C.Noica – cu tandrețe întru răs-bunarea rostirii românești. Lee Whorf – engleza faţă de hopi e ca o măciucă faţă de o sabie. Salvarea de sub obsesia puterii – ”ras-bunarea prin smerenie”.


.. resemnificarea cuvântului „răzbunare”, scoborâtor din „răs-bunare”, care înseamnă revenirea la starea anterioară de bunătate. Aşa cum vremea „se răzbună” (de fapt „se răs-bună”), adică devine din nou senină…

Obsesia care a constituit principala ipoteză de lucru a lui Noica a fost „gândul că limba noastră de pădurari, oieri şi dieci este pe măsura filosofiei”. „Întreaga noastră filosofie cultă – va afirma el – este în consonanţă cu ţărănescul”. Pornind de la un scepticism, care nu era numai al său, convins initial că în viziunea Dinu-Lazar-Constantin-Noica-fotografiromani.ro_ţărănească nu se ajunge „decât la înţelepciune, nu şi la filosofie”, Noica va căuta „continuitatea dulce”, „prelungirea firii în spirit”, absenţa rupturii dintre cugetarea lumii noastre naturale şi filosofia cultă, va cauta nestematele de gândire speculativă în chiar minereurile limbii române naturale.
A găsit plenitudine filosofică în modulaţiile verbului „a fi”, în ordinea lui „rost”, în isprăvile dialectice ale negaţiei „ba”, în hârjoana cuplului „sinele-şi-sinea”, ori, nec plus ultra, în potenţialul arhitectonic al prepoziţiei „întru”, pe seama căreia va săvârşi minunea de a edifica un veritabil sistem filosofic – sau cel puţin unul ontologic. Insolitul acestei fapte constă în aceea că, de regulă, toate sistemele filosofice sunt construite pe seama unor substantive sau infinitive lungi; Noica a descoperit însă în limba română o prepoziţie, „întru” – din alt unghi de vedere un fel de punct arhimedic propice nu pentru a urni, dar pentru a ţine în echilibru întreg globul filosofiei şi al cunoaşterii.

Originea schimbării de orientare – spre limba naturală „din colibe şi cătune”, cum spusese Hasdeu – va fi stat în bună parte şi sub efectul strălucitorului eseu al lui Mircea Vulcănescu, Dimensiunea românească a existenţei, cu glosele fenomenologice asupra unor cuvinte („fire”, „vreme” etc.) al căror potenţial metafizic nimeni nu-l luase în seamă până atunci; Noica va aminti mai târziu de acel eseu, mărturisind: „… fără lecţia căruia, poate, n-aş fi scris niciodată Rostirea românească”. În plus, dacă e să căutăm înrâuriri nu avem voie să ignorăm lecturile lui Constantin Noica din opera lui Wilhelm von Humboldt. Frate mai mare al mai cunoscutului geograf şi explorator Alexander von Humboldt şi savant plurivalent din linia deschisă de Herder, Wilhelm von Humboldt a fost unul dintre primii filologi moderni care au văzut în limbă o zestre de legitimare a popoarelor. Lui i se datorează, de asemenea, lansarea noţiunii de Nationalcharakter, în continuarea celei de Volksgeist, prima fiind preluată şi difuzată în secolul al XX-lea de antropologia americană.
„Ca un miracol ţâşneşte limba din gura unei naţiuni! În definitiv, cu particularul lor, limbile exprimă, fiecare, universalul rostirii, respectiv al logos-ului. Fiecare limbă are acces la tot. Aşa fiind, adâncirea într-o limbă poate spune uneori ceva esenţial despre rostirea omului… În el însuşi – se ştie – cuvântul a apărut în trecut nu drept mijloc de comunicare, ci drept o adevărată forţă a spiritului în sânul realităţii”

Dincolo de asemenea influenţe, două sunt temeiurile ce sprijină tentativa lui Constantin Noica de a propulsa limba română printre limbile filosofice de pe Terra: acele temeiuri sunt hermeneutica heideggeriană şi ipoteza Sapir–Whorf privind relativitatea culturală a limbilor.  În stilul romantic al lui Wilhelm von Humboldt, am putea exclama şi noi: „Ca într-un paradis se răsfaţă limba în hermeneutica heideggeriană”! Şi dacă, însoţindu-l pe Heidegger în căutările sale, nu vom afla propriu-zis ce este fiinţa,  vom afla în schimb, cu siguranţă, unde sălăşluieşte fiinţa, anume: în limbă. Lui Heidegger, într-adevăr, îi aparţine celebra definiţie metaforică: „Limba este casa fiinţei” / „Die Sprache ist das Haus des Seins”. Dar dacă limba e casa fiinţei, bogăţia fiinţei constă în posibilitatea de a avea mai multe case, cum confirmă şi un exeget ca Michel Haar: gândirea „trebuie să găsească o limbă, să-şi caute cuvintele, gândirea se înscrie în limbi particulare ca să-şi traseze drumul”. Prin exerciţiile sale hermeneutice, Heidegger explora originile cuvintelor descompunându-le şi recombinând apoi sensurile părţilor componente. Entschlossenheit, de exemplu, înseamnă „hotărâre”, dar grafiat Ent-schlossenheit, înseamnă „ieşire din închis”, ceea ce spune mult mai mult decât o simplă decizie, este ca o radiografiere a mişcării atitudinii de la starea de pasivitate, poate de complacere în limitare, la starea de acţiune.

Al doilea temei ce susţine lucrarea lui Constantin Noica asupra limbii române, scoţând efortul său din categoria actelor donquijoteşti, este plasat în perimetrul antropologiei. Este vorba de ceea ce antropologii au fixat sub denumirea „ipoteza Sapir–Whorf”. Ca expresie a relativismului cultural-lingvistic, ipoteza Sapir–Whorf postulează legătura dintre limbă şi gândire ca manifestări culturale ale unei colectivităţi anume, manifestări determinate la un nivel profund de experienţa de viaţă a oamenilor. Intuită de un antropolog de talia lui Franz Boas, ideea a fost formulată mai întâi de Edward Sapir (discipol al lui Boas) în secolul trecut, în anii ’20, dar a fost dezvoltată şi supusă validării de Benjamin Lee Whorf (discipol al lui Sapir), prin amănunţite studii de caz asupra limbilor unor grupuri etnice din America de Nord – şi vechi, şi contemporane: maya, uto-azteci, eschimoşi, hopi, navajo, zuni etc. Conform unui cunoscător în domeniu, două sunt ipotezele cardinale ale lui Whorf: „Întâi, că toate nivelurile superioare ale gândirii sunt dependente de limbă. În al doilea rând, că structura limbii pe care cineva îndeobşte o foloseşte influenţează modul în care acela îşi înţelege mediul. Tabloul universului se schimbă de la un grai la altul”.
avatar_pandora_background_by_pimperius-d3hl96jWhorf nu şi-a limitat însă cercetările la limbile exotice, ci s-a angajat în comparaţii între acestea şi limbile „mari” ale civilizaţiei moderne. Rezultatele au fost surprinzătoare, precum se vede şi din rândurile următoare: „Relativ puţinele limbi ale culturilor care au ajuns la civilizaţia modernă promit să acopere globul şi să provoace extincţia sutelor de variate specii lingvistice exotice, dar e frivol a pretinde că ele prezintă în vreun fel o superioritate. În comparaţie cu multe limbi americane/amerindiene, sistematizarea formală a ideilor în engleză, germană, franceză ori italiană pare săracă şi pustie”. Speciale comparaţii a întreprins Whorf între limba engleză şi limba hopi, în privinţa reprezentării timpului şi spaţiului; concluzia? – ca subtilitate şi rafinament, engleza faţă de hopi e ca o măciucă faţă de o sabie!. Dacă un lingvist cum era americanul Lee Whorf putea spune că limba hopi a pieilor roşii era, sub multe raporturi, mai potrivită pentru teoria relativităţii decât germana ori engleza, nu ne vom sfii să credem că o limbă de obârşia nobilă şi dezvoltarea impresionantă a celei româneşti are a spune ceva raţiunii”.
Cele două temeiuri care susţin strădania şi judecăţile lui Constantin Noica privind virtuţile filosofice ale limbii române (hermeneutica heideggeriană şi ipoteza Sapir–Whorf) nu se află doar într-un simplu raport de adăugire, una la cealaltă. Semnificaţiile lor sunt consonante, dar statutul lor nu este identic. În operaţionalitatea lor faţă de demersul noician, ele se completează într-un mod special, şi anume: ipoteza Sapir–Whorf reiterează hermeneutica heideggeriană, iar aceasta o luminează pe cea dintâi de la altitudinea cea mai înalt speculativă! În faţa revendicărilor lui Noica, Heidegger este un ins singular, iar un ins, fie el şi Heidegger, e mai puţin decât o instituţie. Spre deosebire, ipoteza Sapir–Whorf conferă demersului noician o validitate instituţională din partea unei discipline ştiinţifice – antropologia, întrucât această ipoteză a fost general adoptată de antropologi, ea fiind inclusă în manuale şi în dicţionare. În plus, studiile de caz ale lui Whorf au generat o veritabilă tradiţie de cercetare antropologică în lumina relativismului cultural-lingvistic, tradiţie pe care un exeget mai recent o numeşte „abordare linguacentrică”.

