prut-Dniestr watershed.[84] The adjacent Bug-Dniester culture (6300–5500 BCE) was a local forager culture, from where cattle breeding spread to the steppe peoples.[85] The Dniepr Rapids area was the next part of the Pontic-Caspian steppes to shift to cattle-herding. It was the densely populated area of the Pontic-Caspian steppes at the time, and had been inhabited by various hunter-gatherer populations since the end of the Ice Age. From ca.5800–5200 it was inhabited by the first phase of the Dnieper-Donets culture, a hunter-gatherer culture contemporaneous with the Bug-Dniestr culture.[86] At ca. 5200–5000 BCE the non-Indo-European Cucuteni-Tripolye culture (6000–3500 BCE) appears east of the Carpathian mountains, [87] moving the cultural frontier to the Southern Bug valley,[88] while the foragers at the Dniepr Rapids shifted to cattle herding, marking the shift to Dniepr-Donets II (5200/5000 – 4400/4200 BCE).[89] The Dniepr-Donets culture kept cattle not only for ritual sacrifices, but also for their daily diet.[90] The Khvalynsk culture (4700–3800 BCE),[90] located at the middle Volga, which was connected with the Danube Valley by trade networks,[91] also had cattle and sheep, but they were “more important in ritual sacrifices than in the diet”.[92] The Samara culture (early 5th millennium BCE),[note 15] north of the Khvalynsk culture, interacted with the Khvalynsk culture,[93] while the archaeological findings seem related to those of the Dniepr-Dontes II Culture.[93] The Sredny Stog culture (4400–3300 BCE)[94] appears at the same location as the Dniepr-Donets culture, but shows influences from people who came from the Volga river region.
The E Europe/W Asia branch of R1b. When R1b crossed the Caucasus in the Late Neolithic, it split into two main groups. The western one (L51) would settle the eastern and northern of the Black Sea. The eastern one (Z2103 + M73) migrated to the Don-Volga region, where horses were domesticated circa 4600 BCE. R1b probably mixed with indigenous R1a people and founded the Repin culture (3700-3300 BCE) a bit before the Yamna culture came into existence in the western Pontic Steppe. They also met & mixed with the Cucuteni Culture, farming I/J/E people. R1b would then have migrated with horses along the Great Eurasian Steppe until the Altai mountains in East-Central Asia, where they established the Afanasevo culture (c. 3600-2400 BCE). Afanasevo people might be the precursors of the Tocharian branch of Indo-European languages alongside haplogroup R1a (=> see Tarim mummies). R1b people who stayed in the Volga-Ural region were probably the initiators of the Poltavka culture (2700-2100 BCE), then became integrated into the R1a-dominant Sintashta-Petrovka culture (2100-1750 BCE) linked to the Indo-Aryan conquest of Central and South Asia (=> see R1a for more details).

# The trade routes followed the rivers – the neolithical highways, cultures spread from one river valley to the next. Sredny Stog/Dnieper 5th millennium Bc, horseomestication. Yamna/Dnieper-Donets 36-23rd century BC, kurgan proto IE. Poltavka /Volga 2700—2100BC. 

