comisia care l-a exclus pe Moro


Cine sunt membrii din Biroul Național al USR, cei care l-au exclus în ”unanimitate” pe Sergiu Moroianu? Există foarte puține informații publice despre partidul care are ca principală lozincă Transparența.
– Nicusor Dan – presedinte (deputat)
– Cristian Ghica – vicepresedinte (senator)
– Clotilde Armand – vicepresedinte (nu a participat la sedinta, fiind la Cluj, în delegatie de serviciu + lansare de carte)
– Roxana Wring – vicepresedinte
– Dumitru Dobrev – vicepresedinte (cel care si-a dat demisia din functia de vicepresedinte la inceputul lui septembrie in urma scandalului cu votul la doua cartele, iar la 6 zile distanta a fost reales de congresul usr)
– Florin Grigorescu – vicepresedinte (a avut un esec cu organizarea filialei Galati)
– Ciprian Dinica – membru (sotia lui e senator)
– Cristina Coroblea – membru
– Ana Ciceala – membru
– Florin Cobzac – membru
– Cristian Seidler – membru (deputat)
Nu este pe site-ul USR nici componenta actuala a comisiei de arbitraj, nici componenta comisiei de cenzori, nici sediul oficial. (Exista doar un comunicat vechi de la fuziunea cu USB). Nu exista procese verbale ale sedintelor biroului national sau hotarari scrise.
Seful de campanie nu are niciun contract sau legatura scrisa cu partidul. Plata lui PĂUN poate fi usor disimulata prin firmele de consultanta politica care au fost angajate in mod netransparent, chiar de el.
Congresul din 29 august care făcea fuziunea cu ”Pentru Codlea”, a fost sters cu buretele pentru că Erwin Albu a avut probleme de cazier. Congresul care conteaza este cel din 11 septembrie prin care USB a fuzionat prin absorbție cu Uniunea Salvați România. La acest Congres Nicușor Dan a fost ales președinte,  s-au ales vicepreședinții partidului și membrii Biroului Național. Vicepreședinții partidului sunt: Cristian Ghica, Roxana Wring, Dumitru Dobrev, Clotilde Armand și Florin Grigorescu. Președintele si vicepreședintii sunt membri de drept în Biroul Național. Membri în Biroul Național sunt: Cristian Seidler, Ana Ciceală, Florin Cobzac, Ciprian Dinică și Cristina Coroblea.

Comisia națională de arbitraj: Naomi Reniuț-Ursoiu, Alex Gâdiuță, (Sergiu Moroianu), Andrei Nicolaescu și Cristina Munteanu. Comisia națională de cenzori: Elena Radu, Mihai Botez și Caroline Pană. La acest congres fiind (re)ales vicepesedinte juristul USR Dobrev, expertul anticorupție al Alianței România Curată  🙂 la căteva zile după ce acesta și-a dat demisia pentru ca a votat cu 2 cartele în Consiliul Primăriei.

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 Declarație video / youtube – ”Înainte de toate suntem o familie unită care nu se lasă afectată sau intimidată de nici o dificultate întâlnită la drum! Mergem mai departe!”
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demnitate + civilitate


N.Dan a declarat la RFI în 5 noiembrie 2016– “În USR există și oameni de stânga și oameni de dreapta care au ales să fie sub aceeași umbrelă pentru a trece pragul de 5% în Parlament. Când vom fi mai mari probabil că ne vom sparge ideologic, păstrându-ne civilitatea unul față de celălalt.”

USR acum are pe țară dublu fata de pragul de 5% dar în orasele mari, universitare a avut de 4-5 ori mai mult. În București USR a făcut dublu față de PNL. În Cluj-Napoca, USR a facut 22.2%, PNL a făcut 27.32%, PSD e pe locul 3. În Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, Brasov, Baia-Mare, Pitești si Bucuresti, USR este al doilea partid ca numar de voturi și parlamentari. În Bucuresti, Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu, Brasov, Timisoara, Arad si Alba-Iulia, USR impreuna cu PNL au facut mai multe procente decat PSD. În Capitală, în 5 sectoare USR a facut între 25% și 29%. În principalele orase din România, în orașele cu populația cea mai informată, mai întreprinzătoare, PSD a făcut un procentaj bun doar din cauza absenteismului. Tinerii au mers la vot 1 din 4, cei in puterea vârstei 1 din 3. bannerO colaborare cu PNL era oricum un compromis care nu avea cum sa ducă la schimbari structurale reale. În loc de PNL e nevoie de un alt partid, de un partid nou, care sa fie partener de guvernare pentru USR peste 4 ani . 

În urma cu cateva luni USB era un grup de cateva zeci de oameni. Aceasta organizatie mica a avut o crestere exponentiala, s-a trecut la mii de membrii în câteva luni acum se vede o criză de creștere.

Urarea mea acum este: la mai mare, la dublu!  În continuare există un potențial de creștere mare, dar pe lângă un USR de centru stanga e nevoie de un partid similar de centru dreapta, ca să se dubleze procentajele de acum, ca să se ajungă la peste 40% în orasele mari și apoi toata treaba asta să iradieze către localitațile mai mici. Nu trebuie sa se ajunga la dusmanii personale, sa nu lăsăm pe cei care sunt orbiți ideologic și pe cei care fac pe proștii, să toarne gaz pe foc. Daca USR se duce spre centru stanga, cei din USR care sunt de centru dreapta se pot regrupa într-un nou partid, iar aceste doua partide vor trebui sa colaboreze strâns pentru a mătura actuala clasa politica. Aceste doua partide pot fi în oglinda dacă nu se poate amesteca apa cu uleiul în cadrul aceluiași partid. Dacă oameni cu vederi de stânga și de dreapta nu se pot respecta acum în cadrul aceluiasi partid, atunci singura soluție e să activeze cât mai repede în doua partide care să se respecte. Dar în continuare daca nu sunt eliminați din ambele partide atât extremiștii de stânga cât și cei de dreapta , ei vor produce entropie,  vor sparge unitatea civică din nou în cioburi, ne vor transforma din noi în masă amorfă. Ei poarta resoponsabilitatea de ”colaboraționiști ai sistemului FSN”, care se poate menține doar prin divide et impera.clotilde-armand-si-nicusor-danÎn loc sa avem demnitate tradiționalistă versus civilitate progresistă, eu zic că a sosit momentul sa avem demnitate+civilitate pentru a schimba clasa politică actuală, pentru a avea o majoritate parlamentară peste 4 ani, care sa poată face schimbari structurale. USR a ajuns suficient de mare ca să se dubleze, libertatea e acceptarea constrangerilor.

shereComentariul de mai sus a lui Shere Marinescu, fost M10 și candidat USR în Teleorman, e mărturie despre discuțiile care au dus la declarația lui ND din 5.11.16 și la excluderea lui Sergiu Moroianu din 16.12.16. N.Dan probabil a ales sa fie ”loial” unor activiști vechi din USB, unii dintre ei stângiști foarte vocali și a catalogat problemele ridicate de Sergiu ca ”acuzații mincinoase” în acord cu majoritatea stângistă care îl inconjoară. O alianta cu PNL fie și indirectă prin Cioloș nu avea cum sa duca la reforme structurale, Cioloșeala – subordonarea USR în relația cu Cioloș de dinainte de alegeri a fost o greșeală. În loc sa țină la o independență care sa ducă la leadership pe țară N.Dan, a ajuns sa îl invite în USR chiar și după alegeri pe nepotul lui Ardelean, pe cel care a fost lansat în politică de fostul șef al serviciului secret al Ministerului Administrației și Internelor (DGIPI), chestorul Virgil Ardelean zis Vulpea împreună cu Băsescu cînd acesta era președinte.

În câteva luni în mare grabă USR a crescut de la zeci de membrii la mii de membrii, simpatizanți și activiști. Principalul motiv care adus la excluderea lui Moroianu a fost primirea de noi membrii în USR, ”neînțelegrile” dintre progresiști care au devenit majoritari și unii tradiționaliști care au ramas în USR în minoritate. Mai jos declarația lui Sergiu Moroianu care a dus la excluderea sa.

14.12.16 : “.. S-au comis abuzuri și greșeli din partea “echipei de comunicare/campanie” coordonate de Matei Păun. Știe cineva datele financiare ale serviciilor lui Păun?
Comisia de Arbitraj i-a cerut în mod repetat lui Matei Păun și echipei sale să-și depună fișa de simpatizant USR. Verbal, Păun a fost de acord pentru el personal, însă a refuzat să dezvăluie pană și numele membrilor “echipei”. In fapt, Păun nu și-a depus fisa de simpatizant.
Un membru al echipei lui Păun este Mihai Polițeanu, descris de Alina Mungiu-Pippidi drept fostul ei șofer personal, ulterior trecut în slujba Monicăi Macovei, în prezent șeful ONG-ului “Inițiativa România”. Polițeanu a plecat din grupul de voluntari USR în momentul când i-a fost cerută fișa de simpatizant. Ulterior, a fost recuperat în secret de Păun. Matei Păun este un personaj controversat. Nu știm unde și pentru cine a lucrat, ce avere și surse de venit are, nici măcar ce cetățenie are.
Păun este susținut în USR de Roxana Wring, apropiată de ONG-urile din rețeaua Soros, cea care l-a adus inițial în organizație și pe Politeanu. In campania electorală, Păun a declanșat o campanie de denigrare si sabotaj la adresa Clotildei Armand, principalul vector de imagine al USR în teritoriu. A contactat telefonic filialele pentru a le “interzice” să o invite pe Clotilde. Interdicția aceasta absurdă nu a fost respectată pentru că filialele își doreau ajutorul Clotildei.
Banii USR au fost cheltuiți prostește pe sondaje de opinie false la supra-preț și pe “servicii de consultantă” contractate fără licitație sau transparentă, inclusiv pentru salariul consistent al lui Păun, om fără nicio pregătire în conducerea unei campanii politice, mai ales a unui partid cinstit. (Plata lui PĂUN poate fi usor disimulata prin firmele de consultanta politica care au fost angajate in mod netransparent, chiar de el.)
Păun a purtat în privat discuții cu PNL în numele USR, afectând grav imaginea de independentă a USR fată de partidele corupte din fosta USL. In urma acestor discuții, Păun a încercat să o determine pe Clotilde să “atace” la TV niște membri PNL al căror nume ea nici măcar nu-l cunoștea, în scopul de a ajuta anumite facțiuni din PNL să-și regleze conturile. In urma refuzului primit, Păun a filtrat invitațiile Clotildei la TV în perioada campaniei electorale, neinformând-o când era invitată (în campanie CNA impune televiziunilor să se coordoneze cu partidele).
Păun a pus presiuni imense pentru a obține controlul asupra paginii de facebook Clotilde Armand, din fericire suficient de suspecte pentru a fi refuzat. Păun a asociat imaginea USR cu activiștii lgbt și cu Soros, încercând chiar să-l disculpe pe Soros în loc să ne disociem viguros de el, tentativă patetică care a dus PSD la 50% din parlament și USR sub 10%.
Cer explicații biroului național al USR pentru tolerarea acestei situații în care o persoană străină de partidul nostru a atacat și izolat persoana #2 din partid, a orchestrat campanii împotriva intereselor USR, a cheltuit discreționar și netransparent banii USR, în ultimă instanță afectând grav șansele de succes ale USR.”

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Primul scop al USR este schimbarea clasei politice actuale. În următorii 4 ani USR ar putea crește în orașe mai mici și în zona rurală spre procentele mari obținute deja în orașele principale, dar oricât ar crește nu are cum sa obțină pe țară suficiente procente să poată guverna singur peste 4 ani. Mai ales dacă se duce spre stânga, cu cât va fi mai stângist cu atât se va plafona mai mult.  Cu sau fără ruptura USR, cu sau fara regruparea tradiționaliștilor din USR întru-un nou partid, în România este nevoie de cel puțin înca un partid de centru drepta, care peste 4 ani să colaboreze strâns cu USR, pentru a se face o majoritate parlamentară, care sa ducă în minoritate partidele FSN (PSD + PNL + UDMR + PMP).
La fel dacă USR rămâne doar un partid tehnocrat anticorupție, nu va putea face schimbări structurale, va fi iar nevoie de un partid care sa vină cu un adevărat Proiect de Țară, dincolo de superficialitatea conjucturală arătată de USR până acum în textele sale programatice. Un partid care are ca teme doar corupția, transparența și meritocrația, din punct de vedere al Istoriei nu poate fi decât o glumă patetică, va trata tehnocratic simptome fără să atace problemele de fond.

