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Omul care a refuzat 1milion euro


 

Grigori Perelman prefera sa traiasca izolat, in apartamentul sau mizer din St. Petersburg.

Atunci cand a fost anuntat ca a castigat un premiu de 1 milion de dolari pentru rezolvarea problemei care i-a tinut in ceata pe matematicieni timp de un secol, acesta s-a multumit sa spuna, prin usa inchisa: “Nu am nevoie de nimic! Am tot ce-mi trebuie!”

Premiul de 1 milion de dolari i-a fost oferit matematicianului rus in varsta de 44 de ani saptamana trecuta, de Institutul de matematica Clay din Cambridge, Massachusetts. Perelman a rezolvat Conjectura lui Poincareacum patru ani si a postat raspunsul pe internet.

Grigory Perelman

Imediat dupa a primit Medalia Fields din partea Uniunii Internationale de Matematica din Madrid, insa nu s-a prezentat sa-si ridice premiul.

Nu sunt interest de bani sau faima. Nu vreau sa fiu expus ca un animal la gradina zoologica. (…) Nu sunt un erou al matematicii. Nici nu sunt un om de success, de aceea nu vreau sa fiu in centrul atentiei”, a declarat atunci Grigori Perelman.

Povestea rezolvarii unei enigme matematice vechi de un secol a inceput in 2003, pe cand Perelman lucra ca cercetator la Institutul de Matematica Steklov din St Petersburg. Atunci a inceput sa posteze online lucrari in care sugera ca ar fi rezolvat Conjectura lui Poincare. Teste riguroase au dovedit ulterior ca avea dreptate.

Problema care avea mai mult de 100 de ani in momentul in care a fost rezolvata de Perelman poate ajuta la determinarea formei universului.

Imediat dupa, Grigori Perelman a renuntat la slujba de la Institutul Steklon. Prietenii spun despre el ca ar fi renuntat la matematica de tot, dar Perelam refuza sa vorbeasca despre acest subiect, considerandu-l, din motive personale, prea dureros.

In prezent traieste intr-o saracie cruta.

“Am fost o data in apartamentul lui si am ramas pur si simplu stupefiata. Are numai o masa, un taburet si un pat cu o saltea murdara lasata acolo de vechii proprietari ai apartamentului, niste alcoolici care i-au vandut locuinta. (…) Incercam sa scapam de gandacii din bloc, dar se ascund in apartamentul lui”, a spus Vera Petrovna, vecina de bloc cu Perelman.

Enuntul Conjecturii lui Poincare: Daca intr-un spatiu inchis tridimensional orice arc de cerc inchis se poate micsora pana la un punct, acest spatiu este echivalent din punct de vedere topologic cu o sfera tridimensionala

 

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Bastides: Medieval planned towns


   The “Bastide” towns of southwest France are a growing tourist attraction, and comprise one of the largest collections of  well-preserved mediaeval townscapes to be found anywhere in Europe.  Obviously, the built environment of the more important bastides has been significantly modified since mediaeval times, but in many of the more rurally sited bastides, the layout of streets and buildings has remained virtually unchanged for over six centuries, if not longer, and many of today’s buildings have walls, if not much more, that date back to the early days of the town.

     There are said to be some 500-700 bastides in France, depending on how wide the definition is extended. Most of these are the southwest, and the majority of them were built in the two centuries from 1200 to 1400. At the time, the southwest of France was a frontier region, belonging partly to France, and partly to the kings of England. It should be remembered that until the mid fifteenth century, when the “English” were to all intents and purposes driven out of France, the kings of England, French-speaking, were actually Angevins, one of the four great French dynasties, who had moved their power base from Angers (in the Loire valley) to England, but still had large possessions in France, notably Aquitaine.

The large number of bastides in the southwest of France were set up in order to establish a more modern society in what was, at the time, a rather wild and inhospitable part of Europe. The establishment of bastides was a way for rulers to bring the population together in centres which could be more easily controlled and defended than isolated farmsteads or hovels, while helping to develop trade and other activities associated with the town. The bastides, by promoting economic activity, also allowed the lords who founded them to raise more taxes, while ensuring a better standard of living – and also more importantly the status of freemen rather than serfs – for the people who moved into them.