R1ASource of above Y-DNA maps is  eupedia.com/europe/neolithic_europe_map.shtml

După cum arată cu claritate numeroasele descoperiri arheologice, creatorii şi purtătorii culturii Sântana de Mureş–Černjachov au practicat deopotrivă ambele rituri funerare, îngropându-şi defuncţii atât prin incineraţie cât şi prin înhumaţie. Potrivit unor cercetări riguroase mai recente însă, contrar presupunerilor generalizate că ar constitui un domeniu conservator şi refractar la schimbări, obiceiurile de înmormântare folosite de aceleaşi comunităţi de populaţie au suferit transformări profunde şi destul de rapide.
Astfel, s-a putut dovedi convingător că în faza timpurie a culturii Sântana de Mureş-Černjachov ritul funerar practicat cu predilecţie, iar de unele grupuri umane chiar exclusiv, era incineraţia, mormintele din sectoarele iniţiale ale necropolelor fiind cu precădere de tipul „în urnă cu capac” sau „fără urnă”, cu oasele calcinate depuse direct în groapă. Urmează apoi o fază în care, datorită probabil unor impulsuri venite din
lumea romană, are loc un proces rapid de modificare a obiceiurilor de înmormântare, producându-se o deplasare de la incineraţie la înhumaţie. Mormintele de înhumaţie caracteristice pentru faza mijlocie a culturii şi care predomină în majoritatea cimitirelor de tip Sântana de Mureş–Černjachov sunt orientate N–S cu scheletele depuse de regulă în decubit dorsal, cuprinzând în inventar foarte des ofrande de alimente şi de băuturi (reprezentate de oale, castroane, căni, pahare şi amfore), inclusiv de carne de animale. Tot la nivelul acestei etape şi probabil tot ca efect al unor influenţe exercitate din partea Imperiului roman îşi fac apariţia şi primele morminte cu schelete întinse pe spate orientate cu capul spre V. La fel ca şi în alte necropole de tip Sântana de Mureş–Černjachov, marea majoritate a mormintelor de înhumaţie din cimitirul de la Brăviceni sunt orientate pe direcţiile V–E şi N–S, fiecare din ele cu unele devieri. Astfel, s-a constatat că 89 din totalul de 160 complexe funerare cu orientarea precizată, adică 55,6%, se aflau pe direcţia V–E, iar 56, reprezentând 35%, pe axa N–S. La acestea se adaugă şase morminte dispuse NE–SV, unul S–N şi câte două înmormântări cu orientarea E–V şi SV–NE.  Complexul de la Brăviceni îşi găseşte mari asemănări cu necropola sincronă din bazinul Niprului Mijlociu de la Žuravka, din care s-au cercetat un mormânt de incineraţie, 71 de înhumaţie orientate V–E, 52 plasate N–S şi unul cu orientarea E–V.
Este interesant de remarcat însă faptul că, spre deosebire de cimitirul de la Žuravka, unde mormintele orientate V–E apar masate în zona de vest, la Brăviceni ele sunt răspândite pe întreaga suprafaţă a necropolei, la fel ca înmormântările cu orientarea N–S. Opinia că mormintele dispuse V–E din necropolele de tip Sântana de Mureş–Černjachov ar aparţine unor prozeliţi creştini a fost îmbrăţişată integral şi de alţi cercetători, dintre care cităm pe J. Kucharenko, G. Fedorov, E. Rikman, B. Mitrea, C. Preda, I. Ioniţă, I. Hica-Câmpeanu, K. Horedt, D. Teodor, Al. Levinschi, E. M. Constantinescu şi O. L. Şovan. Unii specialişti însă nu împărtăşesc această părere, punând înmormântările orientate cu capul spre V din arealul culturii Sântana de Mureş–Černjachov fie în legătură cu o presupusă dezvoltare a anumitor tradiţii familiale şi locale sau a credinţelor solare ale populaţiilor încă păgâne, fie pe seama anumitor triburi şi populaţii: scito-sarmaţi, slavi ori sciţi târzii.   s-a dovedit în mod convingător de
către specialiştii în domeniul arheologiei paleocreştine, începând din secolul IV, mormintele creştinilor sunt orientate aproape exclusiv pe direcţia V–E, adică cu privirea spre răsărit, care în doctrina creştină simbolizează izvorul luminii şi al vieţii veşnice. Totodată, s-a arătat că o altă caracteristică a înmormântărilor respective din mediul greco-roman din antichitatea târzie este lipsa inventarului şi, mai ales, a ofrandelor de alimente.  Un argument destul de solid în sprijinul apartenenţei la creştinism a mormintelor dispuse V–E din necropolele culturii Sântana de Mureş–Černjachov este şi datarea lor. Cu toate că problema cronologiei culturii
Sântana de Mureş–Černjachov nu este încă pe deplin elucidată, considerăm că datarea înmormântărilor dispuse V–E cu precădere în a doua parte a secolului IV şi la începutul secolului V este destul de întemeiată. Este important de remarcat în acest context că, din punct de vedere cronologic, cele mai timpurii morminte creştine orientate V–E din cimitirele romane de la Ságvár, Mangalia (Callatis) şi Piatra Frecăţei (Beroe) se datează începând cu primele decenii ale secolului IV sau, mai curând, cu al doilea sfert al acestui secol, majoritatea înmormântărilor încadrându-se însă în a doua jumătate a veacului IV şi în secolele ulterioare. Prin urmare, în ceea ce priveşte datarea mormintelor cu orientarea V–E, situaţia din Gothia este într-o anumită măsură conformă cu cea din Imperiul roman, unde creştinarea a cuprins cea mai mare parte a locuitorilor provinciilor abia după edictul de la Mediolanum din anul 313, prin care religiei creştine i s-a acordat deplina libertate.  Cât priveşte obiceiul magico-ritual de deshumare a mormintelor, s-a dovedit că el a afectat cu precădere înmormântările plasate N–S, iar în unele necropole mormintele orientate V–E nu sunt deranjate chiar deloc. Originea acestui ritual funerar poate fi pus mai curând pe seama triburilor dominatoare gotice, care au stăpânit şi locuit în tot acest întins spaţiu din răsăritul Europei. Potrivit mai multor mărturii transmise de o serie de scriitori romano-bizantini, activitatea misionară în ţinuturile nord-danubiene stăpânite de goţi ia o mare amploare mai ales în perioada de după încheierea păcii dintre Constantin cel Mare şi Ariarich, conducătorul vizigoţilor, în anul 332. Printre numeroşii propagatori ai noii religii în Gothia nord-danubiană în cursul secolului IV un loc aparte îl ocupă celebrul episcop arian Ulfila.  MORMINTE ORIENTATE VEST–EST DIN NECROPOLA
DE TIP SÂNTANA DE MUREŞ–ČERNJACHOV DE LA BRĂVICENI. CONTRIBUŢII LA PROBLEMA RĂSPÂNDIRII CREŞTINISMULUI ÎN GOTHIA. DE VLAD VORNIC
Unul dintre cele mai VECHI cimitire din România, descoperit în județul Satu Mare. >> Este o așezare din neoliticul târziu de aproape 7.000 de ani vechime, încadrat la 4.900 – 4.700 înainte de Hristos. Până în prezent avem conturate șapte morminte. Morții sunt dispuși pe orientare E-V, cu capul spre E.