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problema buricului


În toate picturile Adam si Eva au buric. Gândiți-vă un pic la asta, nu vă grabiți.

problema-buricului

Dacă ziceți ca v-ați gândit bine, sa lăsăm introducerea, pretextul, să trecem vă rog la ceea ce vreau sa zic eu azi 10 Dec 2016, în contextul  zilei de maine. Întreb: e normal să se lupte între ele partide noi care se jură anti-sistem, în loc să lupte împreuna contra partidelor FSN? Daca ar fi atât USR cât și ANR cu adevărat ”salvatoarele neamului”, nu ar trebui să lupte împreună contra actualelor partide parlamentare?

Creaționiștii au dat sentinte infailibile peste o mie de ani, în tot acest timp picturile sacre contraziceau dogma. Povestea asta arată niste hibe din gândirea colectivă, din care ar trebui să tragem învățăminte. Noi marea majoritate, continuăm să ne spargem în cioburi pe nenumărate probleme țn genul ”problemei buricului”, în timp ce o mica minoritate, în simbioză cu alte minorități, continuă sa ne jefuiască, să ne batjocoreasca, să distrugă totul și să ne ducă spre un nou totalitarism. Parafrazănd zicala populara eu zic ca inima bate mintea.

Cei care au valori conservatoare, dacă nu sunt și pragmatici, nu fac decât sa saboteze ”cauza nationala”. La fel nenumarate mici partide stângiste, ecologiste din Europa au ajuns sa servească globaliștii în final. Cei care au valori extremiste fie de stănga sau de dreapta, prin generozitatea sau vitejia afișată, nu fac decât să acopere complexe de oameni ratați, care nu putut să se realizeze în viață și vin sa se vitejească, săse vrea lideri ai societății. Tot ce este strident pentru mine pute. Cine suna prea tare din goarna, doar se lupta sa umple un vid, cum spunea mama mea – spicul plin lasă capul in jos.

Fiecare persoana e normal să aiba valori pe care să le pună pe primul loc, ca ancora pentru a supraviețui. Dar pentru supraviețuirea colectivă, modul ăsta de a gândi cred ca e greșit, ceea ce e corect dpdv individual nu e corect ca soluție în societate. Cei care ne sparg în cioburi pe probleme ideologice au o mare responsabilitate. Pentru a ajunge să rezolve problemele care le sunt cele mai apropiate de credințe, ar trebui sa îsi dea seama că întâi trebuie sa preia puterea politica, pentru a face reforme structurale, nu se poate face ”salvarea neamului” altfel. Sistemul se poate perpetua doar prin divide et impera.O majoritate parlamentară sau constituțională nu se va putea face niciodată avănd ca tema principala, ca și consens social – ”problema buricului”!

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200km/h #2 > 400km/h #6


BMW S1000RR: 1#140,2#200,3#240,4#270,5#300,6#320.
Lightning 350km/h, Kawasaki Ninja H2R 400km/h.

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Noua ”luptă de clasă” – un ”razboi” pentru a înlocui actuala clasă politică, pentru a face în final reforme structurale.


Toata lumea vede coruptia sinistra din clasa politica care a condus Romania in ultimii 27 de ani, dupa 89. Aceasta clasa politica provine din FSN, care provine din PCR. La vechea aristocratie rosie s-au adaugat noii arivisti manelisti si toti impreuna au facut sistematic trădare de țară, prin ei Romania a devenit o colonie economica la cheremul marilor interese străine, venite și din Vest și din Est.

Protestele de strada, social media, cei care au participat la campaniile Save Rosia Montana, am spus tot timpul ”toate partidele sunt aceeasi mizerie”. PSD a fost FSN1, PDL a fost FSN2, PNL=FSN3, UDMR=FSN4, hidra a generat apoi noi facaturi gen PMP, ALDE, deturnand toate culoarele ideologice, distrugand prin deturnare si partide ca PNT.

Toata initiativele celor care au vrut sa lupte cu acest sistem au fost deturnate din fasa, trebuie sa intelegem cu luciditate natura acestui razboi, resursele care pot penetra orice grup de oameni de buna credinta, pentru a face deturnare. Naivitatea / amatorismul sunt principalul dusman al grupurilor de inițiativă, cei care fac pe prostii au ca principal aliat pe cei care sunt naivi din acest punct de vedere, care nu inteleg cu cine se lupta, ce mecanisme vor reactiona la orice initiativa care ar ameninta sistemul. Inainte de a se ajunge la deturnare, grupurile de initiativa vor ajunge la discutii sterile, certuri ideologice, la paralizie si cadere in desuet, grupurile de initiativa de obicei cad in ridicol, sunt compromise prin amatorism înainte de a fi deturnate.

Multi activisti civici au avut nevoie de ani de zile de proteste ca sa inteleaga ca lupta pentru cauzele lor poate fi transata doar acolo unde se iau deciziile, in Parlament / Guvern / Administratie, ca nu e suficient sa facem proteste civice, ca trebuie sa ne implicam în noi partide pentru a înlocui complet actuala clasa politica. Lupta pentru cauze ca Save Rosia Montana a dus la lupta contra coruptiei. Dar sa lupti contra coruptiei ca scop principal, este ca si cum ai trata simptomele fara sa tratezi cauza bolii, ca si cum ai trata cancerul cu analgezice. Cei care lupta contra coruptiei fara a propune solutii structurale, nu fac decât sa reia ciclul. Oameni de buna credinta dacă fac noi partide anti-coruptie care ajung la guvernare, daca nu ajung sa facă reforme economice structurale, vor intra intr-un nou ciclu vicios, noile partide vor fi corupte de marile interese economice.

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Un partid care vrea sa inlocuiasca actuala clasa poltica poate primi ca membrii, poate sustine ca si candidati, oameni care au fost membrii ai actualelor partide parlamentare (PSD, PDL, PNL, UDMR, PMP, ALDE, etc)?? Poate sustine ca si candidati, personalitati ”marcante” care au avut functii venind din partea acestor partide, dar care ”săracii nu au putut face treaba” din cauza sistemului? Raspunsul meu este un NU categoric, mai ales in faza de pornire. La inceputul unei noi structurari ”anti-sistem” e necesar un iacobinism, o selectie radicala.

Cei care au facut deja compromisul de a se inscrie intr-un partid ca PSD, indiferent de intentiile lor bune, au fost naivi crezand ca vor putea schimba astfel de partide din interior, daca nu au inteles ca aceste partide nu se pot reforma din interior, (mai ales intr-un timp scurt de cativa ani). Cine a fost deja in astfel de partide chiar daca a avut cele mai bune intentii, a fost naiv politic. Mai mult daca a ajuns sa aiba functii, a facut cu siguranta compromisuri mai mari sau mai mici, ca atare riscul sa faca colaborationism cu sistemul este inscris in modul sau de gandire, sau mai rau in ADN-ul sau moral. Unii care au avut ocazia sa arunce priviri din interior la modul de promovare din actualele partide parlamentare, spun ca poti avea o functie in aceste partide doar daca accepti ”propuneri de afaceri” de la cei vechi, daca ajungi sa fii legat de cei vechi prin coruptie. Cei care au trait din santaj vor promova in functii doar pe cei care accepta coruptia ca mod de viata, pentru a-i putea apoi santaja/controla in caz ca acestia vor incerca la un moment dat sa schimbe sistemul din interior.

La vremuri noi oameni noi. De ce sa pornim cu oameni care au fost deja in partide ca PSD, PNL, exista atat de multi oameni competenti, tineri, care nu au facut parte din sistem sub nici o forma. Mai ales in faza de structurare de la inceput, trebuie sa fie acceptati ca membrii de partid, ca si caini de paza, doar oameni care nu au facut nici un compromis.

Mai mult un partid nou care vrea sa schimbe clasa poltica actuala pentru a face apoi reforme structurale, trebuie sa fie pregatit sa mearga in opozitie totala cu vechile partide 8 ani. Daca din start se accepta o posibila colaborare cu vechile partide, perceptia publica va fi ca se porneste o noua facatura, care nu va fi in stare sa o rupa cu trecutul. Radicalismul acesta nu e un fanatism, un astfel de radicalism este absolut necesar la pornire si pentru a da incredere ca noul partid va fi intr-adevar altceva, pentru a se crea perceptia publica ca noul partid nu va fi un nou grup de arivisti care va ajunge rapid la colaborationism cu sistemul. Fara un astfel de radicalism nu exista nici o sansa de schimbare radicala, un nou partid fara un astfel de radicalism nu are nici o sansa de crestere.

Un nou partid pentru a schimba radical ”sistemul”, trebuie sa isi propuna din start ca va ramane in opozitie pana va putea ajunge la suficiente locuri in Parlament pentru a prelua Guvernarea. Cei care pornesc la un astfel de drum, trebuie sa accepte în mod realist, ca la primele alegeri vor face un procentaj mic pe baza caruia pot creste in urmatorii ani, ca doar asa pot ajunge in urmatorii 4 ani la un procentaj de peste 10-20%, pentru a avea o sansa peste 8 ani se fie partid de guvernamant. Fara o majoritate parlamentara sau chiar constitutionala, nu se vor putea face reforme structurale, orice partid mic fara o astfel de majoritate in Parlament, va fi corupt daca va accepta colaborationism cu vechile partide.

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The Vlaho-Bulgarian Empires. I2/E1/J basic OldEurope layer, R1a warriors, R1b metallurgy. Culture & technology fusion.


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kg0georgiaGolden ox figurine found in Maykop kurgan/mid-3rd millennium BC., Hermitage Museum & 3000 B.C(!?!), golden figurine of the Beddeni Culture, Alazani Valley in Georgia.

kg1Extraordinary kurgan burial shines new light on Sarmatian life, of the Early Iron Age, in the 1st millennium BC. More than one thousand artefacts were recovered from a tomb in the Orenburg region / Russia’s Southern Ural steppes, in 2013. ”Nomadic” culture in steppes.  pasthorizonspr.com/sarmatian-life

kg5kg12Scythian gold zoomorphic handle from southern Urals, 4th century BC & Gold plaque of a deer, dated from the 5th century B.C. It was found in Kul Oba Barrow, near ancient Crimea, Ukraine. (excavations by P.A. Debrux, year 1830).

kg6kg7Plaque of a Scythian horseman, gold 4th century BC & Omphalos-Schale (Phial) Gold, Scythian culture from late 5th – early 4th century B.C., Dnieper Area, Zaporozhye Region Russia (now Ukraine) / State Hermitage Museum.

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Barbarians? Look at their jewelry art! 8th century BCE pin from tumulus near the village of Vilshana, Cherkasy Region – Excavations 1984 . Scythian Diadem with a dimensions 8,1×12,3 cm. Diadem with a knot of Hercules. Dated from the 3rd century B.C.