Since they were built at a time of relative peace and prosperity, before the start of the Hundred Years’ War, the early bastides were not fortified; however once Anglo-French relations deteriorated into a state of on-off conflict, many bastides were fortified either on the initiative of individual occupants, who built walls at the outer end of their properties, or by the coordinated building of town walls.

It is sometimes said that bastides were established in a fairly arbitrary manner, often on greenfield sites; but in actual fact, most were set up on the sites of existing villages or at the intersections of routes. It seems unlikely that any bastides were built in areas where nothing existed before; in a sense they were “new towns”, but their rationale was very different from that which inspired the new towns of the twentieth century in Britain, France or other counties. They were built in order to put some order into society, not to accommodate a rapidly growing population. They are not all built on hills, as is sometimes written.

Most bastides are laid out on a grid pattern, with a central square; while the grid pattern may  have been inspired by the model of the roman “castrum”, of which there were plenty of examples in the south of France, such as Aigues Mortes, the medieval port from which Crusaders set forth (photo left). the idea of the central square may actually have come from the Islamic world, either via the crusaders or via  moorish Spain. As likely as not, there is some truth in all these theories.  The central square of a bastide is generally surrounded by arcades; the central square served as the commercial hub and market place, and was sometimes equipped with a covered market hall. The main roads in the grid are knowns as carreyras, or carriage ways, since they are wide enough for carts.

The main bastide area covers most of  Aquitaine and a part of the Midi Pyrénées regions of France, stretching from the Dordogne to the Aveyron, and down to the Spanish border. The largest concentration of bastides is in the Lot et Garonne department (47), along what was the shifting boderline between the English and the French held lands.

Among the more famous, best preserved or most attractive bastides are:
Dordogne:  Domme (24), Eymet (24), Monpazier (24), Villefranche du Périgord (24),
Gard: Aigues Mortes
Lot: Rudelle (46),
Lot et Garonne: Montflanquin (47), Montpezat (47), Villeréal (47), Vianne (47), Puymirol (47),
Aveyron: Sauveterre de Rouergue (12), Villeneuve d’Aveyron (12), Villefranche de Rouergue (12),
Ariège: Mirepoix (09),
Landes: Labastide d’Armagnac (40),
Pyrénées Atlantiques: Navarrenx  (64),
Haute Garonne: Villefranche-de-Lauragais (31),
Gers: Cologne (32).
Tarn: Cordes sur Ciel (81)

 

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Mobile


mobile.live.com; myphone.microsoft.com

mobile.yahoo.com ; mobile.yahoo.com/mail

www.myspace.com/myspacemobile

www.google.com/mobile ; m.google.com ; http://www.google.com/mobile/gmail

www.youtube.com/mobile

 

 

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John Surman


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Maps


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Sondaje


41% dintre francezi au participat la orgii sexuale, iar 27% au experimentat swing-ul.
28% dintre femeile din Marea Britanie sunt abstinente din punct de vedere sexual, arata un studiu recent. Cel mai mare procent din Regat a fost inregistrat in Scotia, unde 38% dintre femeile peste 35 de ani nu mai fac sex.
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Aleshii nostrii cheltuiesc fiecare miliarde pe an


Tragind linie si adunind sumele, InfoPrompt a calculat ca cei 10 deputatii clujeni au cheltuit in total, in numai 8 luni, suma de 26.345.210.000 lei vechi, iar cei 4 senatori au cheltuit in numai 7 luni suma de  8.928.606.400 lei vechi, ducand la niste cheltuieli totale de 35.273.816.400 lei vechi  din bugetul Romaniei, evident colectat din taxele si impozitele contribuabililor.
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Harti ADAC rute moto Alpi


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Paris Hotels, Google Maps, Etap, Formule1


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