Noica nu a eliminat niciodată din discursul său referirile la Platon, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, sau Heidegger, ci dimpotrivă a imaginat un dialog cu aceştia, ca la o întrunire a marilor spirite, convins că filosofia comparativă pe temeiuri lingvistice (terenul în care el, de fapt, s-a exersat tot timpul) înseamnă o mai bună aşezare a modurilor de a filosofa. La această imaginară şezătoare a limbilor, într-o lume pândită de globalizare (deşi termenul nu apăruse încă în dicţionare), el simţea că: „Este o datorie de cultură să ridici la lumina zilei tot ce stă tăinuit şi infuz în cugetul tău şi, făcând aşa, să urci către înţelesuri care sunt ale omului, chiar dacă poartă pecetea geniului local”. „Căci totul în filosofie, şi poate şi în cultură – este nu atât să atingi universalul şi legea, cât să ridici particularul la universal şi la lege”.

Istoria umanităţii a adus însă în prim-plan, în toate etapele ei, încă o ipostază a generalului, una în care dinamica acestuia e guvernată de formula nietzscheană Wille zur Macht – să-i zicem generalul grandorii, al „voinţei de putere”. Sub specia acestui tip de general au lucrat în istorie popoarele mari, care au supus alte popoare şi care şi-au extins cultura şi limba proprie pe arii vaste. Paradoxal, însă, din punct de vedere ontologic, acest tip de general (care nu se cunoaşte şi nu se recunoaşte decât pe sine) este mai sărac decât orice individual care îşi depăşeşte condiţia de individual pur şi simplu şi îşi apropriază condiţia de model ontologic!  Instanţa de la care poate veni salvarea acelui general al grandorii/puterii este antropologia – şi nu numai prin studii de felul celor întreprinse de Benjamin Lee Whorf, ci prin consacrarea observării participative drept metodă fundamentală în cercetarea unei culturi; şi oricât ar fi de „primitivă” cultura abordată, una dintre exigenţele principale ale observării participative este învăţarea de către cercetător a limbii vernaculare, adică a limbii populaţiei cercetate. Altminteri, cu toată smerenia lor, culturile „mici” îşi au şi ele şansa lor de răsbunare, la judecata fiinţei: spre deosebire de culturile „mari”, care nu ştiu decât de ele însele, culturile „mici” – îmbogăţite de îmbinarea între aplecarea către sinele propriu şi deschiderea către culturile „mari” – se pot înfăţişa la acea judecată ca „modele ontologice”.

Şi iată-l pe Constantin Noica pus pe comparaţii inter-culturale (cross-cultural comparisons, cum spun antropologii): căutând corespondenţe în germană şi în engleză pentru „vreme” şi „vremuire”, punând faţă în faţă „sinea” şi „sinele” cu esenţele lui Platon, cu „mumele” lui Goethe şi cu „lucrul în sine” kantian, sau minunându-se de paradoxul negaţiei „ba”, care ajunge uneori să întărească afirmaţia „da”, adică să săvârşească ceva ce verbului hegelian „aufheben” nu-i stătuse la îndemână. Cu puţină luare-aminte, putem desprinde din asemenea exerciţii comparative o lecţie despre ce înseamnă a gândi universal şi a simţi local. Ducându-ne gândul până la capăt, putem vedea acolo – de ce nu? – o reţetă de împăcare între Geist şi Seele!… Deşi din asemenea comparaţii vocaţia filosofică a limbii române iese mai mult decât onorabil, comparatistul şi-a păstrat cumpătul şi a izbutit să nu alunece spre zona etnocentrismului. Dovadă, printre altele, stă şi acest comentariu lucid, după ce descoperise surprinzătoarele resurse de acţiune ale minusculei vocabule „ba”: „Dacă este grotesc să spui că dialectica ar fi trebuit să apară la noi, în spaţiul Dunării de jos – cum [la fel] este să spui că Orfeu e de la noi, că Diotima lui Platon e de la noi –, are totuşi oarecare rost să crezi că suntem în măsură să-i primim mai bine mesajul decât alte limbi şi cugete. În orice caz, suntem oarecum în spiritul ei; purtăm cu noi ceva din fluiditatea ei. Iar lucrările lui ba pot să ne-o arate”. Prin astfel de reflecţii, Noica iese din starea de seducţie în care îl aduce adesea plăcerea propriilor explorări hermeneutice, se ridică deasupra lucrării pe care o întreprinde şi îşi dă el însuşi măsura simţului măsurii.

Un sceptic, dacă nu chiar un rău-credincios, ar putea, totuşi, ridica din umeri: „Ei, şi? La ce bun toată această demonstraţie de subtilitate în gândire dacă virtuţile relevate nu trec hotarele limbii române, sau dacă ele nu atrag pe alţii, din afară, spre a se împărtăşi din subtilităţile limbii noastre?”. În aparenţă, scepticismul acesta nu poate fi depăşit, numai că hotarele au puterea de a obstrucţiona doar în plan orizontal. Or, adevărata universalitate este pe verticală! A spus-o Nichita Stănescu, dar o spusese în alt fel şi Eminescu; comentând „principiul independenţei absolutului”, formulat de Laplace, „poetul nepereche” nota: „Pentru a constata mişcarea, trebuie ceva nemişcat” 40. Este nevoie, aşadar, de un reper Absolut. Dar numai ignorând orizontalitatea universalului şi privind în sus, Absolutul devine accesibil ca instanţă, şi anume: în ipostaza de Dumnezeu al teologiei (care rânduieşte totul la Judecata de Apoi), de Raţiune hegeliană (care priveşte cu amuzament – die Lust der Vernunft – cum lucrurile se frământă făcându-i jocul), sau de conştiinţă transcendentală de tip fenomenologic (care ţinteşte atingerea unor esenţe prin reducţia eidetică, după care supune datele obţinute testului de intersubiectivitate). În orice caz, privind în sus oamenii au putut măsura înălţimea munţilor; la fel privind, nu se poate măsura, desigur, cu aceeaşi exactitate înălţimea ideilor, dar se poate spune totuşi dacă o idee este mai aproape de cer decât alta.

În ultimul paragraf din „Cuvânt înainte” la Rostirea filosofică românească, Noica reflecta public: „Ce e de făcut, la drept vorbind, cu asemenea cuvinte, nu ştim. Un Eminescu al filosofiei româneşti n-a apărut încă. Dar atâta vreme cât se vorbesc limbile popoarelor şi nu ale maşinilor, suntem datori să credem că se va ivi unul”. Era limpede din această întredeschidere confesivă că Eminescu va fi fost pentru Noica steaua fixă – iar omeneşte vorbind, modelul – după care se va fi călăuzit în propriile-i căutări. Avea s-o spună şi mai târziu, într-o conferinţă din 15 ianuarie 1980, ţinută la Biblioteca „Astra” din Sibiu: „măsura noastră este Eminescu”, unde posesivul „noastră” exprimă totodată extensiune etnică (de la „noi, românii”) şi pluralul modestiei. Rezultatele acelor căutări ne-ar îndreptăţi să-l aşezăm de pe acum pe filosof lângă poet. Consacrările însă – şi în registrul religios, şi în cel profan – se săvârşesc în timp, iar timpul ne cere, neînduplecabil, să avem răbdare. Poate că personalitatea lui Noica ne este încă prea aproape ca imagine vie spre a o percepe şi ca efigie. Şi-apoi, timpul istoric aduce nu numai limbaje ale maşinilor, dar şi tăvălugul globalizării. Totuşi, atâta vreme cât vor exista popoare, vor exista şi limbi naturale – şi, implicit, un filosof precum Constantin Noica lângă un poet precum Mihai Eminescu: două conştiinţe capabile, amândouă, a împăca pe Geist cu Seele, adică a gândi global şi a simţi local, întruchipând astfel aspiraţia către unitatea sintetică dintre universal şi particular, ca valoare absolută.

