Undeva pe aici zace ”patriotismul meu cultural” ..


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In the NE of present day Romania – Great Moldavia, I2 farm culture mixed with R1AB. The result was a population having all the best technologies at that time – wheels, chariots, horses, pottery and farming technology, animal husbandry, metalworking. This melting pot was also a mix of genes and social aptitudes, including warfare. Competitive populations were able to grow than spread & “conquered” the world: the expansion of Yamna to the Balkans and Central Europe, the expansion of aryan people all Asia up to India & east of China. Sredny Stog people carried a mix of I2a2, R1, R1a and R1b lineages. Before the arrival of Neolithic farmers I2a2 dominated central Europe, Scandinavia and present UK. I2a1 even to present day is dominant in areas around Romania from Bosnia to Ukraina and it could indicate the longest cultural continuity of Europe – still alive today in traditional villages. I2a2b could have appeared soon after the Last Glacial Maximum, perhaps 17,000 years ago. Most of its branches would have become extinct and only one survived with a patriarch living during the Bronze Age, probably in Germany. The oldest known L38 sample comes from the Unetice culture in central-east Germany 4,000 years ago. This lineage spread from Germany to England via Belgium in the Late Iron Age with the Celtic people of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures. Transylvania was the turning table from where ProtoCelts conquered Western Europe. Before that Romania was the center of Old Europe from where farming spread to Western Europe, Cris Culture started Liner Pottery Culture. The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, the most advanced Neolithic culture in Europe before the Indo-European invasions in the Bronze Age was also an offshoot from the Starčevo–Kőrös–Criş culture. Cucuteni-Trypillian people mixed with Yamna neighbours than they spread as a minority lineage alongside haplogroups R1a and R1b to WEurope and Baltics with the Corded Ware expansion.
Map of early Bronze Age cultures in Europe - Eupedia
  • The cultivation of cereals appear to have started at least 12,000 years ago in the Levant (source), and perhaps earlier in Northeast Africa.
  • Humans started building stone structures, including temples, at Göbekli Tepe in Anatolia about 11,000 years ago (source).
  • The use of calendars dates from at least from 10,000 years ago in Scotland (source).
  • The world’s first bricks were made in the Near East at least 9,500 years ago (source).
  • Metallurgy may have started in the Balkans with copper working (c. 7,500 years ago, source), followed by gold (7,000 ybp), bronze (6,500 ybp) and silver (6,000 ybp).
  • The oldest evidence of writing date from 7300 years ago in central Romania (source) and northern Greece (source).
  • The world’s first cities appeared in southern Mesopotamia some 6,500 years ago (source).
  • The first potter’s wheel appears in the Near East between 6,500 and 5,200 years ago, during the Ubaid period (source).
  • The earliest evidence of horse domestication, and perhaps also horse riding, dates from 6,000 to 5,500 years ago in the Eurasian Steppe (source).
  • The oldest trace of glassmaking comes from the Near East circa 5,500 years ago (source).
  • Shoes only show up in the archeological record from 5,500 years ago in Armenia (source). Ötzi the Iceman, the oldest natural human mummy, who died in the Alps 5300 years ago also wore leather shoes.
  • Humans started making swords and bronze weapons in the Maykop culture in the northwest Caucasus c. 5,500 to 5,000 years ago.
  • The world’s oldest known wheel is approximately 5,200 years old and was found in Slovenia (source).
  • The oldest known horse-drawn chariots date from the Sintashta and Petrovka cultures in the Eurasian Steppe, c. 4,000 years ago (source).
    https://www.eupedia.com/europe/timeline_human_evolution.shtml?fbclid=IwAR32jYb8B42BNp3T3upfs2QYJs2V7oXZ93xCLE0h5M93cxl_F-zBcgy26x4
Map of prehistoric inventions and discoveries - Eupedia
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This is a list of fortified settlements, towns and cities in Europe that were founded at least 3000 years ago (prior to 1000 BCE), including abandonned and destroyed settlements (marked by a †). Cities with a present-day population exceeding 50,000 are indicated in bold. https://www.eupedia.com/history/list_of_oldest__prehistoric_european_cities.shtml?fbclid=IwAR0NYwiDPXlkXApedxirtcSJumOoIG807Frvsg2zn4zJVn9htYc7okKw83U

Haplogroup I is the oldest major haplogroup in Europe and in all probability the only one that originated there. Haplogroup I2a1 seems to have come out of the Neolithic period as the big winner for reasons that are not yet clear. Haplogroup I2a1 is by far the largest branch of I2 and the one most strongly linked to Neolithic cultures in south-east, south-west and north-west Europe. I2a1a-M26 was probably one of the main paternal lineages of the Megalithic cultures of western Europe during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods. I2a1b is found overwhelmingly in the Dinaric Slavs as well as in Bulgaria, Romania, Moldavia, western Ukraine and Belarus. It is also common to a lower extent in Albania, Greece, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, and south-western Russia. The high concentration of I2a1b-L621 in north-east Romania, Moldova and central Ukraine reminds of the maximum spread of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture (4800-3000 BCE). It evolved as an offshoot from the Starčevo–Kőrös–Criş culture. The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was the most advanced Neolithic culture in Europe before the Indo-European invasions in the Bronze Age and seems to have had intensive contacts with the Steppe culture before the expansion of Yamna to the Balkans and Central Europe (see histories of R1a and R1b). From 3500 BCE, at the onset of the Yamna period in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, the Cucuteni-Trypillian people started expanding east into the steppe of what is now western Ukraine, leaving their towns (the largest in the world at the time), and adopting an increasingly nomadic lifestyle like their Yamna neighbours. It can easily be imagined that Cucuteni-Trypillian people became assimilated by the Yamna neighbours and that they spread as a minority lineage alongside haplogroups R1a and R1b as they advanced toward the Baltic with the Corded Ware expansion.
https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_I2_Y-DNA.shtml