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A prehistoric cult* complex which is about 7,500 years old, i.e. dating to the Chalcolithic, as well as what has been described as “possibly Prehistoric Europe’s largest stone building”, have been discovered by the archaeologists who have resumed the excavations of the Paleolithic and Neolithic settlement on the Big Island in the Durankulak Lake in Bulgaria’s northeastern-most corner. The excavations of the Varna_gold1Paleolithic and Neolithic settlement on the Big Island in Bulgaria’s Durankulak Lake first started in 1970s, with the discovered Paleolithic finds dating back to around 10,000 BC; and a Neolithic settlement dating back to between 5500-5400 BC and 5100-5000 BC. The settlement, which created what is said to be Europe’s first stone city, belongs to Blatnitsa, the earliest phase of Europe’s Late Neolithic Hamangia-Durankulak Culture (whose remains are found in today’s Black Sea regions of Bulgaria and Romania). The Big Island in the Durankulak Lake, a 3.4 square km lagoon, is known as the Lake City or the “European Troy”. It features prehistoric remains from what is said to be the first sedentary agricultural culture in Europe, which created Europe’s first stone architecture. The people who lived in this place were not just excellent builders but they were also among the first people in the world who started to smelt metals such as native copper and native gold, to forge jewels out of them, and to trade with them as far as the Mediterranean coast. archaeologyinbulgaria.com/durankulak

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aleximreh.wordpress.com/2016/01/09/marija-gimbutas-the-kurgan-saga-collision-amalgamation The First Wave of Kurgans Into East-Central Europe c. 4400-4300 BC and Its Repercussions. The Cucuteni civilization survived the first wave of Kurgan incursions intact. there evidence of amalgamation of the two groups throughout these approximately 800 years of coexistence, at least not until the mid-4th millennium BC. The Displacement and Amalgamation of the Varna, Karanovo, Vinca, and Lengyel Cultures. For the Karanovo-Gumelnita civilization, the Kurgan incursions proved catastrophic. The small farming villages and townships were easily overrun, and Karanovo groups must have fled from the Lower Danube basin westward. In the first half of the 4th millennium BC, the Black Sea coastal Varna culture was replaced, in east Romania and Bulgaria, by a Kurganish complex designated as Cernavoda I. The fortified Cernavoda sites, in contrast to the Karanovo-Gumelnita and Varna settlements on the open plain, were strategically located on high river terraces. The archeological results have parallels throughout the Kurgan expansions. The process came to us as series of exogamic marital unions, where Kurgan people, each tribe and subdivision separately, seeks and joins a permanent marital partner, we have examples from every place that had annalistic records. The Kurgan disruption of Varna, Karanovo, and Vinca jolted a succession of dislocations in Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and as far west as the Upper Danube, Upper Elbe, and Upper Oder basins. Cultural boundaries disintegrated as elements of Vinca populations moved into western Hungary (to eventually become the “Balaton” complex), and into Croatia, Bosnia, and Slovenia (to become the “Lasinja” group). 31 The Lengyel people migrated west and north along the Upper Danube into Germany and Poland. Furthermore, sites of the probable Vinca refugees are also found in regions where no human community had settled since Paleolithic times, such as the eastern Alps and the central part of Slovenia and Croatian Karst. By the end of the 5th millennium BC, the Vinca traditions with their temples, figurines and exquisite pottery are no longer found. There is no continuity of habitation on the Vinca mound after c. 4300 BC. The Tiszapolgar complex, an offshoot of late Tisza, emerged in northeastern Hungary, eastern Slovakia, and western Transylvania. The continuity of their settlement to the mid-4th millennium BC indicates that these people survived and did not merge with the Kurgan culture. While the civilization of Old Europe was agricultural, matricentric, and matrilineal, a transformation took place around 4000 BC to a mixed agricultural-pastoral economy and a classed patriarchal society which I interpret as a successful process of Indo-Europeanization. There was a considerable increase in husbandry over tillage. The change of social structure, religion, and economy was not a gradual indigenous development from Old Europe, but a collision and gradual hybridization of two societies and of two ideologies. Fortunately for us, we can trace these Kurgan people by the emergence of their genetical markers from the center of Asia to N.Pontic, and to Europe, with their Kurganization of Europe, which initiated eastward migration of somewhat Kurganized Europeans all the way to India.
Probably the best model is the expansion of the Slavs into the Eastern Europe, a creeping phased process that starts on a small scale into vacant niches and achieves accommodation with the local population, then a development into symbiotic syncretic phase along the old lines of command, and culminating with either a rise of the local rulers, or the pre-existing local or nomadic rulers claiming suzerainty over independent communities. Though conflicts are unavoidable, the process is generally bloodless, but the combat capacity is greatly enhanced with acquisition of cavalry and methods of mobile warfare. None of the premises constituting M.Gimbutas Kurgan theory appear to have solid grounds at the most critical time of switching from the Old Europe to Kurganization: mythological Sun cult is ethereal, pronounced militancy absent, patriarchy ethereal. The demographic ratio points to insignificant linguistic influence, mostly limited to new toponyms, horse husbandry terminology, and religious and societal terminology, i.e. the spheres that were affected the most. Not all of central Europe was converted to the Kurgan way of life as an outcome of Wave No. 1, but it is clear that most of the Danube basin began to be ruled from hill forts. It took many successive generations for the Old European traditions to become gradually replaced. The indigenous populations either coexisted but remained separate from the Kurgan immigrants or were overrun and subjected to domination by a few Kurgan warriors. A considerable number of Old European culture groups — the Cucuteni, TRB, and the western portion of the LBK — continued their existence throughout the first half of the 4th millennium BC or even longer. An increased Kurganization occurred during the second half of the 4th millennium BC, which is treated in the section below.

cotofeni
The Second Wave, c. 3500 BC, and the Transformation of Central Europe After the Middle of the 4th Millennium BC. This period of transformation coincides with changes in metal technology and the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in the circum-Pontic region. The new metallurgy is characterized by bronzes of copper and arsenic, copper and tin, and copper with arsenic-tin (As, Sn, As-Sn bronze) which replaced the pure copper metallurgy of the Old European Copper Age. Tests made on arsenical bronze prove it to have been reasonably hard and durable, but a side effect must have been the slow and sure poisoning of the smith. The complex of tools and weapons that emerged north and west of the Black Sea — daggers, knives, halberds, chisels, flat axes, shafthole axes — does not show a continuity from Old European local types. Rather, the shapes of bronze artifacts have analogies in the north Caucasus, in Transcaucasia, and the Near East. The Source: The North Pontic Maikop Culture – R1b. Hill forts with enormous fortifications and outstanding kurgans, including exceptionally well-built tombs of stone slabs, suggest a hierarchic society of consolidated tribal units ruled by leading families. The similarity of fortified settlements, burial rites, and ceramic, stone, and metal artifacts recovered northeast and northwest of the Black Sea suggests the unification of this region, not only by commercial contacts but also by political power. The North Pontic region had at this stage diverged from its Kurgan cousin of the Volga. The Kurgan elements that appear west of the Black Sea are clearly connected with the North Pontic, not with the Volga Steppe and have analogies in the Kuro-Araks valley of Transcaucasia. Royal burials and hoards of the late Maikop culture in the River Kuban basin, northwestern Caucasus, express the fabulous riches of tribal leaders and their contacts with Mesopotamia in the early 3rd millennium BC.

An Amalgam of Kurgan and Cucuteni Traditions: The Usatovo Complex Northwest of the Black Sea. Outstanding sites are Usatovo near Odessa 59 and Tudorovo in Moldavia. The richest graves were those of the leading member of the tribe and his suttee while graves of other adults and children were contrastingly poor. Near the settlement and kurgan at Usatovo there is a contemporaneous cemetery of the indigenous Cucuteni culture consisting of simple, unmarked (flat) pit graves, arranged in rows. Contrasting burial rites of the Cucuteni and Kurgan populations are paralleled by differences in their respective habitation sites. Cucuteni dwellings were on wide river terraces, while the Kurgans located their semisubterranean dwellings on spurs, dunes, and steep hills along rivers.
A Kurgan-Influenced Culture in East-Central Europe: The Baden-Vucedol and Ezero Groups. The second Kurgan infiltration headed south from the North Pontic region toward the Lower Danube area and beyond. At the fortified hill at Cernavoda, in Dobruja, radiocarbon dates from the second phase of the hill give the age as c. 3 400-3 200 BC.62 By that time, a chain of acropolises (citadels) along the Danube, in the Marica (Bulgaria) plain, and in the area north of the Aegean, reflected the spread of a ruling power. The finest recently excavated tells, converted to hill forts, are at Ezero in central Bulgaria, 63 and Sitagroi on the Drama Plain of Greek Macedonia. 64 In the Lower Danube, Marica, and Macedonian plains, many Karanovo tells indicate that the indigenous occupation of these sites was disrupted, and many were surmounted by fortifications (such are the Ezero, Sitagroi IV, Karanovo VII, Nova Zagora, Veselinovo, and Bikovo). In other areas, steep river banks and almost inaccessible promontories were selected as seats of the ruling class.
An Amalgamation of the Old European and the Kurgan Cultures. During the second half of the 4th millennium BC, the new regime seems to have successfully eliminated or changed whatever remained of the old social system. Hill forts were the centers of power and cultural life, while the surrounding area supported either pastoral or agricultural populations, depending on the environment and the numbers of indigenous people who remained. Villages were small, the houses usually semi subterranean. But in the economy, an amalgamation of the Old European and the Kurgan cultural systems is clearly evident. In some areas, such as in central Bulgaria, cultivation of emmer, barley, vetch, and pea continued intact, probably carried on by the remaining indigenous population. In other territories, seasonal camps of a pastoral economy prevailed. The Old European symbolism largely vanished from popular artifacts, giving way to the ubiquitous solar design. Toward the end of the 4th millennium BC, only isolated islands of the Old European tradition persisted. Such was the Cotofeni complex in the Danube valley in Oltenia, western Muntenia, southern Banat, and Transylvania. The Cotofeni  were sedentary agriculturalists, living in solidly built houses, using copper tools, and still producing burnished red and white painted ceramics. Large numbers of bird-shaped vases attest the continuing worship of the Bird Goddess.

vucedol
The Baden-Vucedol Culture in the Middle Danube Basin. The Baden complex, composed of indigenous and alien elements, covered the Middle Danube basin, with northern limits in Bohemia and southern Poland. In the south, it is known in the Morava-Vardar valleys of Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and even Albania.68The available  radiocarbon dates range between the 34th and 29th centuries BC. From the sparse analyses of the oldest kurgan burials we can anticipate that the males in the Baden kurgan burials had a mixture of predominant R1a and lesser R1b haplogroups, brought over from the Central Asia, and vanishingly small traces of the Q and K haplogroups. In the later kurgan burials, such as Scythian, the proportion of the R1b, Q and K may be higher, and possibly appear C and N haplogroups. The Old Europe males are anticipated to belong to the I and J haplogroups. Most of the metallurgical activities took place in these fortified locations.
The Ezero Culture in Bulgaria, the Northern Aegean, and Western Anatolia. The continuity of this remarkable civilization, as we have seen in chapters 2 and 3, is well attested for almost two thousand years, c. 6000-4200 BC. Then, as a result of Kurgan Wave No. 1, the continuity of the Karanovo life was truncated. After a hiatus, a hybrid culture emerged which was an amalgamation of Old European traditions overlayed with new Kurgan influences.