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Dialectica putere / simțire, materialism / spiritualitate, tehnologie / ecologie, imperii / popoare: se definesc reciproc, se condiționează reciproc. Dacă nu se vor echilibra reciproc, nu o să mai avem loc pe pamântul asta, unde sa ne mai ascundem.  Salvarea de sub imperiul măciucii, de implozia provocată chiar de către obsesia puterii, poate veni doar cu ”răs-bunarea prin smerenie”, însăși ”marile culturi imperiale” dominante prin tehnologie si  forță, își pot gasi salvarea doar prin re-conectarea la spiritualitate, re-învățînd sa ”simtă” de la primitivi, de la ”culturile minore” nepervertite de obsesiile ”materialismului”. Salvarea noastră, a fiecăruia separat și a tuturor împreună, depinde de râsul copiilor. I just hope ”the Russians” love their children too, sper că suficient de mulți vor fi în stare să râda împreuna cu copiii lor…

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Mini scuter pliabil, 12kg, 16km/h, autonomie 11km


E00055-7-BE00055-7-FE00055-7-EE00055-7-CEvo scooter ZT-55 sp
Asa ceva poate face fericit un copil! Viteza maximă 16km/h, autonomie peste 11km, timp de încărcare baterie 6h. Greutate proprie 12kg, sarcină maxima 50kg. Roți 8”, frână de picior în spate. Motor 100W, baterii cu acid 2x12V/4.5Ah.
Shop Online @ biciclete-electrice.com/ztech-55

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2015 eBike shopping. Dacă viteza maximă e sub / limitată la 25km/h, nu trebuie permis de conducere și nici înmatriculare.


www.stealthelectricbikes.com/stealth The Fighter : 3.7kW, total weight 35kg, Top Speed: F-37-2-1000x67860km/h, Range: up to 60km. The electrical output is multiplied when combined with your own pedal power, which is driven through a two-speed internal gearbox. Peak Power: 3.7kW (3700 Watts), Motor Type: Brushless DC, Battery Type: LiFePO4, Battery Capacity : 1.0kWh, Recharge Time : 2 hours, Charge : Standard 110-240V.

stealthelectricbikes.com/bomber  Top Speed: 80km/h, Range: up to 80km, Peak Power: 5.2kW (5200 Watts), Battery Type: LiFePO4, Battery Capacity : 1.5kWh.
stealthelectricbikes.com/hurricane Top Speed: 80km/h, Range: 45 – 55km, Peak Power: 5.2kW (5200 Watts), Battery Capacity : 1.5kWh.

www.bhbikes.com/evo-jumper Top Speed: 40km/h(?), Weight 23,5 Kg, Battery 432Wh-36V/12Ah, Motor ev665_1_viewBrushless 350W, Autonomy Up to 90 km. BATTERY removable and completely integrated in frame.
Pe maneta dreapta apare maneta de ”gaz”, care comanda manual motorul electric. O unitate de comanda poate  seta diverse grade de putere electrica care ”asista” pedalatul, electronica simte cererea de putere de la pedala si ajuta in functie de panta. ”Frina de motor” preia energia cinetica la coborire si o ”baga” in baterie, ajuta la incarcare, poate fi activata prin buton manual sau controlata electronic. Price: € 3,285.90

2014 New Electric Scooter - Buy Electric Scooter,Electric Scooter,Electric Scooter Product on Alibaba.comChina Brand Name: HARWAN,WANGYE 2014 NEW ELECTRIC SCOOTER – Supply Ability: 100.000 Unit/Units per Month. Number of Employees: 301 – 500 People . Export Percentage: 31% – 40%.
Motor – 72V5000W, 16 inch disc aluminum wheel motor, No-load speed 950RPM(95km/h). Controler – 72V5000W, battery 2x72V32AH OR 2x72V25AH lithium battery-Ni Co Mn. Charging times 800 times ≥80%. Max speed 95km/h. Travel-mileage
approx. 80km (at 50km/h). G.W/N.W 180kgs/160kgs. Charger 72V20A 220V. Charging time 2-4h. Charging voltage 110V/220V, charging current 20A. Warranty 2 years.

Electric Bike 48 V 10 AH Folding Bycicle 3 Colors Electric Bycicle Free Shipping-in Electric Bicycle from Sports   Entertainment on Aliexpress.com   Alibaba Group

1000usd pe aliexpress.com cu Free Shipping to Romania!! Power: 240W, Voltage: 48V10AH, Trip: 40km-60km. Pe ebay o bici electrica BMW costa peste 21.000euro si mai zice ca e ‘chilipir’.  e-bikekit.ro vinde ebike-uri  la 1000euro, dar bateria nu e integrata in cadru, ceea e bine (chiar daca nu e cool) pt ca astfel se pot gasi mai usor baterii de schimb. Tot pe ebay un Nordwerk E-Bike cu baterie integrata in cadru, de 17kg livrata din Germania costa 1800euro. Sau Winora E-Bike SX1 374Wh livrata, frumoasa, 1320Euro, de la www.schauer-sw.de cu ‘45% discount promotional’. 

Bicicleta electrica cu pret de 2600lei < 600euro nu necesita permis de conducere. bicicleta electrica zt-01-453x397Incarcatorul este inclus in pret, are stopuri, faruri, semnalizari economice care prelungesc durata de viata a bateriei. Motor fara perii cu putere nominala de 250–350W, voltaj 36V, consum in mers 2-3 kw.h / 100km, viteza 25 km/h, autonomie peste 33 km. Are 3 baterii Plumb Acid 12Ah de 12V, cu timp de incarcare 6-7 ore. Sarcina maxima este de 130 kg, greutate proprie 64 kg, frâna față/spate cu tambur. Un scuter cu putere mai mare de 500W costa 3840RON cu baterie de 20Ah, are autonomie peste 60km. La fel nu necesita permis de conducere, avand in dotare un limitator conform legislatiei din Romania.

Un kit de 250 cu baterie costa peste 600euro in Romania adica mai mult decat vehicolul de mai sus. Problema cu kiturile este controlul, un articol, un exemplu bun in acest sens aici> electricbikereport.com/choosing-between-the-bionx-or-ezee-electric-bike-conversion-kit. 28The eZee bikes were very elegant looking, with the electric assist system seamlessly integrated into the bikes. The eZee bike with the grip throttle was OK. But I found it harder to have a really smooth experience as I was always adjusting the throttle position to maintain the proper speed. Then I tried the Ezee with the dial assist which is apparently also an option with the hub kits. As I understand it, the system uses a pedal rotation detector. When it detects pedal movement, it supplies pulses of power. The length and strength of the power bursts is determined by the assist dial setting. So you’ll be pedaling and feel a pulse of power every few seconds. It actually works better than it sounds when you are cruising. The bionx-sl-350-dtmomentum of the bike smooths the pulses and it ends up feeling pretty smooth. However, I was braking a lot and I found myself fighting the pulses a lot during the braking. A pulse would start just when I needed to brake and continue even after I started braking. The eZee control systems may have been improved since I tested them. But overall I just really, really loved the torque sensor mode of the Bionx. It is so transparent to the bicycling experience. The bike feels just like a bike always does, but my legs are suddenly much stronger. Plus you can also use the thottle with the Bionx PL350, which seems like the best of both worlds. Too bad the Bionx is the most expensive system!

front10cmrear13cm

Kit 48V1000W: motor pus pe roata fata – minim 98mm,  motor pus pe roata spate – minim 135mm. Marimea rotii (ex 26inch) este trecuta  pe pneu.

neodrives Rear Conversion Kit 250W @ 1.414,00 EUR: The neodrives 250 W motor with a maximum of 40 Nm of torque, can easily master even steep climbs and is particularly to inspire sporty drivers off the road. The neodrives system is powered by a 36 V Lithium-Ion Battery. With 14.5 Ah and 524.9 Wh you can reach ranges of up to 130 km without having to recharge.

Bicicletele electrice sau scuterele electrice se pot conduce fără permis dacă nu depășesc viteza de 25km/h sau sunt limitate la această viteză. Orice vehicul care nu este limitat sau prin construcție depășește 25km/h este considerat moped si are nevoie de permis. Scuterele/bicicletele electrice care sunt limitate la 25 km/h nu sunt mopede, nu necesita permis de conducere și nici înmatriculare: ’’Moped – vehicul, 25cu doua sau trei roti, a carui viteza maxima prin constructie este mai mare de 25 km/h, dar nu depaseste 45 km/h si care este echipat cu un motor cu ardere interna, cu aprindere prin scanteie, cu o capacitate cilindrica ce nu depaseste 50 cm3 sau cu un alt motor cu ardere interna ori, dupa caz, electric, a carui putere nominala continua maxima nu depaseste 4 kW, iar masa proprie a vehiculului nu depaseste 350 kg, neincluzand masa bateriilor in cazul vehiculului electric. Este asimilat mopedului cvadriciclul usor, astfel cum este definit la pct. 6 partea A din anexa nr. 1 la sectiunea 4 din Reglementarile privind omologarea de tip si eliberarea cartii de identitate a vehiculelor rutiere, precum si omologarea de tip a produselor utilizate la acestea – RNTR 2, aprobate prin Ordinul ministrului lucrarilor publice, transporturilor si locuintei nr. 211/2003, cu modificarile ulterioare.”