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I2a2 is found in most of Europe and seems to have had a continent-wide distribution before the arrival of Neolithic farmers. Remains from the Late Neolithic Sredny Stog culture (4500-3500 BCE) in Ukraine and of the Chalcolithic Globular Amphora culture (3400-2800 BCE) from Ukraine and Poland, were also tested by Mathieson et al. (2017). All six individuals from the Globular Amphora belonged to haplogroup I2a2. The Sredny Stog people carried a mix of I2a2, R1, R1a and R1b lineages. L701 was also found in Copper Age Bulgaria. Other I2a2a individuals was also found in Neolithic Scotland (L1195 and CTS10057), Neolithic Spain (CTS616 and Z161) and Neolithic Hungary (CTS10057). During the Early Bronze Age, I2a2a was found in southern Russia during the Yamna culture (L699), in Hungary (L1229), and in Germany (L38). This very ancient dispersal and its relatively low modern frequency makes it very difficult to assess what happened to each branch before the Late Bronze Age or the Iron Age.
Nowadays, I2a2 peaks in central and northern Germany (10-20%), the Benelux (10-15%) as well as in northern Sweden. It is also found in 3 to 10% of the inhabitants of Denmark, eastern England, and northern France. It is rarer in Norway, except in the south, where the Danish influence was the strongest historically.

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I2a2b (formerly I2b2) could have appeared soon after the Last Glacial Maximum, perhaps 17,000 years ago. Most of its branches would have become extinct and only one survived with a patriarch living during the Bronze Age, probably in Germany. The oldest known L38 sample comes from the Unetice culture in central-east Germany 4,000 years ago. Four out of the six samples from the 3,000 year old Lichtenstein Cave in central Germany belonged to L38+ as well. The cave was part of the Bronze Age Urnfield Culture. Based on the STR dating, it is believed that this lineage spread from Germany to England via Belgium in the Late Iron Age with the Celtic people of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures. I2a2b is therefore essentially a Alpine Celtic haplogroup. The distribution of I2-L38 matches fairly well that of haplogroup R1b-U152 north of the Alps. Both haplogroups are also found at low frequency in Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and central Turkey, probably reflecting the migration of La Tène Celts in the third century BCE (see map). R1b-U152 is associated with both the Central European Celts (Unetice, Urnfield, Hallstatt, La Tène) and the Italic people. In Italy, I2-L38 is limited to the Alpine region, mostly the north-west, where Gaulish tribes settled, and it is likely that I2-L38 was brought to Italy by Celtic migrations many centuries after the arrival of Italic tribes from the Alpine Danube region. I2-L38 people would therefore have been autochthonous to the region between the Alps, Central Germany and the Low Countries and were assimilated into the Celtic society during the Hallstatt or La Tène period.

In the archaeology of Neolithic Europe, the burned house horizon is the geographical extent of the phenomenon of presumably intentionally burned settlements. This was a widespread and long-lasting tradition in what is now Southeastern and Eastern Europe, lasting from as early as 6500 BCE (the beginning of the Neolithic) to as late as 2000 BCE (the end of the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age). 
Although the practice of house burning took place among a handful of different Neolithic cultures in southeast Europe, it is most widely known among the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture for a number of reasons: The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture had the largest settlements in history up to their time.[15] There is evidence that every single settlement in this culture probably practiced house burning.[3] This culture practiced house burning for a longer period of time (1600 years), and for a later date (up to 3200 BC), than any of the other cultures.[1]:p.102 The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was considered by some scholars to be the largest and most influential of the Neolithic cultures of eastern Europe during the transition to the Eneolithic period.[16] :p.196
Map showing territorial extent of the Starčevo culture
Distribution of the Criş/Starčevo/Körös culture and location of Tăşnad Sere (map: Susanne Geck).
The beginnings of the Linear Pottery culture, whose representatives at the beginning of the Neolithic period in Central Europe achieved the largest territorial expansion.
The beginnings of the Linear Pottery culture (5500 – 5000 BC), whose representatives at the beginning of the Neolithic period in Central Europe achieved the largest territorial expansion, are sought for by most researchers in the environment of the Starčevo culture located in Transdanubia (the area west of the Danube that comprises present-day Hungary and Lower Austria).
Migration of Proto-Neolithic and Early-Neolithic population during the second half of VII – beginning of VI millennium BC., maybe partly stimulated Early-Atlantic transgression of the Black Sea.
Image result for black sea flood
Image result for black sea flood
Bathymetric map of the Mediterranean Sea (depth range 0–200 m). Data analyzed by the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (HCMR). 

About Alex Imreh

http://www.aleximreh.ro http://www.facebook.com/alex.imreh 0742-669918
This entry was posted in 2020, DNA, ethnogenesis, Nationalism and tagged , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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