thrace
Herodotus thought the Cimmerians and the Thracians closely related, writing that both peoples originally inhabited the northern shore of the Black Sea, and both were displaced about 700 BC, by invaders from the east. Whereas the Cimmerians would have departed this ancestral homeland by heading west and south across the Caucasus, the Thracians migrated southwest into the Balkans, where they established a successful and long-lived culture. It is conceivable that a small-scale (in terms of population) 8th century “Thraco-Cimmerian” migration triggered cultural changes that contributed to the transformation of the Urnfield culture into the Hallstatt C culture, ushering in the European Iron Age. romanianhistoryandculture.com/cimmerians
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As his uncle Organa took Kubrat as a child to the capital of Byzantium, Constantinople, he lived there for a couple of years and came to know Byzantine culture and way of life. He became friends with the future emperor Iraclius and this friendship lasted till his death. On returning to his homeland, Kubrat spearheaded the battle of kubrathis people against the Avars. After driving them away, he created about the year 630 the state of Great Bulgaria, which he ruled almost 30 years. After his death his sons buried him with great ceremony and soon separated as the state fell under the rule of the Hazars. His third son headed for the Danube where he founded a state, which is a continuation of the traditions of the old Bulgaria… great state of Kubrat disintegrated after his death under the strong pressure of the Hazars. His five sons separated and took in different directions. Only Asparuh succeeded in fulfilling the goal of his father on the Balkan Peninsula. The Pereshchepina Treasure is not an ordinary treasure. Its historic importance is invaluable as information about the first years of the Bulgarian state. http://www.goldensands.bg/cultural/treasure-pres.aspOld_Great_Bulgaria_and_migration_of_Bulgarians
In ~660, the Khazars, another federated people freed from the yoke of the Western Turkic Khaganate, attacked Bulgaria from the east and captured Phanagoria and its Black Sea holdings up to the Dnieper. Although it was originally believed that the entire state was wiped out by the attack, 7th century chroniclers mention no such dissolution, khazand a treasure trove near Poltava believed to house Kubrat’s tomb seems to have been erected in 665 at a time of peace, implying that Kubrat had repelled the Khazars and still held territory in present-day Ukraine at the time of his death. The destruction of Old Great Bulgaria and the scattering of the four brothers may in fact have been the Khazars merely conquering an important part of the country and severing the territorial links between its outlying provinces. So Asparukh inherited, rather than wandered into, the lands north of the Danube after the death of his father, and his brother Kotrag inherited, rather than reaching, what would later become Volga Bulgaria. blazingbulgaria.wordpress.com/origins_of_bulgaria

khz
The First Bulgarian Empire (modern Bulgarian: Първo българско царство, Parvo Balgarsko Tsarstvo) is the historiographical term for the khanate founded by the Bulgars circa 681, when they settled in the northeastern Balkans, subdued or drove out the Byzantines and made the South Slavic settlers their allies. Capital Pliska (681–893), Preslav (893–972), Skopje (972–992), Ohrid (992–1018). It evolved into a principality in 864 and an empire around 913-927. At the height of its power Bulgaria spread from the Danube Bend to the Black Sea and from the Dnieper River to the Adriatic Sea. bg1

As the state solidified its position in the Balkans, it entered on a centuries-long interaction, sometimes friendly and sometimes hostile, with the Byzantine Empire. Bulgaria emerged as Byzantium’s chief antagonist to its north, resulting in several wars. The two powers also enjoyed periods of peace and alliance, most notably during the Second Arab siege of Constantinople, where the Bulgarian army broke the siege and destroyed the Arab army, thus preventing an Arab invasion of Southeastern Europe. Byzantium had a strong cultural influence on Bulgaria, which also led to the eventual adoption of Christianity in 864. After the disintegration of the Avar Khaganate, the country expanded its territory northwest to the Pannonian Plain. Later the Bulgarians confronted the advance of the Pechenegs and Cumans, and achieved a decisive victory over the Magyars, forcing them to establish themselves permanently in Pannonia. During the late 9th and early 10th centuries, Simeon I achieved a string of victories over the Byzantines, and was recognized with the title of Emperor, and expanded the state to its greatest extent. After the annihilation of the Byzantine army in the battle of Anchialus in 917, the Bulgarians laid siege to Constantinople in 923 and 924. The Byzantines eventually recovered, and in 1014 under Basil II, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Bulgarians at the Battle of Kleidion.[10] By 1018, the last Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered to the Byzantine Empire, and the First Bulgarian Empire had ceased to exist.[11] It was succeeded by the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185. en.wikipedia.org/First_Bulgarian_Empire

The golden age of Bulgarian culture and the beginning of Bulgarian culture influence over Slavonic world. Tsar Simeon I the Great /893-927/. Simeon was the third son of knays Boris and was called “a child of peace” i.e Simeon is the first of the Boris’ children who was educated as a true Christian. Simeon was the third child and according to Bulgarian tradition only the first and second child could be inheritors of the throne. Because of this it was judged to him to take the church career. After graduated his secondary education at Pliska he was sent to Magnur school at Constantinople, where “learn to perfect classic Greek literature, astronomy, arithmetic and all philosophic arts”. A half century later byzantine diplomacy continued to called him “a half Greek”. After this according to chroniclers “he left his scientific occupations and devoted himself to church „ Probably Simeon came back to Bulgaria around 886 when the students of Cyril and Methodius had been already arrived at Pliska. There was an opinion that Simeon was called back by his father according to his plans to spread around Bulgarian the Christianity and the new Slavonic script. Then by Climent of Ohrid and Naum Simeon received his first lessons of Slavonic alphabet.
Soon the events in Bulgaria took dramatic change. The new knyas Vladimir tried to restore the old believes. The Bulgarian source without doubt says that no one but Simeon was the initiator of Vladimir’s dethroning. “By the God’s blessing and Boris’ desires Simeon dethrone Vladimir and took his place”. On the church council in Preslav was decided that the new knays should be Simeon, the greek clergy was banished from Bulgaria. Then in a fervid speech Boris threatened Simeon that if he devoted himself to old Gods he would follow his brother. Actually that was a warning to Vladimir’s supporters, because that there is not doubts that Simeon would follow the Christians’ dogma.
The reaction from Byzantium didn’t late. Emperor Leo VI Philosopher moved the Bulgarian market-place from capital to Thessaloniki and put harder duties to Bulgarian traders. When Simeon learnt about this he announced the emperor Leo. “Blinded by his partialities the emperor considered this for oddments. This made Simeon angry and he launched a campaign against empire.” Someone consider this for first economic war in Europe. Anyway the main battle was in Thrace and “byzantine army was defeated and most of their commanders were killed”. The taken captive emperor Guards’ were sent to Constantinople with cut noses for “shame of the byzantines”. Because the emperor Leo VI was engaged with a war with Arabs, byzantine diplomacy made the impossible and “by the price of big gifts the Magyars agreed to attack Bulgaria”. At 894 Byzantine fleet appeared at Danube and unloads there a big Magyar army. This surprised Simeon because all his armies were on the south front with Byzantium. Counting on this Byzantines started peace negotiations, but after “ruined north Dobrudja the Magyars went north undisturbed”. Using that Simeon threw the messengers into jail and sent armies to north and blocked Danube with iron chains. Unfortunately byzantine fleet managed to pass through the chains and once again surprised Simeon, which armies were defeated and “alone Simeon succeed to reach in safety Dorostorum“. After Magyars passed again north Simeon pretended to want peace and byzantine messengers arrived at Preslav led by Leo Hristophactous who have to negotiate the conditions. Meanwhile Simeon attracted to his side the Pechenegs and with “their help pounced on Magyars and because they didn’t received any help by Byzantines stayed unprepared and were perfectly defeated as most of them were killed”. “As came back prouder from the victory he /Simeon/ became much more haughty” stopped all peace negotiations and with all his armies rushed into Thrace. Understanding about this Byzantines moved all their armies from Mala Asia to Balkans. The battle between two armies was near Bulgarofigonus /today Baba Esky/ where the imperial armies were totally defeated. – summer of 896. Simeon continued his march to Constantinople, but was stopped by an army of Arabian hostages. On the next year Simeon attacked southwest regions on the Balkans and “included those towns in Bulgaria”. At the beginning of X century Bulgarians besieged of Thessaloniki and as a result the border was drawn on 20 km north of the town.
The following years of peace were used by Simeon to create a strong base which had to give him the superiority over the empire. To the political prestige of Byzantium Simeon simnhas to work out his own platform which aim was to create an empire worthy enough to overshadow the Byzantine empire and to become a corner-stone of the future Slavonic culture. He started with building of the new capital – Veliki Preslav /translated something near to Great Glory/. As a student of Magnur school Simeon became well acquainted with Constantinople and he wanted to build a city similar to it. And did it, his contemporaries described impressive patriarchal cathedral and Palaces decorated with gold and silver, streets made from marble and colorful buildings around. The constructions of the capital took 28 years. Together with this Simeon continued the unfinished work of his father. He “built many churches, ordained many bishops and spread the Christianity around Bulgaria in his pure dogmas”. Moreover Simeon became the soul of intellectual circle which put the beginning of a new culture which base was Slavonic script. The two academies in Preslav and Ohrid were engaged to translate all known books using Slavonic script. While head of the Ohrid academy became Kliment of Ohrid, the head of Preslav’s one became Simeon. The knyas won the admiration of all his contemporaries, who called him “a famous book lover” who “studied all old and new books, canonical and non-canonical, and most of all the Holy writ and understanding all customs and rituals to all of his teachers, the pious knyas Simeon was impressed by the words of John Chrysostom. After read all his books he understood all of them and wrote a book which called Zlatostrui /understand – “a stream of golden words”/. Together with Climent of Ohrid, Naum of Preslav, John Exarch, presbyter Constantine and Chernorizets Hrabar created many books which protects the thesis that every one nation has the right to build his own culture and language. “All they were sure that their act would influence not only Bulgaria, but all Slavonic nations”.
Thus the first 20 years of his reign. Simeon made this personal prestige that made him one of the most educated and remarkable persons of his time. Simeon had not only the power of the sword but also the power of the word. He considered himself not only equal to emperor, but also that he would be that man who would lead out Bulgaria from the shadow of Byzantine Empire.
simeon
On may 912 emperor Leo VI Philosopher died, he left only one successor – the juvenile Constantine VII. The authority was taken by the regent Alexander – Leo’s brother. Soon after Simeon send messengers to Constantinople who had to renegotiate the peace. “Blinded by foolishness Alexander went back messengers and insulted Simeon”. The challenge was more than welcome and a war started. With the difficult aim “to stop this madness was asked the patriarch Nikolaou Mystiques” who send several letters to Simeon but without success. Soon at Constantinople arrived rumors that Simeon prepared himself to conquer Constantinople and whole European part of the Empire. Followed up more letters of the patriarch but again didn’t change anything. “So on august 913, Simeon, the ruler of Bulgaria launched a campaign against the Romans and with big armies besieged Constantinople” Soon after the negotiation started and on a short: Simeon’s desires were two: he to be crowned as an emperor /tsar/ of Bulgaria and the young emperor Constantine VII to be merried for his daughter. Without doubt Bulgarians celebrated fully victory – on a ceremony Simeon was announced for an emperor and engagement was announced, thus after Simeon titled himself as “tsar of all Bulgarians and Greeks”.
At the beginning of 914 at Constantinople a coup d’état was accomplished. The old regent government was replaced by new one led by empress Zoya – Constantine’s mother. Her first step was to annul the engagement. The clash between the two empires was unavoidable. Byzantium didn’t want to step back, neither did Simeon was agreed with the new situation. The roman diplomacy made the impossible and a peace with Arabs was concluded, but fell with its task to find an ally in the Bulgarian back. Knowing well the byzantine tactic Bulgarians anticipated them. Simeon managed to put on the Serbian throne his protégé and about Pechnegs – “who were great care for Bulgarians, because they wanted to married their children to Bulgarians and this way to conclude peace with them”. It’s became clear that everything would be decided on the battlefield in Thrace.
Byzantines inspired from their recent victory over Arabs wanted “once for all to get rid of Bulgarian threat and to restore the Danube border” so they transferred all armies from the east front. After “their commanders sworn in the Holy cross that would die but not surrender, the whole byzantine army /around 62 000 men/ rushed into Bulgaria”. Simeon also prepared himself well and “after took all his allies went against them” with an army around 60 000 man. The battle became on 20.08.917 near small river of Achelous, today Bulgaria near Sunny beach. Most details of the battle are given by the historian Scillica. The Byzantines hit the wings, because wanted to cut off way of Bulgarians toward mountain. Bulgarians wings “started fleeing back, but not disorderly and soon among Romans fear and hesitation were spread”. Tsar Simeon who was observing the battle from near hills waited for the best moment and personally led the hidden in ambush Bulgarian cavalry. “The Romans who already have been fallen spiritual stayed completely surprised; they turned back, and started fleeing”. Such bloodshed wasn’t seen for centuries – “part of the Romans were killed by sword, other have drown in the sea, third have died crushed by the running horses and people or other violence but every one found his death in a different way”. The historian Leo Deacon says “And even now there could be seen piles of bones at Anchialus, where the fleeing army of the Romans was disgracefully slain.” This victory made of Simeon master of the situation and he rushed to Constantinople, near the capital defeated another byzantine army and when way to the capital was clear surprisingly turned back and attacked Serbians who revolted inspired by Byzantines. On the next year Simeon attacked Hellas and “ruined its towns and incorporated its lands into Bulgarian empire”. Meantime another coup d’état happened in Constantinople. This time empress Zzoya was replaced by Roman Lapkis who married his daughter to Constantine VII. It seemed that the luck once again challenged Simeon who immediately “announced that Roman must refuse the throne and leave the kingdom which already has belonged to Bulgarians”. On autumn 920 Simeon found himself on another campaign against empire. This time he managed to conquer Dardanelles, his plans were to block the navy entrance to the capital. The initiative form peace once again was taken by patriarch Nikolaou Mystique, who confessed that “those people, which madness was motivated by the Devil and gave a reason for war are not important now“. The patriarch also proposed a wedding between the Lapkis’ son and the Simeon’s daughter. This wasn’t in Simeon’s plans that already have seen himself as a “father of Constantine”. The negotiation was interrupted and on 921 Bulgarian army once again was under wall of Constantinople. This time Byzantines mustered courage and met Bulgarians on the battlefield but when “they /Bulgarians/ appeared, making terrible noises and powerfully attacked Romans all commanders /Byzantine/ threw weapons and started fleeing”. Then followed such “slaughtering that cannot be described”. And this time the empire once again was saved by the Serbians, who again revolted. Around 923 after stabilized the situation on all fronts Simeon undertook another campaign against Byzantine empire. Before this he announced himself as tsar of all Bulgarians and Romans which openly demonstrated the main aim of his political program. Under the wall of Constantinople Simeon insisted for personal meeting with patriarch Nikolaou Mystique and Roman Lapkis. On 9.09.923 “Simeon arrived on a head of big army, which was separated on many squads. One of them were wearing golden armours and pikes, other silver’s, third iron painted in different colors. Then they as put Simeon between them, welcome him on Greek language as an emperor of all”. The conditions were two: Constantinople to open its gate to Simeon and he to be announced for tsar of the whole West i.e. tsar of Bulgarians and Romans. The answer of the emperor that is impossible on earth to have two emperors and after “received big gifts and more lands Simeon concluded peace because of the west Serbians again revolted”. This time in a single campaign in the end 924 Simeon liquidated Serbian state and incorporated it finally into Bulgaria. Simeon died from heart attack on 27.05.927 on 63 years old.
The opinions of the Simeon’s contemporaries about him are strongly contradictory while Romans blamed Simeon for the death of thousand soldiers and many ruined towns, Bulgarians sources compares him with the great persons of the time – “he similar to tsar David was playing on harp with golden strings”, with “golden pen wrote his Zlatostui”, “he build the patriarchal golden church in Preslav – one architectural jewel of the epoch”, “on his throne room Simeon was sitting on a golden throne”. The time of tsar Simeon stayed in Bulgarian history as a peak of development of the country. After Simeon all Bulgarian rulers should be called tsar, Bulgaria – an empire. The Simeon’s golden epoch put one strong base for the further influence of Bulgarian culture over other Slavonic nations.
allempires.com/forumsecond
The Second Bulgarian Empire (Bulgarian: Второ българско царство, Vtorо Bălgarskо Tsartsvo) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed between 1185 and 1396 or 1422.[2] A successor to the First Bulgarian Empire, it reached the peak of its power under Tsars Kaloyan and Ivan Asen II before gradually being conquered by the Ottomans in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. It was succeeded by the Principality and later Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1878. Until 1256, the Second Bulgarian Empire was the dominant power in the Balkans. The Byzantines were defeated in several major battles, and in 1205 Emperor Kaloyan defeated the newly established Latin Empire in the Battle of Adrianople. His nephew Ivan Asen II defeated the Despotate of Epiros and made Bulgaria a regional power again. During his reign, Bulgaria spread from the Adriatic to the Black Sea and the economy flourished. However, in the late 13th century, the Empire declined under constant invasions of Mongols, Byzantines, Hungarians, and Serbs, as well as internal unrest and revolts. Despite a strong Byzantine influence, the Bulgarian artists and architects created their own distinctive style. In the 14th century, during the period known as the Second Golden Age of Bulgarian culture, literature and art flourished.[3] The capital city Tarnovo, which was considered a “New Constantinople”, became the country’s main cultural hub and the centre of the Eastern Orthodox world for contemporary Bulgarians.[4] After the Ottoman conquest, many Bulgarian clerics and scholars emigrated to Serbia, Wallachia, Moldavia, and Russian principalities, where they introduced Bulgarian culture, books, and hesychastic ideas.[5] en.wikipedia.org/Second_Bulgarian_Empire
Bellow Reconstruction of the face of Caloiohannes Imperator Bulgarorum et Blachorum unveiled in 2008, based on his skeleton found in 1972 in the Forty Holy Martyrs Church in Veliko Tarnovo.
ioan-asan-al-ii-leatsar-kaloyan-facial-reconstruction
The Balkan–Danubian culture[1][2] was an early medieval archaeological culture which emerged in the region of the Lower Danube in the 8th century and flourished until the 11th century. In Romania it is called Dridu culture, while in Bulgaria it is usually referred to as Pliska-Preslav culture. It is better represented on the territory of modern-day Northern Bulgaria although its spread north of the Danube is also well attested due to the continuous extension of the First Bulgarian Empire over the territory of present-day Romania.[4] The Balkan–Danubian culture is described as an early Slavic-Bulgarian culture,[5] but besides Slavic and Bulgar elements it possesses also some Romance components, all of them under a Byzantine influence.[6] en.wikipedia.org/Danubian_Culture
bg2The approximate distribution of Y-DNA haplogroups among the Bulgarian people runs as follows: 16% E1b1b, 1% G2a, 3% I1, 20% I2a (very common among South Slavic peoples),
1% I2b, 20% J2, 1% Q, 18% R1a, 18% R1b, 1% T. Phylogenetic and correspondence analyses showed that Bulgarians are more closely related to Macedonians, Greeks, and Romanians than to other European populations and Middle Eastern people living near the Mediterranean. We found that the Y-chromosome gene pool in modern Bulgarians is primarily represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups with ~ 40% belonging to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423, and 20% to R-M17. Haplogroups common in the Middle East (J and G) and in South Western Asia (R-L23*) occur at frequencies of 19% and 5%, respectively. Haplogroups C, N and Q, distinctive for Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations, occur at the negligible frequency of only 1.5%. (i) R-L23* is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii) haplogroup E-V13 has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the arrival of farming; (iii) haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea. On the whole, in light of the most recent historical studies, which indicate a substantial proto-Bulgarian input to the contemporary Bulgarian people, our data suggest that a common paternal ancestry between the proto-Bulgarians and the Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations either did not exist or was negligible. khazaria.com/genetics/bulgariansthracian