# Farmers coming from Near East create Vinca, Cris and than the Cucuteni cultures.
# The Cucuteni culture was the most advanced culture, placed at the cultural frontier with the Pontic Steppes. Here will meet all the technological, cultural and genetic admixtures that will form the IndoEuropean mixture: @ farming, @ cattle herding, @ bronze, metal working, @ chariots, @ city builders, @warriors. This cultural and technological MIX will create the most advanced populations and the POPULATION GROWTH/DENSITY that will produce the SWARMING of indo-europeans.
# Genetically the first Big Bang was between the I populations that dominated Europe after the last Ice Ageand the J/G farmers coming from the Middle East. The second Big Bang was between the southern Steppe R1b culture  culture + the northern forest-steppe R1a culture AND Old Europe I2+J1/E1/G Cucuteni farming culture. The second big bang is based also on a second wave of ”technologies”: the Salt mining coming from the Carpathians and the horse domestication coming from the Sredny Stog culture on Dnieper.
# Third Big Bang was the meeting between the indo-europeans and the BMAC culture.
Trade was essential : salt, tin, copper, amber, gold was source of power and hierarchy, which produced exploration and swarming. The trade routes followed the rivers – the neolithical highways, cultures spread from one river valley to the next. Sredny Stog/Dnieper 5th millennium Bc, horseomestication. Yamna/Dnieper-Donets 36-23rd century BC, kurgan proto IE. Poltavka /Volga 2700—2100BC.
# The first “kurgan waves” R1a and than later R1b entered deep into Europe mainly through the Danube valley. But the true “birth” of indo-europeans happened when all the essential parts met and mixed, the melting pot / the heimat of “aryans” was in Transnistria where the Cucuteni culture met with the R1b metal people and the R1a warriors. Here met all the top technologies (farming, salt trade, copper & gold, horses & chariots), the Old Europe culture (farming & cities) with the “kurgan culture” (milk revolution & warriors stamina/leadership).
# All these technological advances created o competitive population and created conditions for a population growth that later created the swarmings. From here (due to climate changes also), waves of indo-europeans went #1-W to conquer Europe, 2#-E to conquer the steppes to China (Tarim) and 3#-SE “iranians” & “indus aryans”. (According to Gimbutas, contact of the Yamna culture with late Neolithic Europe cultures results in the “kurganized” Globular Amphora and Baden cultures.)
# First base of R1b in Europe is Transylvania! From Transylvania, between 2500-2000BCE, R1b invades Central and Western Europe. The origins of the cremation / Urnfield Culture  (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) is also linked to Transylvania via the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture. The R1b were not strong enough to displace the Old Europe populations, went over Transylvania to conquer the less populated Western Europe. In same way the R1a waves of Greco-Macedonians and Thracians went over Romania/Transylvania to displace the populations from present day Greece, not displacing the populations from present day Romanian, but leaving traces, mixing to have the “melting pot” effect. Because of metal ritches and because of the lush valleys (like Maros), Transylvania was also a melting pot between Old Europe and R1a+R1b Kurgan people, the Dacians were metal people just like Halsttatt/Le Tene people. But the old I2/J substratum was strong enough to preserve the cremation habits.
# Neolithic Old Europeans either cremated their dead (e.g. Cucuteni-Tripolye culture) or buried them in collective graves (this was the case of Megalithic cultures). First R1b culture in Europe, the Unetice – were buried always in N-S alignment, with head facing E, and the body lying in a “crouched” position. Úněticean burial rite displays strong uniformity, regardless of the gender or age of the deceased, men and women were buried in the same N-S position. Later cremation prevailed in Urnfield culture, the “old habits” of the Burned Horizon traditions mixing with tumulus of the metal people.

tricolor

Some neolithic genetic studies tend to talk about Europe populations dominated by G, J, R1A, R1b populations in certain periods and areas. But those genetic studies make conclusions based on bones from neolithic tombs, while populations who cremated their dead have left obviously less traces/bones. We can not read their bones simply because they burned their dead, but that does not mean they were not there, in big numbers besides the newcomers (farmers and kurgan people), we can see their traces in present day populations – see Alinei continuity theory also. After the last Ice Age for a few thousand years all Europe was “blue”, mostly with I populations. Much of Old Europe is still “blue” in present day, all the J/E/G farmers, all the R1a/R1b kurgan people that came over, were not able to displace the old I2 stratum. The old I2 populations absorbed one after the other all the migrations, preserving some very old  (7kyr) cultural continuities. 



 

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About Alex Imreh

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This entry was posted in 2017, Aryans, ethnogenesis, Getae,Getes,Geti, PIE and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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