Bateriile de pe bicicletele electrice trebuie sa aiba neaparat inscriptia “Deep Cycle” sau “Lead Acid for Power Bike“. Câteva recomandări pentru a nu isi pierde din autonomie:
1# Nu incarcati bateriile bicicletei electrice, decat cu incarcatorul original. Nu folositi Deep-Cycle-Lithium-Ion-Batteryredresoare si nu le incarcati separat, decat in serie asa cum sunt ele legate, la tensiunea corespunzatoare.
2# Nu lasati bateriile sa se descarce complet niciodata. Daca cu bicicleta dvs parcurgeti in media 40km cu o singura incarcare, cand va apropiati de maxim 35km parcursi incarcati-o.
3# Pe timp de iarna, daca nu folositi bicicleta, detasati bicicleta si depozitati-o in casa. Tot pe imp de iarna sau alte motive de nefolosire, reincarcati acumulatorii la 30 de zile chiar daca nu i-ati folosit deloc.
4# La bicicletele electrice cu manson de acceleratie, la pornirea de pe loc, rotiti in mod liniar nu brusc, astfel mentineti curentul de descarcare pe baterie redus.
incarcator flat-453x397Bateriile pe litiu au incarcare diferita fata de cele pe plumb, de aceea nu este recomandata incarcarea ambelor tipuri de baterii cu acelasi incarcator. Bateriile bazate pe Litiu, nu accepta supraincarcare si nici incarcare in proportie de 100%, astfel ca incarcatoarele pentru acumulatorii bazati pe litiu sunt diferiti fata de cei pe plumb. Incarcatoarele care au pe iesire curenti mari, nu fac decat sa deterioreze in timp acumulatorul, incarcandu-l intr-un timp mai scurt. Incarcatoarele pentru acumulatori bazati pe Litiu sunt mai costisitoare, este folosita alta tehnologie. Dar bateriile Litiu sunt 4.5 ori mai ușoare decat cele pe plumb și mult mai mici ca volum.

Pretul Brut si Net la autovehicule: Cand o firma cumpara un autovehicul <<de afara>>, tranzactia poate fii efectuata in pretul Net (fara TVA). Cumparatorul este in acest caz o HTB1xQ6_GFXXXXXRapXXq6xXFXXXjpersoana juridica, firma (autovehiculul devine prin tranzactia efectuata, proprietate a firmei). Pentru a cumpara autovehiculul <<pe firma>>, acesta din urma trebuie sa fie oficial inregistrata; de asemenea trebuie sa detina Cod Unic de Inregistrare (CUI). Nu are importanta care este domeniul de activitate al firmei important este doar: ca firma sa fie activa, inregistratata oficial la Oficiul Comertului si sa aiba un CUI. Toate tranzactiile dintr-o tara vor fii efectuate dupa pretul Brut, asadar pretul ce contine TVA-ul. Indiferent daca autovehicul este cumparat de catre o persoana fizica sau juridica. In momentul in care o persoana fizica cumpara un autovehicul din strainatate, plateste intodeauna pretul Brut.

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‘Varianta bulgărească’&Save RM versus Syriza, Front National, Podemos. De ce este în esență activismul apolitic ‘o prostie’.


De ani de zile vad in mediile de socializare un apetit insatiabil pentru solutii strategice, toata lumea se gindeste ce ar trebui facut de parca am fi toti ministrii, dar cind e vorba de CUM, raminem la proteste virtuale si uneori la proteste mai reale – la semnaturi electronice, comentarii gârla si din cand in cand ca prin minune, lumea iese prin miscare browniana la proteste de strada. Zilnic putem vedea mii, zeci de mii de oameni care se gonfleaza, dă’i si dă’i cu comentariile in mediile de socializare dar nu vad aproape pe nimeni sa vrea sa se organizeze, vad pe unii care fac izolati haiducie pana obosesc si se retrag in cochilie, dar nu vad aproape pe nimeni sa se gandeasca sa duca un razboi adevarat acolo unde se iau deciziile, acolo unde ne este decisa soarta. Da, in momente de criza am avut si proteste istorice, foarte mari chiar, cei care ar fi putut duce lucrurile mai departe au o responsabilitate – ocaziile ratate se razbuna, sau poate mai trebuie acumulari cantitative care sa duca la acel ‘salt calitativ’. Am vazut ‘varianta bulgareasca’, protestatari ecologisti care au ocupat parlamentul, au dat jos guverne si cam atit.

Au fost apoi protestele enorme Syntagma si Indignados, din care s-au nascut Syriza si Podemos. S-a ajuns la aceste proteste când cutitul a ajuns la os, cind criza a dus la somaj de 50-60% in rindul tinerilor. In Grecia PIB-ul a scazut cu 30%, veniturile la fel, o mafie de 2000 de familii a furat mii de miliarde euro in cardasie cu marile interese financiare globale, grecii de rand sunt indatorati pe 2 generatii. Ce are in comun cel mai mare partid din Grecia care a pornit si de la unele grupuri trotzkiste/anarhiste/eurocomuniste, cu cel mai mare partid din Franta care a avut la origine un vadimism xenofob?  Da au radacini ideologice opuse si extremiste, dar s-a ajuns la partide radicale anti-sistem, anti-oligarhie, impotriva colonizarii economice prin indatorare, care vor sa apere interesul economic comun al cetatenilor, impotriva elitelor locale si globale. Da Syriza are compasiune si intelegere pentru imigranti in timp ce partidul lui Marine le Pen e cam invers in aceasta privinta. Syriza a ajuns un partid radical de stinga departe de excesele ideologice ale unor grupuri extremiste, se pregateste sa preia guvernarea si nu va avea sprijin nici din partea partidului comunist de extrema stinga 5%, nici din partea partidului de extrema dreapta 7%, sustinut fervent de multi membrii ai politiei grecesti. Marine le Pen a ajuns sa-l ‘obrazniceasca’ pe tatal ei, a castigat alegerile europarlamentare in Franta, nu mai conduce un partid extremist oricat ar vrea mass media aservita sa perpetueze imaginea extremista a lui Jean-Marie Le Pen.

Au ajuns atit stinga ideologica cat si dreapta ideologica sa faca impreuna ‘nationalism economic’ si la urma urmei mie mi se pare asta firesc pt ca indiferent de valori morale, indiferent de idologie, noi toti 80% suntem la stinga acelor elite de 5% care ne duc spre un fascism corporatist controlat de marile finante, asta impreuna cu un procent relativ mic de colaborationisti, lucrurile fiind decise in final de cei care stau deoparte sau care nu stiu sa se organizeze, de cei multi manipulati sau apatici, fatalisti, bagati in ceata de mass media controlata. De aceea scarba fata de politica este indusa sistematic in interesul sistemului care se perpetueaza prin noi si noi facaturi votate disciplinat de electoratele clientelare minoritare. Dar se pare ca in Grecia si Spania, procentaje mari si-au gasit niste sperante si au iesit din letargie. Partide mari care monopolizau viata politica, controlate de mafiocratie, au cazut dramatic, au aparut ”peste noapte” Syriza si Podemos, partide noi care ajung sa fie cele mai mari din parlament, care pot inlocui clasa politica supercorupta, care au o sansa sa preia guvernarea, sa faca schimbari structurale inainte de a se corupe si ele.

Revenind la oile noastre, da e cat se poate de important sa stim ‘strategic’ unde ar trebui sa ajungem dar fara sa gandim ‘strategic’ CUM, fara sa incercam efectiv sa gasim solutii pt a face pasi reali, fara organizare/structurare, totul e doar o discutie wishful thinking, o amagire/supapa, periculoasa prin risipirea unor energii pozitive. Toate problemele serioase se pot transa in final doar politic, daca ne gindim la solutii structurale atunci trebuie odată și odată să depășim ‘prostia’ asta cu activismul civic apolitic care exclude orice implicare in politica! Sa nu ma intelegeti gresit, nu ii fac prosti pe cei care aleg calea asta de implicare, e ok sa vrei sa te implici asa, doar de aici se poate porni. Dar acest mod de a actiona e ca un țopăit într-un singur picior, atit timp cat nu exista si al doilea picior – noi partide care sa preia puterea de la actuala clasa politica, cam greu sa urci muntele intr-un singur picior. Unii se simt depasiti de complexitatea structurarii politice, se tem ca orice implicare ii va duce la compromisuri murdare. Desigur daca e sa faci politica alaturi de actuala clasa politica nu poti decât să intrii în rahat. Dar e o prostie sa spui ca DOAR, exclusiv prin activism civic apolitic se pot rezolva problemele structurale, sa crezi ca e destul sa protestezi, sa critici actuala clasa politica, sa nu intelegi ca trebuie noi partide care sa INLOCUIASCA actuala clasa politica, ca sa faca un nou fel de politica, nu in intereseul a 20% oligarhii si anexe ci in interesul a 80% populatie decenta.

Daca e sa gindim solutii structurale atunci ar trebui sa gandim si la felul in care se poate ajunge la structurare politica, la felul in care se poate ajunge la partide noi care sa implineasca solutiile structurale. Syriza/Grecia, 5*/Italia, ca model de structurare au fost mult timp o uniune de grupuri civice, de grupuri politice, de grupuri de activisti. La fel si Podemos a aparut ”subit” doar pt ca in ani de zile s-au format acele grupuri de activisti, mai ales dupa protestele Indignados.