Haplogroup R1a1a, also referred to as haplogroup R-M17 or R-M198, is a Y-DNA haplogroup defining one of the most common human male lines found in modern Eurasia. It is defined by the SNP mutation M17, and is particularly common in a large region extending from Central Europe and Scandinavia to South Asia and R1a1a_distributionSouthern Siberia. In Afghanistan, R1a1a is found at 51.02% among the Pashtuns who are the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, 50% among the Kyrgyz and 30.36% among the Tajiks. The Shimar (Shammar) Bedouin tribe in Kuwaitshow the highest frequency in the Middle East at 43%. In India, high frequencies of this haplogroup is observed in West Bengal Brahmins (72%)(Sengupta 2005) to the east, Konkanastha Brahmins (48%) (Sengupta 2005) to the west, Khatris (67%)(Underhill 2009) in the north and Iyenger Brahmins (31%)(Sengupta 2005) in the south. Studies have found 20.3% R-M17* among Kurdish samples which were taken in the Kurdistan Province in western Iran, 12.8% among Persian and 17.6% among Zoroastrians in Yazd, 18.2% among Persians in Isfahan, 20.3% among Persians in Khorasan, 16.7% Afro-Iranians, 18.4% Qeshmi “Gheshmi”, 21.4% among Persian Speaking Bandari people in Hormozgan and 25% among the Baloch people in Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Grugni 2012).

Haplogroups_europe

In Europe, the R1a1 sub-clade, is found at highest levels among peoples of Eastern European descent (Sorbs, Poles, Russians and Ukrainians; 50 to 65%) (Balanovsky 2008, Behar 2003, and Semino 2000). In the Baltic countries R1a1a frequencies decrease from Lithuania (45%) to Estonia (around 30%) (Kasperaviciūte 2005). Levels in Hungarians have been noted between 20 and 60%.
bulg ydna

Balkan ‘Aryan’ waves: 2800-2500bc R1b Troy, 2000-1500bc R1a Macedonians/Ionians/Micenians, 1200BC – R1b Dorians

Phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA) - Eupedia

Map of Neolithic cultures in Europe from approximately 5500 to 6000 years ago

eupedia.com/R1b The first forays of steppe people into the Balkans happened between 4200 BCE and 3900 BCE, when cattle herders equipped with horse-drawn wagons crossed the Dniester and Danube and apparently destroyed the towns of the Gumelnita, Varna and Karanovo VI cultures in Eastern Romania and Bulgaria. 
A climatic change resulting in colder winters during this exact period probably pushed steppe herders to seek milder pastures for their stock, while failed crops would have led to famine and internal disturbance within the Danubian and Balkanic communities. The ensuing Cernavoda culture (Copper Age, 4000-3200 BCE), Coțofeni culture (Copper to Bronze Age, 3500-2500 BCE) and Ezero culture(Bronze Age, 3300-2700 BCE), in modern Romania, seems to have had a mixed population of steppe immigrants and people from the old tell settlements. These steppe immigrants were likely a mixture of both R1a and R1b lineages, with a probably higher percentage of R1a than later Yamna-era invasions. This precocious Indo-European advance westward was fairly limited, due to the absence of Bronze weapons and organised army at the time, and was indeed only possible thanks to climatic catastrophes which reduced the defences of the towns of Old Europe. The Carphatian, Danubian, and Balkanic cultures were too densely populated and technologically advanced to allow for a massive migration. In comparison the forest-steppe R1a people successfully penetrated into the heart of Europe with little hindrance, due to the absence of developed agrarian societies around Poland and the Baltic.w3

w4

Around 3000BCE ‘Transylvania’ becomes the starting platform from where Western Europe will be conquered by R1b. The great Greco-Macedonian 1900BC wave is R1a coming from the N of the Carpathians.The W of Europe becomes ”totally red” -celtic R1b. The final wave in 1200BC is the south migration of R1b, the explosion of the Hallstatt culture.

w5

w6euy

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Postulatele Petre Morar – Noi nu sîntem Latini, latinii sînt Noi


Postulate (I) Morar: “A surname comes from that language and culture where it has significance as a common noun, adjective or verb. “
Postulate (II) Morar: “Names of places survive after the disappearance of a culture. “
Postulate (III) Morar: “The cyclic syntactic developing of  a word is impossible “.
Postulate (IV) Morar: “Words that are borrowed in a language will not have complex semantics in that language. Words will have the most complex semantics in the language of origin, where the words first originated”
Postulate (V) Morar: “The nature (DNA) of a language is determined by its grammar and no by the vocabulary “.

