The earliest spoke-wheeled chariot remains were discovered at a Sintashta site dated to 2000 BC. Sintashta (2100-1800 BC) was succeeded by Andronovo (1800-900 BC). Both groups were genetically the same people and credited with inventing and spreading the chariot. The earliest spoke-wheeled chariot remains were discovered at a Sintashta site dated to 2000 BC. Sintashta (2100-1800 BC) was succeeded by Andronovo (1800-900 BC). Both groups were genetically the same people and credited with inventing and spreading the chariot. Morphological data suggests that the Sintashta culture might have emerged as a result of a mixture of steppe ancestry from the Poltavka culture and Catacomb culture, with ancestry from Neolithic forest hunter-gatherers.
The Sintashta economy came to revolve around copper metallurgy. Copper ores from nearby mines (such as Vorovskaya Yama) were taken to Sintashta settlements to be processed into copper and arsenical bronze. This occurred on an industrial scale: all the excavated buildings at the Sintashta sites of Sintashta, Arkaim and Ust’e contained the remains of smelting ovens and slag. Much of Sintashta metal was destined for export to the cities of the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) in Central Asia. The metal trade between Sintashta and the BMAC for the first time connected the steppe region to the ancient urban civilisations of the Near East: the empires and city-states of Iran and Mesopotamia provided an almost bottomless market for metals. These trade routes later became the vehicle through which horses, chariots and ultimately Indo-Iranian-speaking people entered the Near East from the steppe.
The remains of fifty individuals from the fortified Sintastha settlement of Kamennyi Ambar was analyzed. This was the largest sample of ancient DNA ever sampled from a single site. The Y-DNA from thirty males was extracted. Eighteen carried R1a and various subclades of it (particularly subclades of R1a1a1), five carried subclades of R1b (particularly subclades of R1b1a1a), two carried Q1a and a subclade of it, one carried I2a1a1a, and four carried unspecified R1 clades. The authors of the study found the Sintashta people to be closely genetically related to the people of the Corded Ware culture, the Srubnaya culture, the Potapovka culture, and the Andronovo culture. These were found to harbor mixed ancestry from the Yamnaya culture and peoples of the Central European Middle Neolithic.[g][h] Sintashta people were deemed “genetically almost indistinguishable” from samples taken from the northwestern areas constituting the core of the Andronovo culture, which were “genetically largely homogeneous”. The genetic data suggested that the Sintashta culture was ultimately derived of a remigration of Central European peoples with steppe ancestry back into the steppe.[i]
Sintashta individuals and Corded Ware individuals both had a relatively higher ancestry proportion derived from the early farmers of Central Europe, and both differed markedly in such ancestry from the population of the Yamnaya Culture and most individuals of the Poltavka Culture that preceded Sintashta in the same geographic region. The people of the Sintashta culture are thought to have spoken Proto-Indo-Iranian, the ancestor of the Indo-Iranian language family. This identification is based primarily on similarities between sections of the Rig Veda, an Indian religious text which includes ancient Indo-Iranian hymns recorded in Vedic Sanskrit, with the funerary rituals of the Sintashta culture as revealed by archaeology. There is however linguistic evidence of a list of common Vocabulary between Finno-Ugric and Indo-Iranian Languages. While its origin as a creole of different tribes in the Ural region may make it inaccurate to ascribe the Sintashta culture exclusively to Indo-Iranian ethnicity, interpreting this culture as a blend of two cultures with two distinct languages is a reasonable hypothesis based on the evidence. From the Sintashta culture the Indo-Iranian languages migrated with the Indo-Iranians to Anatolia, India and Iran. From the 9th century BCE onward, Iranian languages also migrated westward with the Scythians back to the Pontic steppe where the Proto-Indo-Europeans came from.
The Sintashta economy came to revolve around copper metallurgy. Copper ores from nearby mines (such as Vorovskaya Yama) were taken to Sintashta settlements to be processed into copper and arsenical bronze. This occurred on an industrial scale: all the excavated buildings at the Sintashta sites of Sintashta, Arkaim and Ust’e contained the remains of smelting ovens and slag. Much of this metal was destined for export to the cities of the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) in Central Asia. The metal trade between Sintashta and the BMAC for the first time connected the steppe region to the ancient urban civilisations of the Near East: the empires and city-states of Iran and Mesopotamia provided an almost bottomless market for metals. These trade routes later became the vehicle through which horses, chariots and ultimately Indo-Iranian-speaking people entered the Near East from the steppe.
Romania este practic in razboi de 200 de ani cu Rusia, din 1812 de cand ”pretenii” au ocupat jumate din Moldova istorica. De ce tot spun unii ca ar trebui sa stam linistiti sa nu deranjam ursu sa nu bagam bota prin gard? Pai gardul ala trece prin curtea noastra nu e mejdie!