Astfel de grupuri pot fi caramizile care pot duce la structurare mai serioasa, astfel de grupuri trebuie sa existe, sa apara cat mai multe, grupuri omogene, care sa se implice in diverse actiuni reale. Daca se face dintr-o data o oala mare in care ne aruncam cu totii, atunci grupuri obscure organizate vor sti sa preia controlul, sa deturneze constructia comuna, asa cum s-a intimplat cu FSN-ul anilor 90, controlat rapid de comunisti/securisti si urmasii lor sau cum pare sa se încerce acum cu Uniti Salvăm=noul FSNeco. Cei care vor sa faca mai mult decit sa comenteze, ar trebui zic eu, sa caute in jurul lor 5-10-50 de oameni cu care se cunosc bine, sa faca grupuri omogene, daca vor unii ideologic mai la stinga sau mai la dreapta bine si asa, da sa fie grupuri reale cu oameni in care au incredere, cu actiuni cit de cit concrete, reale. Nu poti cunoaste un om dupa ceea ce zice, dar il poti cunoaste dupa ce face si vorba aia spune-mi cu cine te insotesti ca sa iti spun cine esti. Doar pornind de la astfel de caramizi, se poate face structurare pe nivelul urmator, grupuri de grupuri colaborând pe acțiuni mai mari și apoi noi partide care sa inlocuiasca actuala clasa politica, noi partide care trebuie sa se bazeze pe cat mai multe astfel de grupuri civice. Într-adevar este esential sa ramina cat mai multe astfel de grupuri in zona civica, fara sa se implice politic, dar sprijinind concret candidati si partide, atit timp cit acesti candidați si aceste partide ii reprezinta.

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I2+R1a+R1b Contact Area – PIE Urheimat


In the archaeology of Neolithic Europe, the burned house horizon is the geographical Burned_House_Horizon_Mapextent of the phenomenon of intentionally burned settlements. This was a widespread and long-lasting tradition in what is now Southeastern and Eastern Europe, lasting from as early as 6,500 BCE (the beginning of the Neolithic) to as late as 2000 BCE (the end of the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age). A notable representative of this tradition is the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, which was centered on the burned-house horizon both geographically and temporally.
The roots of Cucuteni-Trypillian culture can be found in the Starčevo-Körös-Criș and Vinča cultures of the 6th to 5th millennia,[6] with additional influence from the Bug-Dniester culture (6500-5000 BC).[20] During the early period of its existence (in the 5th millennium BC), the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was also influenced by the Linear Pottery culture from the north, and by the Boian-Giulesti culture from the south.[6] Through colonization and acculturation from these other cultures, the formative Pre-Cucuteni/Trypillia A culture was established. Over the course of the fifth millennium, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture expanded from its ‘homeland’ in the Prut-Siret region along the eastern foothills of the Carpathian Mountains into the basins and plains of the Dnieper and Southern Bug rivers of central Ukraine.
<<1]Prut-Siret homeland > 2]4800-4000bc extend over Dniester-Bug basins > 3]4000-3500bc extend to Eastern Transylvania and to the Dnieper basin >
4]3500-3000bc extend to N Ukraine/Kiev and E to Don&Volga + transformation into a patriarchal structure + different forms of ritual burial were developed
>> Thus the last phase of the Cucuteni culture is already ap_bulg5d mixture, the transformation into a patriarchal structure and the different forms of burial show the mixture between the farmers and the kurgan people. Over 1000years the farmers and the kurgan people traded, mixed, the last 500 year period there is a mixed population with a culture still dominated by the older ways, so there was not a violent and sudden end for the Cucuteni culture, there was a transformation that lasted many hundreds of years.
There was also a climate change – Beginning around 3200 BC the earth’s climate became colder and drier than it had ever been since the end of the last Ice age, resulting in the worst drought in the history of Europe since the beginning of agriculture.[27] The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture relied primarily on farming, which would have collapsed under these climatic conditions in a scenario similar to the Dust Bowl of the American Midwest in the 1930s.

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The Contact Area is where I2/Cucuteni people met first with R1a than with R1b.  I quote from the Eupedia page reffering to R1b, to the origin of ”indo-europeans”:
”It is not yet entirely clear when R1b crossed over from eastern Anatolia to the Pontic-Caspian steppe. This might have happened with the appearance of the Dnieper-Donets culture / c. 5100-4300 BCE, the first truly Neolithic society in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe. However, many elements indicate a continuity in the Dnieper-Donets culture with the previous Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, and at the same time an influence from the Balkans and Carpathians, with regular imports of pottery and copper objects. It is therefore more likely that Dnieper-Donets marked the transition of indigenous R1a and/or I2a1b people to early agriculture, perhaps with an influx of Near Eastern farmers from ‘Old Europe’. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from Dnieper-Donets culture showed clear similarities with those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Carpathians (haplogroups H, T and U3).
The first clearly Proto-Indo-European culture was Sredny Stog / 4600-3900 BCE <also in the Dnieper-Don area, just next to the Cucuteni area>… There is evidence of population blending from the variety of skull shapes. Towards the end of the 5th millennium, an elite starts to develop with cattle, horses and copper used as status symbols.

R1b-tree
The Maykop culture, the R1b link to the steppe - archeology also shows a clear diffusion of bronze working and kurgan-type burials from the Maykop culture to the Pontic Steppe, where the Yamma culture developed soon afterwards (from 3500 BCE)… R1b-M269 (the most common form in Europe) is closely associated with the diffusion of Indo-European languages, as attested by its presence in all regions of the world where Indo-European languages were spoken in ancient times, from the Atlantic coast of Europe to the Indian subcontinent. It has been hypothetised that R1b people (perhaps alongside neighbouring J2 tribes) were the first to domesticate cattle in northern Mesopotamia mayakopsome 10,500 years ago. The analysis of bovine DNA has revealed that all the taurine cattle (Bos taurus) alive today descend from a population of only 80 aurochs. The earliest evidence of cattle domestication dates from circa 8,500 BCE in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures in the Taurus Mountains. The two oldest archaeological sites showing signs of cattle domestication are the villages of Çayönü Tepesi in southeastern Turkey and Dja’de el-Mughara in northern Iraq, two sites only 250 km away from each others. This is presumably the area from which R1b lineages started expanding – or in other words the “original homeland” of R1b. Horses were first domesticated around 4600 BCE in the Caspian Steppe, perhaps somewhere around the Don or the lower Volga, and soon became a defining element of steppe culture. Nevertheless it is unlikely that R1b was already present in the eastern steppes at the time, so the domestication of the horse should be attributed to the indigenous R1a people.

01

The Yamna period / 3500-2500 BCE is the most important one in the creation of Indo-European culture and society. Middle Eastern R1b people had been living and blending to some extent with the local R1a foragers and herders <and with I2 farmers/salt&pottery traders from Cucuteni> for over a millennium, perhaps even two or three. The close cultural contact and interactions between ,<I2>, R1a and R1b people all over the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, resulted in the creation of a common vernacular, a new lingua franca, which linguists have called Proto-Indo-European (PIE). It is pointless to try to assign another region of origin to the PIE language.” end of quote, I have inserted the <I2> parts.
The Yamna horizon was not a single, unified culture. In the south, along the northern shores of the Black Sea coast until the the north-west Caucasus, was a region of open steppe, expanding eastward until the Caspian Sea, Siberia and Mongolia (the Eurasian Steppe). The western section, between the Don and Dniester Rivers (and later the Danube), was the one most densely settled by R1b people, with only a minority of R1a people (5-10%). The eastern section, in the Volga basin until the Ural mountains, was inhabited by R1a people with a substantial minority of R1b people (whose descendants can be found among the Bashkirs, Turkmans, Uyghurs and Hazaras, among others). The northern part of the Yamna horizon was forest-steppe occupied by R1a people, also joined by a small minority of R1b (judging from modern Russians and Belarussians, the frequency of R1b was from seven to nine times less lower than R1a). The western branch would migrate to the Balkans and Greece, then to central and Western Europe, and back to their ancestral Anatolia in successive waves (Hittites, Phrygians, Armenians, etc.). The eastern branch would migrate to Central Asia, Xinjiang, Siberia, and South Asia (Iran, Pakistan, India). The northern branch would evolve into the Corded Ware culture and disperse around the Baltic, Poland, Germany and Scandinavia.

02

The Yamna and Maykop people both used kurgan burials, placing their deads in a supine position with raised knees and oriented in a north-east/south-west axis. Graves were sprinkled with red ochre on the floor, and sacrificed domestic animal buried alongside humans. They also had in common horses, wagons, a heavily cattle-based economy with a minority of sheep kept for their wool, use of copper/bronze battle-axes (both hammer-axes and sleeved axes) and tanged daggers. In fact, the oldest wagons and bronze artefacts are found in the North Caucasus, and appear to have spread from there to the steppes.
Maykop was an advanced Bronze Age culture, actually one of the very first to develop metalworking, and therefore metal weapons. The world’s oldest sword was found at a late Maykop grave in Klady kurgan 31.
Its style is reminiscent of the long Celtic swords, though less elaborated.
Combined with advanced bronze weapons and their sea-based culture, the western branch (R1b) of the Indo-Europeans from the Black Sea shores are excellent candidates for being the mysterious Sea Peoples, who raided the eastern shores of the Mediterranean during the second millennium BCE.