O parte esentiala a Demonstratiei Morar sint Postulatele Morar. Aceste postulate sint independente unele de altele si se completeaza reciproc intr-un sistem unitar si coerent. Toate postulatele sint exemplificate si argumentate bogat, ca sa fie evident ca nu se IMG_20160614_161613bazeaza pe exceptii. De-a lungul demonstratiei nu ne-am bazat pe nici o ipoteza adevarata sau falsa. Postulatele Morar aduc intr-un tot unitar elemente de vocabular, sintaxa, semantica si culturallingvistice care converg catre aceeasi concluzie.
A se remarca ca Postulatele Morar nu se aplica numai la limba romina in relatia ei cu latina sau limba vedica. Ceea ce le face credibile si obiective este faptul ca pot fi aplicate la orice limba pe Tera in relatia sa cu oricare alta limba. Pe baza acestor postulate se poate demonstra ca de exemplu limba engleza nu oprovine din latina, in ciuda majoritatii cuvintelor din engleza fiind latine. In lucrarea de fata aplicam Postulatele Morar la analiza originii limbii romine si obtinem concluzii tulburatoare pentru poporul romin. Aceste concluzii sint prezentate mai jos si apoi in paginile urmatoare, pe parcursul si la sfirsitul fiecarui capitol.
Demonstratia Morar este constituita din trei parti independente unele de altele, care por fi considerate individual, fara a necesita prezenta celorlalte : Originea Nomenclaturii Vedice, Continuitatea Nomenclaturii Vedice si Arianismul Limbii Romine. Prin Demonstratia Morar, originea lumii moderne a avut loc in spatiul Carpato-Dunarean, România de azi.

4.2. Postulatele Morar
Postulatul (I) Morar : “Un nume propriu provine din limba si cultura in care are o semnificatie ca substantiv comun, adjectiv sau verb”.
Postulatul (II) Morar : “Numenclatura locurilor supravietuieste disparitiei unei culturi”.
Postulatul (III) Morar : “Dezvoltarea sintactica ciclica a unui cuvint este imposibila”.
Postulatul (IV) Morar : “Cuvintele mostenite pot sa aiba o semantica complexa” sau negatia acesteia, “Cuvintele imprumutate nu pot avea o semantica complexa”.
Postulatul (V) Morar : “Natura unei limbi este determinata de gramatica si nu de vocabular”.

Dacii antici erau stramosii nostri arieni, iar limba care rasuna pe plaiurile carpatine era limba ariana, pe care o mai recunoastem direct pe alocuri, dupa multe mii de ani de evolutie. Demonstram prin Postulatul (III) Morar, Postulatul (IV) Morar si Postulatul (V) Morar ca limba romina de azi este mai veche decit latina si cu radacini de vocabular, semantice, culturale si gramaticale pastrate neschimbate in limba Veda.

Cuvintul rominesc “a da” nu poate veni din latinescul “dare” din moment ce exista in limba Veda sub forma “da”. Aceasta este esenta Postulatului (III)Morar. Uneori este mai dificil de demonstrat originea pre-latina a unui cuvintrominesc din cauza formei sintactice identice in vedica, romina si latina. Aici intervine Postulatul (IV) Morar care face lumina prin diferentele semantice si culturale intre cuvintele stravechi rominesti si cele imprumutate din alte limbi in decursul istoriei, incluzind limba latina. Un cuvint intrat in limba rominarecent pe scara istorica, sa zicem in ultimii 1500 de ani, nu poate avea o incarcatura semantica grea. Daca ne uitam la cuvintul “a da” in DEX, gasim peste 1000 de cuvinte dedicate explicarii sensurilor multiple pe care le poate avea. Cuvintul “a da” nu poate proveni din latina pentru ca este infrastructura culturala a limbii romine, dezvoltata in mii si mii de ani de vorbire a limbii. Aceasta este esenta Postulatului (IV) Morar. O limba se poate transforma foarte mult in perioade de mii de ani, incit sa semene foarte putin cu limba originala, mai ales la nivel de vocabular. In ciuda acestor schimbari exterioare, structura interna a limbii se conserva bine, fiind usor identificabila. Structura interna a unei limbi, comparabila cu ADN-ul uman, este gramatica limbii. Aceasta este esenta Postulatului (V) Morar.

IMG_20160614_161552With the help of present day romanian  language it seems that  we can correct some  mistakes done in the translation of the bible. These are not dramatic ”mistakes”, these are nuances, subtle differences or distinctions, details where translation made with the help or romanian makes more sense, have more logic. It could be proof that romanian language has a very long continuity, proof that old romanian ie the ”dacian” language was closer to the koine bible language than old greek or vulgar latin.

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Noii antreprenori politici pot demola partidele FSN până în 2020


adevarul.ro/victoriile-mari-comunitatile-mici Concluzia după aceste alegeri locale este simplă: hai că se poate, România! Nu de azi pe mâine, nu uşor, dar se poate. Sistemul crapă, încet şi sigur, în punctele lui vitale. Politicienii de stil vechi nu vor mai face tot ce le trece prin cap, în dispreţ faţă de lege şi de cetăţeni.  Dacă s-a putut acum la locale, se va putea şi la parlamentarele din toamnă. Miza e enormă. România se schimbă. Încet, poate prea încet pentru noi toţi cei care ne-am pierdut răbdarea în ultimii 26 de ani. Se schimbă încet, dar sigur. Numai cine nu vrea să vadă semnele noului început va rămâne blocat în deznădejde, resemnare şi pasivitate. Înţeleg să mai sper şi să mai lupt, alături de toţi cei care refuză să depună armele. Şi, credem noi, suntem destui pentru a genera o nouă revoluţie a implicării în România.

revclo

republica.ro/alegatorii-nu-sunt-niciodata-prosti-partea-buna-a-alegerilor-locale-2016 
Sistemul politic e o piață. Câtă vreme pe o piață nu ai competiție, produsele și customer service-ul vor fi proaste. Marele câștig al localelor 2016 este ca au apărut câteva produse noi pe piață. Monopolul de 25 de ani al partidelor de sorginte comunist-securistă a fost spart.

Aceste produse au fost cumpărate, adica votate de electorat. Ceea ce înseamnă că dacă vii cu un produs politic nou și decent, exista piață pentru el. Nu iei tu dintr-o dată toată piața, dar știi că ai o șansă dacă ai un produs bun. Asta va încuraja o gramadă de noi antreprenori politici care s-au ferit să intre timp de 25 de ani. Nu doar că le era frică de monopoliștii cei mari, dar le era frică și de faptul că nu exista o piață. Efectul acesta va începe să se vadă, timid, încă de la parlamentarele din toamnă, dar se va simți din plin de-abia în 2020.

Avangarda acestui val de antreprenoriat politic, cei care au luat procente semnificative, au lucrat ani buni la treaba asta, nu s-au apucat alaltăieri, au construit frumos, cărămidă cu cărămidă, și tocmai deaceea au reușit.

Dacă există o regulă de bază în politica din democrații este asta: alegătorii nu sunt niciodată proști/răi/criminali! Niciodată! Cea mai sigură cale către eșec în politică este sa crezi ca alegătorii sunt proști. Aviz sutelor de chibiți care zilele astea deplâng prostia/lenea/complicitatea nației. Aviz mai ales antreprenorilor politici, actuali sau viitori.

Alegătorii sunt de obicei extrem de pragmatici. Dacă toată clasa politica e o apă și un pământ, dacă douăzeci de ani toți i-au furat și n-au pus nimic în loc și după aceea apare unul care i-a furat la fel de crunt, dar măcar a pus un rând de panseluțe în parc, atunci decizia pragmatică e să-l realegi pe ăla cu panseluțe. Alegătorii sunt, de asemenea, de obicei extrem de dezinformați. Peste tot în lumea asta, chiar și în democrațiile cele mai avansate, alegătorii sunt prea ocupați cu slujbe, credite, copii, sănătate, ca să aibă timp să se informeze corespunzător. Ceea ce nu înseamnă ca sunt și naivi. Știu ca sunt dezinformați, știu că pot fi ușor manipulați, și tocmai de-asta merg pe instincte: ce-i spune burta despre A sau B, ce-i spun apropiații despre A sau B, care pare mai de încredere sau mai destoinic dintre A sau B, cu ideile cui, în tușe foarte largi, nu în detalii, rezonează mai bine? End of story! Aviz celor isterizați ca nația nu vede corupția, înșelăciunea, ticăloșia, complicitatea etc. Le vede foarte bine, dar n-are timp nelimitat sa le sorteze, tot pe instinct merge.

Partea bună cu dezastrul PNL de la București este ca se trage un ultim semnal de alarmă: dacă nu se reformează major, dacă vor continua să mimeze ca se reformează, actualele partide parlamentare vor muri. E ultima lor șansă, dacă o ratează acum, până în 2020 vor fi rupți în bucăți, terminați de partidele noi.  Aviz eșalonului doi și trei care vor fi slugărit ani de zile pe lângă șefii cei mari ca sa se aleagă cu praful de pe o tobă dezintegrată.

Știu că pentru unii pare că s-a dărâmat cerul de când PSD-ul defilează prin București, PNL-ul e o glumă tristă, iar unii primari sunt aleși cu scoruri zdrobitoare direct din arest. Dar… și credeți-mă… localele din 2016 sunt încă o dovadă că ne maturizăm politic mai repede și decât ne dăm noi înșine credit. Dezvoltarea economică/sociala nu poate fi niciodată despărțită de cea politica. Și fiecare cere lecții dure. În cea politică, oportunitățile pentru învățare apar doar la scrutinuri, odată la câțiva ani. Știu ca sună aiuritor de optimist, dar învățăm remarcabil de repede și ne dezvoltăm mai echilibrat decât ne dăm noi seama.

valentin-vrabie-primar-medgidia-700x405După ce a făcut minuni în comuna sa constănţeană Peştera, Valentin Vrabie a câştigat alegerile în Medgidia, oraș de 40.000 locuitori. A câștigat ca independent și anunță o adevărată revoluție prin folosirea inteligentă a banului public.

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The Mongols – mass murder & social revolution. A few degrees is all it takes to change the course of human history.


What stopped the Mongols from conquering Europe and why they were able to build in a few dozen years the biggest empire the world have ever seen?

scientists-finally-know-what-stopped-mongol-hordes-from-conquering-europe By 1240, Kiev had been sacked and the horde was rapidly advancing west. Their cavalry and siege tactics were laying waste to the cities of Europe, and, perhaps more importantly, they brought along Chinese gunpowder. This series of unqualified successes brought the vast Mongol army to Hungary in March 1241. King Bela IV fled his palace in Pest (now Screenshot 2016-05-29 13.02.29Budapest), and Ogodei’s armies slaughtered an estimated 1 million Hungarians: Troops, clerics, nobles, knights, and peasants. It was one of the bloodiest defeats of the medieval period. The following year, everything changed. The horde suddenly turned south, moving through modern-day Serbia, and then headed back through Russia. Though subsequent khans staged occasional raids on European cities, the major war campaign was over.
Destruction under the Mongol Empire: The total population of Persia may have dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine. Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people. About half the population of Kievan Rus’ may have died during the Mongol invasion of Rus. This figure refers to the area roughly corresponding to the modern Ukraine. Historians estimate that up to half of Hungary‘s population of two million were victims of the Mongol invasion of Europe. The 1241 Mongol invasion first affected Moldavia and Wallachia (situated east of the Carpathians). The invaders killed up to half of the population and burned down most of their settlements, thus destroying much of the cultural and economic records from that period. The swiftness of the invasion took many by surprise and forced them to retreat and hide in forests and the enclosed valleys of the Carpathians. In the end, however, the main target of the invasion was the Kingdom of Hungary.