Apropo de Crimea si ”dreptul istoric” al rusilor. Mii de ani Crimea a fost ”centru de greutate arian”, centru al unor culturi nascute ca o simbioza dintre Cucuteni I2 si culturile de stepa de la nordul MNegre R1A+R1b. Apoi a fost cultura greaca bizantina timp de cel putin 1000 de ani (sec.8 BC pana in sec 10-11). Apoi zona a fost controlata 500 de ani de tatarii veniti la 1238 si abia in 1783 au ajuns rusii in Crimea.
Slavii pretind ca sunt urmasi directi ai vechilor arieni? Pai asa si grecii arieni tot de pe acolo au plecat, din stepa nord pontica spre Grecia inainte de a fi greci. Si apoi au revenit dupa mii de ani ca ”greci”. La fel arienii ”celtici” tot de la nordul Marii Negre au pornit sa cucereasca jumatatea vestica a Europei. Exista arieni R1A si R1B, dar rusii si cultura slava nu pot monopoliza aceasta ascendenta, vechii arieni din nordul marii negre au tot atat legatura cu Cucutenii cat au cu celtii si cu slavii. Dupa ”drept istoric” de mii de ani ar putea veni grecii si celtii sa se pretinda stapani in Crimea, dupa drept ”istoric” 500 de ani ar putea tatarii sa ceara rusilor sa plece din Crimea in care au ajuns abia de 2-300 de ani. Si totul a pornit de la Vinca-Cucuteni.
My opinion is that Cucuteni started as a fusion between Vinca agricultural culture and Yamna horse/metal culture. And as a fusion between Old Europe people and Kurgan people, the fusion pot mixing technologies and cultural qualities produced a more competitive population, which greatly increased in number because being more competitive, swarming to East Asia up to Tarim basin and to Western Europe up the Danube. At was a mix of technologies and DNA, agriculture / pottery and I2 from Old Europe with horses / chariots / metal production from Kurgan R1a & R1b. aleximreh.wordpress.com/2011/01/17/The-First-Great-Civilizations-of-Europe-Cucuteni-and-Vinca-50003000-b-c/
Burned House Horizon was a widespread and long-lasting tradition in what are now Southeastern Europe and Eastern Europe, lasting from as early as 6500 BCE (the beginning of the Neolithic in that region) to as late as 2000 BCE (the end of the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age). A notable representative of this tradition is the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, which was centered on the burned-house horizon both geographically and temporally.
I2+R1a+R1b Contact Area – PIE Urheimat >> The roots of Cucuteni-Trypillian culture can be found in the Starčevo-Körös-Criș and Vinča cultures of the 6th to 5th millennia, with additional influence from the Bug-Dniester culture (6500-5000 BC). During the early period of its existence (in the 5th millennium BC), the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was also influenced by the Linear Pottery culture from the north, and by the Boian-Giulesti culture from the south. Through colonization and acculturation from these other cultures, the formative Pre-Cucuteni/Trypillia A culture was established. Over the course of the fifth millennium, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture expanded from its‘homeland’ in the Prut–Siret region along the eastern foothills of the Carpathian Mountains into the basins and plains of the Dnieper and Southern Bug rivers of central Ukraine.
1]Prut-Siret homeland > 2]4800-4000bc extend over Dniester-Bug basins > 3]4000-3500bc extend to Eastern Transylvania and to the Dnieper basin, 4]3500-3000bc extend to N Ukraine/Kiev and E to Don&Volga + transformation into a patriarchal structure + different forms of ritual burial were developed>> Thus the last phase of the Cucuteni culture is already a
mixture, the transformation into a patriarchal structure and the different forms of burial show the mixture between the farmers and the kurgan people. Over 1000years the farmers and the kurgan people traded, mixed, the last 500 year period there is a mixed population with a culture still dominated by the older ways, so there was not a violent and sudden end for the Cucuteni culture, there was a transformation that lasted many hundreds of years.
There was also a climate change – Beginning around 3200 BC the earth’s climate became colder and drier than it had ever been since the end of the last Ice age, resulting in the worst drought in the history of Europe since the beginning of agriculture. The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture relied primarily on farming, which would have collapsed under these climatic conditions in a scenario similar to the Dust Bowl of the American Midwest in the 1930s.
Corded Ware origins (2900 BCE – 2350 BCE) are necessarily the in the region where the oldest Corded Ware vessels appeared, Lesser Poland, as well as the adjacent (traditionally considered Proto-Corded Ware regions) Volhynia, Podolia, and upper Dniester river basin.