03

The rise of the IE-speaking Hittites in Central Anatolia happened a few centuries after the disappearance of the Maykop and Yamna cultures. Considering that most Indo-European forms of R1b found in Anatolia today belong to the R1b-Z2103 subclade, it makes little doubt that the Hittites came to Anatolia via the Balkans, after Yamna/Maykop people invaded Southeast Europe. The Maykop and Yamna cultures were succeeded by the Srubna culture (1600-1200 BCE), possibly representing an advance of R1a1a people from the northern steppes towards the Black Sea shores, filling the vacuum left by the R1b tribes who migrated to Southeast Europe and Anatolia.

Haplogroup-R1b-S28Haplogroup-R1b-L23

Maybe when we talk about blending peoples, technologies & cultures in this Contact Area carto produce the PIE people and culture, we should consider that in this blending I2 Cucuteni culture/people had the following contributions:
1] farming came to the kurgan area from Cucuteni people/culture
2] first metal products, gold and copper came from I2/Cucuteni imports
3] pottery came from Cucuteni people which worked with fire at such high temperatures that today it is difficult to reproduce the way they used to burn their houses. Look to the maps refering to the Burning House Horizon! The Burning House Horizon covers all the PIE homeland.
4] and very important SALT came from Moldovia, from the Carpathian mountains. Salt EthnosalRo-Moldavia-attractors-Eneolithicwas important to people, to herding AND to food conservation. Food conservation helped people to travel on longer distances and for sure contributed to the increase of herds and populations. First salt went down the rivers from the mountains, there are some very nice studies regarding the relation between first neolithic sites and salt mines. Then salt was carried further with wagons and cattle. Cucuteni people for a long time made trade with the ”kurgan” people and mixed with them, Cucuteni culture and farming spread east, there is evidence that very large quantities of salt were transported east to the Pontic steppes from the Carpathians. Life is not possible without salt, salt mines were essential for first Thracian large settlements also, see the rich Varna Culture.
5] Also consider that the area between Cucuteni and Vinca, ie Transilvania, was later
wietenberg5.1]the turntable from where Urn culture spread to W Europe,
5.2]the area, turntable from where proto-celts conquered all W Europe and also
5.3] maybe the area from where indo-europeans invaded for the first time Greece, see the relation between Wietenberg and Micenian swords bronze technology. Wietenberg culture used tin from Bohemia and probably preceded Unetice and western bronze technology.
6] we could consider that the lower Danube next to the Cucuteni area was the entrance of Indo-Europeans in Europe.
7] Coming back to the way people from Cucuteni used fire at high temperatures, when they made pottery or when they burned the houses. These high temperatures are essential for copper technology – over 1100 degrees Celsius. The Cucuteni people were the first to use cremation, after Cucuteni people, the Wietenberg culture (cremation in Transylvania. From Transylvania, Urn culture spread W, later Dacians used also cremation. There seem to be a continuity in using a lot the fire: fine pottery / Cucuteni, the best bronze technology in their time / Wietenberg culture, Iron / the Dacians and all of them cremation of the dead.

05

So all in all when we talk about blending of haplogroups, technologies and cultures to produce the proto indo europeans we should not forget the I2 haplogroup, the HP that dominated Europe for 6.000 years after the last Ice Age, the Continuity theory of Alinei, the first human civilizations of the world ie Old Europe.
Cucuteni was there right in the eye of the storm, part of the Contact Area. Populations in Cucuteni and Vinca area, were so strong that R1b and R1a were not able to displace them. R1b spread to W Europe which was less populated, easier to be conquered, while R1a spread to N& Central Europe for the same reason. On their way up the Danube, the new haplos avoided the W of former Yugoslavia where today I2 has highest percentages.
Gimbutas said that kurgan people destroyed Old Europe. But for a long time, Cucuteni culture co-existed with ”kurgan” people, traded with them, even expanded to E. When Cucuteni culture ”vanished” the blending was over. A new mixtures took the place of the Old Europeans, stronger populations with better technology and more ”competitive” social behaviour. Stronger mixtures that had everything, just replaced not destroyed the older Cucuteni & Vinca cultures, maybe better adapted also to climate changes. The new mixture had all the new technologies, farming, herding, horses/chariots, metallurgy and also the more competitive social organization – they were fierce warriors but in the same time they were not using slavery, they had elites but no crushing state/aristocracy.

A team of archaeologists led by Dr Mykhailo Videiko of the Kyiv Institute of Archaeology has discovered the remains of a 6,000-year-old temple at a Trypillian culture village near modern-day Nebelivka, Ukraine. The culture is characterized by advanced agriculture, developed metallurgy, pottery-making, sophisticated architecture and social organization, including the first proto-cities on European soil. See on youtube. image_2223_1e-Trypillia-Temple

The remains dating from 4000 BC are covering an area of 600m2 - this is one of the largest structures ever built in prehistoric Europe. “The temple was a two-story building made of wood and clay surrounded by a galleried courtyard, five rooms were on the first floor and raised family altars made of clay were on the ground floor,” said Dr Videiko, who is a co-author of the paper published in the Journal of Neolithic Archaeology.

cucuteni trsrThe I2 Cucutenians were obviously smart people. They had a great peaceful way of life, but as the times changed, they learned to adapt. For more than a thousand years they traded and mixed first with R1a than with R1b in the Pontic steppes, in the end Old Europe was not wiped out by the kurgans, they simply produced together a more competitive mixture, they learned from each other how to make farming/pottery and how to make war with horse chariots  and advanced bronze technology.

pasthorizonspr.com/indo-european-languages-first-emerged-circa-6500-years-ago-on-the-steppe Using data from over 150 languages, linguists at the University of California, Berkeley provide evidence that this ancestor language originated 5,500 – 6,500 years ago, on the Pontic-Caspian steppe stretching from Moldova and Ukraine to Russia and western Kazakhstan.
“Ancestry-constrained phylogenetic analysis supports the Indo-European steppe hypothesis“, by Will Chang, Chundra Cathcart, David Hall and Andrew Garrett, will appear in the March issue of the academic journal Language. A pre-print version of the article is freely available from the Linguistic Society of America, the publishers of Language: http://www.linguisticsociety.org/files/news/ChangEtAlPreprint.pdf
This article provides new support for the “steppe hypothesis” or “Kurgan hypothesis”, which proposes that Indo-European languages first spread with cultural developments in animal husbandry around 4500 – 3500 BCE. (An alternate theory proposes that they diffused much earlier, around 7500 – 6000 BCE, in Anatolia in modern-day Turkey.)
Chang et al. examined over 200 sets of words from living and dead Indo-European languages; after determining how quickly these words changed over time through statistical modelling, they concluded that the rate of change indicated that the languages which first used these words began to diverge approximately 6,500 years ago, in accordance with the steppe hypothesis.
This is one of the first quantitatively-based academic papers in support of the steppe hypothesis, and the first to use a model with “ancestry constraints” which more directly incorporate previously discovered relationships between languages. In future research, methods from this study could be used to study the origins of other language families, such as Afro-Asiatic and Sino-Tibetan.

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An introduction to Archeometallurgy. Wietenberg, Santana. Ethnogenesis of the Celts, Geto-Dacians and Greco-Thracians.


Bellow pix – Part of the Cucuteni! treasure found at Zargidava in 1982 - the site has layers from eneolithic, middle bronze, Hallstatt B, La Tene (sec IVbc-sec II) and medieval era (sec. XV-XVIII) ie Cucuteni, Monteoru, Costișa and geto-dacian cultures.
cucuteni trsr

Gold, the most attractive and precious of metals in every society, is also the easiest for primitive man to acquire. Gold is bright, incorruptible, malleable, and appears in pure form in the beds of streams. Once seen, acquiring it is just a matter of picking it up. Nuggets of this gleaming substance must often have been kept and treasured. Pure gold also has the quality of softness. It can be easily shaped by hammering, but this malleability makes it useless for practical purposes. It always was just a luxury item. Copper which exists in nature in a pure form, can also be bashed into new shapes – with less ease than gold for it is much harder, but with more practical results for everyday use.