The authors sampled wood from five regions of Eurasia to track what the weather was like during the period of the Mongols’ most extensive reach. Trees are especially sensitive to small changes in climactic conditions: In wet years, they add thick layers of bark to their trunks. In dry years, the rings are thinner, reflecting the lack of water to a tree. They found the climate in Hungary and its surroundings were unusually cold and wet for about three years, from 1238 to 1241. The extra moisture and early spring thaw turned the Hungarian plains into marshes and swampland — unsuitable terrain for moving the thousands of horses the Mongol armies relied on for transportation and warfare.
As scientists gain the ability to examine the climate record in greater detail, we’re discovering more about how climate shaped history. Unusual climates probably allowed
Polynesians to spread out across the South Pacific, led to the fall of an ancient metropolis in pre-colonial Mexico, and encouraged Attila the Hun’s campaign of terror against the Roman Empire 800 years before Genghis Khan. The authors conclude that their study of the Mongolian withdrawal from Hungary “illustrates the incidence of even small climate fluctuations upon a historical event.”

mongol invasionț

According to (7) “when they reached the city of Székesfevehérvár that is surrounded by marshes they could not take it because the snow and ice was about to melt”. In Croatia, Qadan could not attack the city of Trogir because the flooded area separating its walls from the land was impassable on account of the depth of the mud. The army was therefore forced to withdraw. The former shows that the thaw of the snow and ice may have caused large areas to become flooded and marshy, thus impeding or restricting the movement of the Mongols. The latter example suggests that the Mongols could not easily cope with flooded and muddy terrain. The captives of the Mongols were no longer given food, and failed harvest caused general starvation. Both the decimation and dispersal of the population caused by the Mongols20 and adverse climate conditions (cold and wet) may have been concurrent triggers for harvest failure, which reduced not only the survival rate of the local population, but also the sources of provisions for the Mongol army.
The combined effects of the war and a less favorable climate may have also caused the failure of the harvest of 1242 and the ensuing ‘great famine’ in Hungary. It should be further noted that military operations of inner Asian nomads, to which the Mongols were no exception, were normally executed in autumn and continued through the winter, while the spring and summer were seasons in which they were at their weakest and most vulnerable. Military seasonality is part and parcel with the pastoral economy upon which the Mongols depended, and with the management of its resources, primarily horses. According to contemporary sources, the Mongols did not provide forage for the horses but allowed them to graze freely in the grassland. This indicates an obvious vulnerability in case no sufficient grass was available or in easy reach.
It is therefore under conditions of (i) reduced mobility and military effectiveness; (ii) reduced fodder for the horses; and (iii) reduced victuals for the army, which in the late spring of 1242 the Mongols left Hungary. The main Mongol army withdrew towards east following the southern course of the Danube (Fig. 1), thus crossing Serbia into Bulgaria, where they obtained the submission of the king Kaliman I at Tarnovo, before crossing Wallachia and Moldavia and returning to the steppes in the lower Volga region. A secondary army under Qadan that had travelled to Dalmatia in pursuit of King Béla followed the same route, joining the main army. Some minor contingent, such as the troops that had captured Roger may have proceeded to return through Transylvania. It is difficult to say why Batu chose to return by a southern route, but it is possible that the army moved to overall dryer and higher ground along the Carpathian foothills to avoid marshy conditions. – www.nature.com

srep25606-f5

Mongols settled in areas that were ecologically suitable to their economy, lifestyle, and military needs (the Volga basin). The Hungarian branch of the campaign was one of the western campaigns under Batu. That the Mongols stayed in southern Russia and did not seriously attempt to invade eastern Europe again (with the exception of a short-lived invasion of Poland in 1259) has not been so far an object of historical inquiry. However, this paper raises the possibility that the vulnerability of the Hungarian plains to even relatively short-term climate events made it obvious that the region was unsuitable for military occupation by a large army relaying mostly on horses. It is worth noting that the Hungarian river system was prone to flooding and to creating marshlands, and only much later it became drier, thanks to drainage work undertaken by the Hapsburgs in the 19th century27,28.
Our paper shows that a possible reason why the Mongols who occupied Russia under Batu and his successors did not make further attempts to expand westward may have depended on the realization that local conditions would not have supported a prolonged occupation. While the reasons why the conquest of the West halted in southern Russia have to remain speculative in the absence of proper documentation, we should consider environmental conditions on a par with political ones, such as the civil war that engulfed the Golden Horde and the Il-Khanate in following decades.. – www.nature.com

IslamMongolEmpireMap

The only permanent structures Genghis Khan erected were bridges. Although he spurned the building of castles, forts, cities, or walls, as he moved across the landscape, he probably built more bridges than any ruler in history. He spanned hundreds of streams and rivers in order to make the movement of his armies and goods quicker. The Mongols deliberately opened the world to a new commerce not only in goods, but also in ideas and knowledge. The Mongols brought German miners to China and Chinese doctors to Persia. The transfers ranged from the monumental to the trivial. They spread the use of carpets everywhere they went and transplanted lemons and carrots from Persia to China, as well as noodles, playing cards, and tea from China to the West. They brought a metalworker from Paris to build a fountain on the dry steppes of Mongolia, recruited an English nobleman to serve as interpreter in their army, and took the practice of Chinese fingerprinting to Persia. They financed the building of Christian churches in China, Buddhist temples and stupas in Persia, and Muslim Koranic schools in Russia. The Mongols swept across the globe as conquerors, but also as civilization’s unrivaled cultural carriers.
The Mongols made no technological breakthroughs, founded no new religions, wrote few books or dramas, and gave the world no new crops or methods of agriculture. Their own craftsmen could not weave cloth, cast metal, make pottery, or even bake bread. They manufactured neither porcelain nor pottery, painted no pictures, and built no buildings. Yet, as their army conquered culture after culture, they collected and passed all of these skills from one civilization to the next.

Genghis Khan smashed the feudal system of aristocratic privilege and birth, he built a new and unique system based on individual merit, loyalty, and achievement. He took the disjointed and languorous trading towns along the Silk Route and organized them into history’s largest free-trade zone. He lowered taxes for everyone, and abolished them altogether for doctors, teachers, priests, and educational institutions. He established a regular census and created the first international postal system. His empire was not an empire that hoarded wealth and treasure; instead, he widely distributed the goods acquired in combat so that they could make their way back into commercial circulation. He created an international law and recognized the ultimate supreme law of the Eternal Blue Sky over all people. At a time when most rulers considered themselves to be above the law, Genghis Khan insisted on laws holding rulers as equally accountable as the lowest herder. He granted religious freedom within his realms, though he demanded total loyalty from conquered subjects of all religions. He insisted on the rule of law and abolished torture, but he mounted major campaigns to seek out and kill raiding bandits and terrorist assassins. He refused to hold hostages and, instead, instituted the novel practice of granting diplomatic immunity for all ambassadors and envoys, including those from hostile nations with whom he was at war. pazhayathu.blogspot.ro/mass-murderer-genghis-khan

As Genghis Khan’s cavalry charged across the thirteenth century, he redrew the boundaries of the world. His architecture was not in stone but in nations. Unsatisfied with the vast number of little kingdoms, Genghis Khan consolidated smaller countries into larger ones. In eastern Europe, the Mongols united a dozen Slavic principalities and cities into one large Russian state. In eastern Asia, over a span of three generations, they created the country of China by weaving together the remnants of the Sung dynasty in the south with the lands of the Jurched in Manchuria, Tibet in the west, the Tangut Kingdom adjacent to the Gobi, and the Uighur lands of eastern Turkistan. As the Mongols expanded their rule, they created countries such as Korea and India that have survived to modern times in approximately the same borders fashioned by their Mongol conquerors.
In twenty-five years, the Mongol army subjugated more lands and people than the Romans had conquered in four hundred years. Genghis Khan, together with his sons and grandsons, conquered the most densely populated civilizations of the thirteenth century. Whether measured by the total number of people defeated, the sum of the countries annexed, or by the total area occupied,Genghis Khan conquered more than twice as much as any other man in history.

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From Old Europe to Iron Age – the Ethnogenesis of Europe


copper

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_chemistry The earliest recorded metal employed by humans seems to be gold which can be found free or “native”. The first evidence of this extractive metallurgy dates from the 5th and 6th millennium BC, and was found in the archaeological sites of Majdanpek, Yarmovac and Plocnik, all three in Serbia. To date, the earliest copper smelting is found at the Belovode site,[5] these examples include a copper axe from 5500 BC belonging to the Vinča culture. By combining copper and tin, a superior mettmetal could be made, an alloy called bronze, a major technological shift which began the Bronze Age about 3500 BC. According to National Museum archaeologist Dušan Šljivar, experts found a “copper chisel and stone ax at a location near Prokuplje in which the foundation has proven to be 7,500 years old, leading us to believe that it was one of the first places in which metal weapons and tools were made in prehistoric times.” narodnimuzej.rs/zbirke-narodnog-muzeja

eupedia.com/forum/New-map-of-the-diffusion-of-the-Copper-Age-in-Europe The oldest evidence of copper metallurgy is from the Vinča culture in Serbia around 5500 BCE. From there is quickly spread to Bulgaria (Gumelniţa-Karanovo culture, etc.), then to the eupbrCarpathians (Cucuteni-Tripyllian culture) and the Danubian basin. These cultures of ‘Old Europe’ would have included haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, J and T (as well as I2a1 for Cucuteni-Tripyllian).
The Khvalynsk culture in the Volga region marks the first appearance of the chalcolithic in the steppe. Copper working quickly spread in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe and associated cultures further north (Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture) and west (Corded Ware culture). This dispersal was of course linked to haplogroups R1b and R1a. It is noteworthy that the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus (from 3800 BCE) immediately started off as a Bronze Age culture, and apparently the world’s oldest.

Metal_production_in_Ancient_Middle_EastPersianGulfTrade_CopperTin_BronzeAge

wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Age Before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC bronze artefacts were without tin bronzes in western Asia. Copper-tin ores are rare, in the Mediterranean region there was then no significant reserves of tin. The amber was xBronzeAge2-01_3.jpg.pagespeed.ic.UwwIIGnqt1the gold of the Baltic Sea, the Baltic Sea was not then on the periphery of the civilized world, but it was a supplier of luxury goods that world. The Amber Trail was used to transport the most important raw material of this era, the tin. These raw materials controlled the northern and central part of Europe. Tin was the main raw material of the Bronze Age. It was the most important strategic resource, tin is next to the copper the main component of bronze alloys. It was much more important than copper because it was much less accessible. Tin was then more important than gold, it was so crucial today as oil or gas. Caesar invaded Britain precisely because of its important tin mines! (Just as Traian invaded Dacia because of the Gold.)
The Tin (Cassiterite) Distribution Google Earth 3D GIS Project was tinoriginally initiated in 2007 and has finally come to fruition. It is intended to definitively present all currently known instances of the primary ore of Tin throughout the entirety of Europe, the Middle East, and all of North Africa in an attempt to begin to finally put to an end the lingering controversy regarding the availability of Tin to the Eastern Mediterranean during the Bronze Age.
minoanatlantis.com/Tin_Distribution_Bronze_Age

Amber_trade_routesamber

Not far from the actual border between Poland and Germany, the border between the Slav and Celt worlds, between R1a and R1b, archeologists are digging up the remains of the biggest battle of the Bronze Age, rewriting the history.  At 1300BC maybe this battle was tarbetween R1a and R1b, just before the invasion of the Mediteranian world by the Sea People, who destroyed all the city state of the Middle East. Here used to be the beginning of the Amber route, the battle for the control of these resources – amber and tin was obvious, this route was used to invade the Mediterana (and Black Sea, down the Dnieper). Here was a big city Wolin so this city is similar with the Trojan war. German Bishop Adam of Bremen in 1080 wrote that “in Pomerania at the mouth of the Oder River (the most abundant in the rivers of the Slavs) there is the largest city in Europe, controlling the trade of northern Europe. Slavs live together with other nations, Greeks and the barbarians.”
The 1200BC exodus is similar with the viking conquest of Rusia, England, Normandy, Sicily which led to the fall of the Byzantin Empire. The exodus was probably caused by climatic changes and it was possible because of the superior metal technology, hence military superiority of the R1a world with it’s center in Erzberg area. See translation with google translate of this great article www.racjonalista.pl Excavations at Tollense can be compared with the excavations of the Battle of Grunwald 600 years ago considered the greatest battle of medieval Europe. Archaeological research in the fields of Grunwald was conducted more than fifty years, but so far found only the remains of 200 fighters. Meanwhile the excavations at Tollense found bones belonging to at least 130 fighters and all this after digging only 450 m2, ie maybe only 10% of what was yet to dig up. DNA testing teeth, revealed genetic material from Italy, Poland and Scandinavia.