Bellow 2 charriots – left Butmir/Bosnia culture and right Wietenberg culture.1310845970_1557753571127497_867977896108097399_n

From about 7000 BC a few neolithic communities begin hammering copper into crude knives and sickles, which work as well as their stone equivalents and last far longer. Some of the earliest implements of this kind have been found in eastern Anatolia.
This intermediate period between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age, has been given a name deriving from the somewhat awkward combination of materials. It is called the Chalcolithic Period, from the Greekchalcos ‘copper’ and lithos ‘stone’. An accident, probably frequent, reveals another of nature’s useful secrets. A nugget of pure copper, or perhaps a finished copper tool, falls into the hot camp fire. The copper melts. When it cools, it is found to have solidified in a new shape. And the magic of fire has yet more to offer. Certain kinds of bright blue or green stones are attractive enough to collect for their own sake. It turns out that when such stones are heated to a high temperature, liquid metal flows from them. They are azurite and malachite, two of the ores of copper.cucuteni
The use of fire thus makes possible two significant new steps in the development of metallurgy: the casting of metal, by pouring it into prepared moulds; and the smelting of mineral ores to extract metal. Objects made from smelted copper, from as early as 3800 BC, are known in Iran.
Many mineral ores are found on the surface of the earth, in outcrops of rock. Chipping away at them, to pursue the metal-bearing lode down below the surface, leads inevitably to another technological advance – the development of mining.

Bellow picture – According to National Museum archaeologist Dušan Šljivar, experts found a “copper chisel and stone ax at a location near Prokuplje in which the foundation has 10392443_1558687581034096_3118940659047911408_nproven to be 7,500 years old, leading us to believe that it was one of the first places in which metal weapons and tools were made in prehistoric times.” The first miners: from 4000 BC. By 4000 BC deep shafts are cut into the hillside at Rudna Glava, in the Balkans, to excavate copper ore. This robbing of the earth’s treasures is carried out with due solemnity. Fine pots, bearing produce from the daylight world, are placed in the mines as a form of recompense to propitiate the spirits of the dark interior of the earth. By about 3800 BC copper mines are also worked in the Sinai peninsula. Crucibles found at the site reveal that smelting is carried out as part of the mining process.

The age of bronze: from 2800 BC. Sometimes the ores of copper and tin are found together, and the casting of metal from such natural alloys may have provided the accident for the next step forward in metallurgy. It is discovered that these two metals, cast as one substance, are harder than either metal on its own. The cast alloy of copper and tin is bronze, a substance so useful to human beings that an entire period of early civilization has become known as the Bronze Age. A bronze blade will take a sharper edge than copper and will hold it longer. And bronze ornaments and vessels can be cast for a wide variety of purposes.
The technology of bronze is first developed in the Middle East. Bronze is in use in Sumer, at Ur, in around 2800 BC, and in Anatolia shortly afterwards. It then spreads spasmodically. It appears in the Indus valley in about 2500 BC, and progresses westwards through Europe from about 2000. At much the same time it is found in crude form in China, where it later achieves an unprecedented level of sophistication. From about 1500 BC the Shang dynasty produces bronze objects of exceptional brilliance.
In all these regions it is the rulers who use bronze, as a luxury for themselves or as a weapon for their armies. For ordinary people the Stone Age survives well into the Bronze Age.
weitenberg minoic swordLeft pix – ”Mycenaean” sword / Wietenberg culture / National Museum of Transylvanian. The Mycenians came to Greece from the North of present day Romania, where this sword was found.
As the most valuable of commodities (in addition to being compact and easily portable), metals are a great incentive to trade. The extensive deposits of copper on Cyprus bring the island much wealth from about 3000 BC (Cyprus, in Latin, gives copper its name -cyprium corrupted to cuprum). Later, when the much scarcer commodity of tin is required to make bronze, even distant Cornwall becomes – by the first millennium BC – a major supplier of the needs of Bronze Age Europe.
There are various opinions about which methods were used to introduce the arsenic, but by the 1970s most researchers believed that the arsenic was there because Bronze Age metalworkers had selected copper ores that were naturally rich in the element. Copper ore deposits are usually laid down in rock fissures or veins as primary copper sulphide minerals. Exposed areas of such deposits are converted to secondary minerals such as oxides and carbonates. Within some primary copper deposits are the ‘fahlerz’ ores, which contain arsenic and the metal antimony. The metalworkers had apparently discovered that these ores yielded a superior product.
While some archaeologists were classifying metal artefacts by their physical appearance others began to analyse their composition, especially after spectrographic methods became widely available in the 1930s. This approach, pioneered by the German chemists Helmut Witter and Wilhelm Otto and the Austrian scientist Richard Pittioni, culminated in a massive programme, based in Stuttgart, which was responsible for more than 16 000 analyses of Early Bronze Age metalwork by the mid-1970s.

Copper_Age_Europe

The magic of iron: from 1500 BC. The Hittites are the first people to work iron, in Anatolia from about 1500 BC. In its simple form iron is less hard than bronze, and therefore of less use as a weapon, but it seems to have had an immediate appeal – perhaps as the latest achievement of technology (with the mysterious quality of being changeable, through heating and hammering), or from a certain intrinsic magic (it is the metal in meteorites, which fall from the sky). Quite how much value is attached to iron can be judged from a famous letter of about 1250 BC, written by a Hittite king to accompany an iron dagger-blade which he is sending to a fellow monarch (see Letter from a Hittite king).

The discovery of steel: 11th century BC. By the 11th century BC it has been discovered that iron can be much improved. If it is reheated in a furnace with charcoal containing carbon, some of the carbon is transferred to the iron. This process hardens the metal; and the effect is considerably greater if the hot metal is rapidly reduced in temperature, usually achieved by quenching it in water.
The new material is steel. It can be worked just like softer iron, and it will keep a finer edge, capable of being honed to sharpness. Gradually, from the 11th century onwards, steel replaces bronze weapons in the Middle East, birthplace of the Iron Age. It becomes essential, from now on, to have a good steel blade rather than a soft and indifferent one.

Cast iron in the east: 513 BC. Thus far in the story iron has been heated and hammered, but never melted. Its melting point (1528°C) is too high for primitive furnaces, which can reach about 1300°C and are adequate for copper (melting at 1083°C). This limitation is overcome when the Chinese develop a furnace hot enough to melt iron, enabling them to produce the world’s first cast iron – an event traditionally dated in the Chinese histories to 513 BC. In this they are a thousand and more years ahead of the western world. The first iron foundry in England, for example, dates only from AD 1161. By that time the Chinese have already pioneered the structural use of cast iron, using it sometimes for the pillars of full-size pagodas. Read more @ historyworld.net

640px-Central_Europe_Reinecke_BA1

Central Europe Bronze Period A1, 2300-1950 BC; Key:(1) Late Eneolithic;(2) Beaker culture;(3) Riesenbecher;(4) Únětice culture; (5)Adlerberg group; (6)EBA of north Alps,incl.Singen&Neckar-Ries-Lech groups;(7) Straubing culture;(8) Unterwölbling culture;(9) Early Bronze Age of South-East Alps;(10) Wieselburg culture;(11) Nitra culture;(12) Kisapostag culture; (13) Nagyrév culture; (14) Perjámos culture; (15) Otomani culture;(16) Hatvan culture;(17) Košťany culture;(18) Mierzanowice culture;(19) Dobre group; (20) Płonia (Buchholz) group.

wiki about cooper archaeometallurgy: The theory that metallurgy was imported into Europe from the Near East has been practically ruled out. Nowadays, the general opinion is that the development of metallurgy took place independently in different places, at different times, with various techniques. One fact that supports this interpretation is that, although the final products are quite similar throughout Europe, the method of production is not.
The earliest recorded metal employed by humans appears to be gold which can be found free or “native.” Certain metals, notably tin, lead and (at a higher temperature) copper, can be recovered from their ores by simply heating the rocks in a fire, a process known as
smelting. The first evidence of this extractive metallurgy dates from the 5th and 6th millennium BC and was found in the archaeological sites of Majdanpek, Yarmovac and Plocnik, all three in Serbia. To date, the earliest evidence of copper smelting is found at the Belovode site,[6] including a copper axe from 5500 BC belonging to the Vinča culture. Around 3500 BC, it was discovered that by combining copper and tin, a superior metal could be made, an alloy called bronze, representing a major technological shift which began the Bronze Age. Europe has very few sources of tin. It was therefore of extreme importance throughout ancient times to import it long distances from known tin mining districts of antiquity, namely Erzgebirge along the border between Germany and Czech Republic, the Iberian Peninsula,Brittany in France, and Devon and Cornwall in southwestern England. Another minor source of tin is known to exist at Monte Valerio in Tuscany, Italy.
The extraction of
iron from its ore into a workable metal is much more difficult than for copper or tin. The process appears to have been invented by the Hittites in about 1200 BC, beginning the Iron Age. The secret of extracting and working iron was a key factor in the success of the Philistines.[5][8]

Copper is the eighth most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust, available all over the world and one of the few that can appear in pure state (Atkinson 1987). It is not complicated to work with, a bare hammering can be enough to transform a nugget into a bead.
tcasting_setupStage A: Although
native copper nowadays is frequently displayed in museum showcases of mineral collections, it once occurred copiously during prehistoric times. In Cyprus or Crete, collecting the mineral was once as easy as simply picking it up from the ground. In fact, native copper is no longer as easy to find in that state these days. The treatment of this native mineral was also uncomplicated through cold-hammering. This only permitted the production of a limited range of artifacts like awls, pins, or beads. In larger objects, the metal cracks when it is cold-hammered.
Stage B: Annealing the metal on an open fire (200–300 °C) reduces its hardness considerably and gives in malleability. This permits the manufacture of slightly more sophisticated objects, like bracelets, but is still a rather limited technique.
Stage C: In the first two steps, the mineral used was
native copper with no specialized smeltingtechnology. Probably, due to the situation that native copper was increasingly difficult to find, copper ore was used in the third step. This was a very significant development, in fact this was truly the beginning of metallurgy. Separating the copper from the gangue was possible only by smelting, using furnaces that were able to reach at least 1,089 °C.
Numerous examples of mines are known all over Europe (Craddock 1980, Mohen 1992 and 1996, Shennan 1999, Bartelheim et al. 2003) from the east: Rudna Glava (Serbia), Ai Bunar (Bulgaria); to the west: Mount Gabriel (Ireland), Great Orme, Alderley Edge (United Kingdom); crossing Central Europe: Mitterberg (Salzach, Austria), Neuchâtel (Switzerland), Cabrierés (France); to the south: Riotinto,Mola Alta de Serelles (Spain); and the Mediterranean: Corsica, Cyprus, and the Cyclades islands. It is remarkable that, usually, it is not a single mine but a complex, with a variable, large number of mineshafts, as in Rudna Glava (30) or Mount Gabriel
(31).