Uncovering a colossal Bronze Age battle – after a series of excavations between 2009 and 2015, researchers have begun to understand the battle and its startling implications for Bronze Age society. Along a 3-kilometer stretch of the Tollense River, archaeologists from the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Department of Historic Preservation (MVDHP) and the University of tollenseGreifswald (UG) have unearthed wooden clubs, bronze spearheads, and flint and bronze arrowheads. They have also found bones in extraordinary numbers – “If our hypothesis is correct that all of the finds belong to the same event, we’re dealing with a conflict of a scale hitherto completely unknown north of the Alps,” says dig co-director Thomas Terberger, an archaeologist at the Lower Saxony State Service for Cultural Heritage in Hannover. “There’s nothing to compare it to.” It may even be the earliest direct evidence—with weapons and warriors together—of a battle this size anywhere in the ancient world. Historical accounts from the Near East and Greece described epic battles, but few artifacts remained to corroborate these boastful accounts. “Even in Egypt, despite hearing many tales of war, we never find such substantial archaeological evidence of its participants and victims,” UCD’s Molloy says. In 2013, geomagnetic surveys revealed evidence of a 120-meter-long bridge or causeway stretching across the valley. Radiocarbon dating showed that although much of the structure predated the battle by more than 500 years, parts of it may have been built or restored around the time of the battle, suggesting the causeway might have been in continuous ThingsTheyCarrieduse for centuries—a well-known landmark. “The crossing played an important role in the conflict. Maybe one group tried to cross and the other pushed them back,” Terberger says. “The conflict started there and turned into fighting along the river.” Chemical tracers in the remains suggest that most of the Tollense warriors came from hundreds of kilometers away.
DNA from teeth suggests some warriors are related to modern southern Europeans and others to people living in modern-day Poland and Scandinavia. “This is not a bunch of local idiots,” says University of Mainz geneticist Joachim Burger. “It’s a highly diverse population.” As University of Aarhus’s Vandkilde puts it: “It’s an army like the one described in Homeric epics, made up of smaller war bands that gathered to sack Troy”—an event thought to have happened fewer than 100 years later, in 1184 B.C.E. That suggests an unexpectedly widespread social organization, Jantzen says. “To organize a battle like this over tremendous distances and gather all these people in one place was a tremendous accomplishment,” he says.
“They weren’t farmer-soldiers who went out every few years to brawl, these are professional fighters.” But why did so much military force converge on a narrow river Tollensetal Impressionsfrakturvalley in northern Germany? Kristiansen says this period seems to have been an era of significant upheaval from the Mediterranean to the Baltic. In Greece, the sophisticated Mycenaean civilization collapsed around the time of the Tollense battle; in Egypt, pharaohs boasted of besting the “Sea People,” marauders from far-off lands who toppled the neighboring Hittites. And not long after Tollense, the scattered farmsteads of northern Europe gave way to concentrated, heavily fortified settlements, once seen only to the south. “Around 1200 B.C.E. there’s a radical change in the direction societies and cultures are heading,” Vandkilde says. “Tollense fits into a period when we have increased warfare everywhere.” Tollense looks like a first step toward a way of life that is with us still. From the scale and brutality of the battle to the presence of a warrior class wielding sophisticated weapons, the events of that long-ago day are linked to more familiar and recent conflicts. “It could be the first evidence of a turning point in social organization and warfare in Europe,” Vandkilde says.

Where did Bronze Age people get the tin needed to forge and smelt the dark yellow metal that gives the period its name? The BRONZEAGETIN project, funded by the EU’s European Research Council (ERC), is able to perform such measurements because of a recent tool: plasma source mass spectrometry.  (2,340,800€)

i2

“The transition to today’s arid climate was not gradual, but occurred in two specific episodes. The first, which was less severe, occurred between 6,700 and 5,500 years ago. The second, which was brutal, lasted from 4,000 to 3,600 years ago. Summer temperatures increased sharply, and precipitation decreased, according to carbon-14 dating. This event devastated ancient civilizations and their socio-economic systems.”[15]
Cultures that rely on nomadic herding, where the livestock may be moved around to greener pastures freely, survive much better in arid regions than cultures that have permanent settlements that are based on subsistence farming techniques. With verified evidence that Kurgan pastoralists were living cheek-to-jowl with the Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements throughout their entire region for many centuries before the end of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, it is becoming very difficult to support Gimbutas’ claim of a military conquest of a peaceful civilization. Rather, it is much more believable and logical to conclude that the members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian society that were facing starvation by farming their dry and barren plots of depleted soil chose instead to take up the practice of their neighbors, and became pastoralists instead.
However, as stated earlier, it is still very important to keep in mind that the Vinca / Cucuteni-Trypillian culture managed to thrive for thousands of years without any concept of warfare, and produced one of the most sophisticated civilizations of its time. As the Indo-Europeans continued to move through the former lands of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture and on to spread across the entire landscape of Europe and beyond, they carried with them the genetic lineage of the Cucuteni-Trypillian people. Today, this genetic line makes up a significant contribution to the European DNA code. In other words, the people of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture did not die out, but their descendants are still very much alive and thriving to this day, and are spread across the entire world.
en.wikipedia.org/Decline_and_end_of_the_Cucuteni–Trypillian_culture

r1b

rab[11]

R1b1b2 is thought to have arrived in central and western Europe around 2500 BCE, by going up the Danube from the Black Sea coast. The archeological and genetic evidence (distribution of R1b subclades) point at several consecutive waves towards the Danube between 2800 BCE and 2300 BCE – beginning of the Unetice culture. It is interesting to note that this also corresponds to the end of the Maykop culture (2500 BCE) and Kemi Oba culture (2200 BCE) on the northern shores of the Black Sea, and their replacement by cultures descended from the northern steppes. It can therefore be envisaged that the (mostly) R1b population from the northern half of the Black Sea migrated westward due to pressure from other Indo-European people (R1a) from the north, like the burgeoning Proto-Indo-Iranian branch, linked to the contemporary Poltavka and Abashevo cultures. It is undeniable that the following Unetice (2300-1600 BCE), Tumulus (1600-1200 BCE), Urnfield (1300-1200 BCE) and Hallstatt (1200-750) cultures were linked to the spread of R1b to Europe, as they abruptly introduce new technologies and a radically different lifestyle. herebedragons/y-dna

unetice

Unetice R1b is associated with the diffusion of Proto-Germanic and Proto-Celto-Italic speakers. Emergence of chiefdoms. Long-distance trade in bronze, amber, faience and gold prestige goods. Widespread use of bronze. Gold, copper and bronze objects include torcs, flat axes, halberds, flat triangular daggers, bracelets with spiral-ends, disk- and paddle-headed pins and curl rings. Coarse pottery typically decorated with twisted cord impressions, and sometimes with other types of impressions or incisions. The dead were inhumed in flat graves or in barrows/tumuli for richer burials. Corpses were accompanied by ceramic vessels, jewellery, personal items made of bronze or bone, and occasionally flint tools. Coffins were sometimes used. eupedia.com/genetics/unetice

mycene

Little is known about the arrival of Proto-Greek speakers from the steppes. The Mycenaean culture commenced circa 1650 BCE and is clearly an imported steppe culture. The close relationship between Mycenaean and Proto-Indo-Iranian languages suggest that they split fairly late, some time between 2500 and 2000 BCE. Archeologically, Mycenaean chariots, spearheads, daggers and other bronze objects show striking similarities with the Seima-Turbino culture (c. 1900-1600 BCE) of the northern Russian forest-steppes, known for the great mobility of its nomadic warriors (Seima-Turbino sites were found as far away as Mongolia). It is therefore likely that the Mycenaean descended from Russia to Greece between 1900 and 1650 BCE, where they intermingled with the locals to create a new unique Greek culture. eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1a_Y-DNA.shtml

mycenae05The Mycenaeans, or Achaeans, had invaded the Greek mainland between 1900 BC and 1600 BC, and the term Achaeans was sometimes used to refer to all Greeks of this period. The center of their culture was Mycenae, which flourished from about 1500 to 1100 BC. Before 1400 BC the Mycenaeans conquered the Minoans. The war against Troy took place in the 13th or early 12th century BC aquilaaquilonis.livejournal.com

erzbrghungaryslavi si celtiRecap: 4000-3500BCE. Most of Europe is basically I2 plus the layers of E/J/G who brought agriculture from the Middle East. N of Black Sea, the steppe is “red” R1b, further north the forests are “yellow” R1a. Old Europe is thriving, the melting pot between Cucuteni, Yamna and Maykop is where all the technologies and genes are giving birth to the Aryan mix – agriculture and first metal technology from Cucuteni (via Vinca), horses and chariots from the steppes plus the new metal technologies from the Caucaz. R1b enters Europe on the shores of the Black Sea, in the E of present day Romania – Hamagia Culture.
Before 2500BC Eastern and Central Europe plus the North of Europe invaded and dominated by R1A who are pushing also down R1b Maykop culture. Expansion of Yamna into Corded Ware Culture in all Europe except Megalithic I2 culture in Western Europe.
R1b pushed down (south) by R1a is going W through the S of the Black Sea and up on the Danube to Central Europe. First base of R1b in Europe is Transylvania!
2500-2000BCE From Transylvania R1b invades Central and Western Europe, Unetice is a mix of R1a and R1b, Bell Beaker in W Eu is a mix of I2&R1b.
2000-1500BCE – R1a expands again to W and S: Tezciniec culture pushes W the boundary between R1a/R1b domination, proto Greek & Macedonians & Thracians go down from N/Central Eu to Balkans & Greece.
After 1500BCE R1b founds a new power base in Erzberg region, the metal mines and trades gives them wealth, power and military superiority. They thrive and start the huge expansion E, W and S. They totally dominate Western and Central Europe, they invade Greece. So first “Greeks” were “Afrikans” E-V13 and J1/2 “Asians”, second wave of “Greeks” the Mycenians were “Slavs” ie R1a and finnally the last wave of “Greeks” the Dorians were “Celts” R1b.  Smile This huge wave of R1b expansion with the Hallstatt epicenter wipe out all Middle East, invade the Levant and Egypt (the Sea People) but they go over Thrace and can not invade E of Europe (Lusatian Culture). And also go over the N of Greece and Macedonia hence the difference between R1a Macedonians and R1b Spartans.

ydna
In all this time “Dacia/Romania” remains with the majority of the tufalaupopulation with I2, plus the R1a&R1b mix, up to present day. Transylvania is more “red”, the future base of Dacians is similar with the Erzeberg R1b base of the Hallstatt culture, it is based on the mines and metal workshops in the Transylvanian mountains  (“Rosia Montana” gold).

r

migreu
aleximreh.wordpress.com/old-europe-the-indoeuropean-homeland-the-aryan-urheimat

aleximreh.wordpress.com/2014/07/30/balkan-aryan-waves
aleximreh.wordpress.com/2014/12/14/ethnogeneses-around-the-black-sea-and-along-the-danube-present-day-romania-the-turntable-of-old-new-europe
aleximreh.wordpress.com/2015/01/05/an-introduction-to-archeometallurgy-wietenberg-santana-ethnogenesis-of-the-celts-geto-dacians-and-greco-thracians
aleximreh.wordpress.com/2015/01/07/i2r1ar1b-contact-area-pie-urheimat
aleximreh.wordpress.com/2016/01/09/7000-years-of-history aleximreh.wordpress.com/2014/07/27/ro-an-i2-continuity-since-the-ice-age-the-classical-dacian-culture-a-fusion-between-the-old-dacians-the-la-tene-celts
aleximreh.wordpress.com/2015/12/19/getes-the-story-to-be-told-quotes
aleximreh.wordpress.com/excerpts-from-the-getes-by-sundeep-s-jhutti-2003
aleximreh.wordpress.com/2014/12/20/the-getes-big-bang-theory

aleximreh.wordpress.com/excerpts-from-the-getes-by-sundeep-s-jhutti-2003
aleximreh.wordpress.com/2014/12/20/the-getes-big-bang-theory

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