One of Greece’s most famous archaeological sites, the Middle Bronze Age city of Akrotiri is the Pompeii of Greece.  Inhabited in c.1600-1525 BC, Akrotiri was once a prosperous trading centre but was abandoned after a volcanic eruption buried the site in several metres of ash. Its houses – many preserved up to two or three stories high, along with furniture and pottery – lay undisturbed for 3,500 years until the site was Akrotiri-credit-Klearchos-Kapoutsisexcavated by Spyridon Marianatos in 1967.  It’s eerie walking through there. Beds are upturned on top of one another, as if the occupants would come back for them. Jars and jugs lay scattered. The ash formed a sort of cast for some of the furniture, leaving behind beautifully sculpted tables and even a keepsake box with a gold ibex. Akrotiri even had a sewage system. Santorini Island itself didn’t have such technology until the mid-1900s. These people were bloody brilliant. “Thera” was the original name of Santorini Island, and this museum houses most of the artifacts collected from Akrotiri. Perfectly preserved pieces of wall murals and frescoes are on display here, and even 7000-year-old fossilized olive leaves from some of the island’s earliest eruptions. Other interesting tidbits: the world’s first portable oven and pieces of jewelry.

Relation between salt mines and copper workshops in late Bronze age. Deja în urmă cu sare-bronzaproape o jumătate de secol, M. Rusu atrăsese atenţia asupra unei posibile legături între marile depozite de bronzuri transilvănene şi resursele de sare, ipoteză reluată şi de alţi cercetători.
Hartă cu localizarea exploatărilor de sare din Bronzul târziu (^) şi a principalelor depozite-atelier (*):1. Dipşa ; 2. Figa ; 3. Uioara de Sus
şi Şpălnaca ; 4. Ocna Mureş; 5. Aiud ; 6. Pănade; 7. Ocnişoara ; 8.Guşteriţa; 9. Ocna-Sibiului ; 10. Bicaz ; 11. Coştiui – Şugatag ; 12.Valea Florilor ; 13. Band.

Middle Bronze 1800BC: The modest huts were replaced by larger houses and some settlements were fortified with earthworks and stone walls. Four wheel wagons were common throughout the Balkans, central Europe and Asia Minor.
Wietenburg culture: Origins – Coţofeni & Baden, Area – Crisana, E Hungary, Slovakia spread west later, Pottery – high-necked cup, geometric & spira, Settlements – houses arranged in circles, fortified with ramparts, Technology – developed bronze metallurgy, Burials – inhumation.
The Únětice culture dated roughly to about 2300–1600 BC, originated in South East Europe history - 1,800 BC mapthe territories of contemporary Bohemia, the village Únětice is located  northwest of Prague. Today, this archaeological culture is known from Czech Republic and Slovakia from approximately 1400 sites, from Poland (550 sites) and Germany (approximately 500 sites and loose finds locations).[1] The culture corresponds to Bronze A1 and A2 in the chronological schema of Paul Reinecke: A1: 2300-1950 BC: triangular daggers, flat axes, stone wrist-guards, flint arrowheads ; A2: 1950-1700 BC: daggers with metal hilt, flanged axes, halberds, pins with perforated spherical heads, solid bracelets. Úněticean graves can be divided in two categories: flat graves and barrows.[26] The Únětice culture practiced skeletal inhumations, however occasionally cremation was also practised.In classic phase (approx. 1850-1750 BC), Úněticean burial rite displays strong uniformity, regardless of the gender or age of the deceased. Men and women were buried in the same N-S position.Coffins were made of single block of wood. The Únětice culture had trade links with the British Wessex culture. Cornish tin was widely traded as well.CBMP

The Carpathian arc from the Bohemia -Únĕtice culture, the upper Tiza Otomani culture and into Transylvania Wietenburg culture was the centre of the Bronze industry, trading up to the Baltic coast and east to the Caucasus. The ‘alliance’ of these three cultures used tin from Bohemia to produce Bronze in Transylvania and then their strength spread north of the Carpathians into the Ukraine (Komarów culture) and east to the Pontic Steppe.
Wietenberg and Otomani were the first cultures to develop bronze technology in Transylvania. While Otomani, Unetice and all the other cultures around still had inhumation, Wietenberg had cremation and urns. When all the other cultures had only stone tools, Wietenberg had a well develope bronze and gold technology, followed by Otomani culture. And in the above pix the Wietenberg battle ax looks nicer than the Unetice axe Smile Look also to the Mycenaean bronze sword found at Dumbrăvioara, Mureş County, Romania and consider that first ”aryan” invasion of Greece, came from this area! The period of Greek history from about 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is called Mycenaean in reference to Mycenae. At its peak in 1350 BC, the citadel and lower town had a population of 30,000 and an area of 32 hectares.[1] 

The first Bronze technology from Serbia/Vinca is probably related to the ancient copper & tin mines from W Serbia – Cer & Bukulja mountains (close to where Sava & Morava flows into the Danube). The Early Bronze Age from Spain can be explained through the tin mines from Spain. As well the Nuragic Culture was linked to the copper mines from Sardinia. Metallurgy appeared later in NW Europe but very soon became the most advanced technology in Europe, that could be linked to the tin mines from England/Cornwall, which were the most abundant from all Europe. Unetice Culture probably is closely connected with the Copper Tin mines from Bohemia/Erzgebirge. Metallurgy produced strong rich cultures, produced well armed  warriors that were able to conquer other people.
New technologies produced welfare, better living conditions, increased population. New products induced trade, traders had to protect the products they transported, ‘industrial areas’ and ‘rich comunities’ also had to be protected, I guess there is a good link between welfare/expensive products/trade and warriors/aristocracies.

arian-home 
Metallurgy and strong cultures in Transylvania could be linked with 1#the gold sources from Alburnus Maior, some of the richest in Europe, the main reason for Traian to conquer Dacia and 2#with salt mines from Transylvania. 3#Transylvania was in the middle of everything: it was between Vinca and Cucuteni. 4#It was the turntable from where R1b conquered W Europe and 5#close to the tin sources from Bohemia. 6#It was connected with the pontic steppes, and through this highway with the metallurgic centers from Urlas/Arkaim and Caucaz. 7#And finally it was close to the rich basins of lower Danube and Middle Danube+Tisa basin.
Bellow pix: left is Unetice from Germany, right is Wietenberg from Transylvania.

320px-Decorated_bronze_axe,_Central_Germanyweitenberg
The Wietenberg culture from Transylvania,  is the extension of the CONTACT AREA on the Dniester river, the melting pot area where the
1#Old Europe Cucuteni I2(+J1+E1+G) farmers met
2#the R1b coming on the N&S shores of the Black Sea and the
3#R1a coming from the northern forest steppes.
This melting pot ended the Cucuteni Culture around 3000BC but produced people with all the qualities to be more competitive than others around: they knew farming, metallurgy, they had horses & chariots, they were fierce warriors.  Cremation could come from Cucuteni who used to burn everything, cooper mining could come from salt mining typical for Cucuteni also, bronze technology seems to be connected with R1b who later conquered all Western Europe. All in all the Wietenberg area 2200–1600/1500 BC seems to be / could be :
1]in the center of the European bronze technology, which expanded from here North to Poland (Unetice), to West up the Danube to England and to East it related strongly over the Pontic steppes to the Urals,  to the
Sintashta-Arkaim culture 2100–1800 BC.
2]the starting area of the protoceltic Urnfield culture 1300 BC – 750 BC which led to the Hallstat Iron  Age culture. Urnfield is preceded by the
Tumulus culture   1600 BC to 1200 BC, descendant of the Unetice culture
3]may be the original area of the Greco-Macedonians & Thracians the – Mycenae 1600-1100bc and of course could be
4] origin of the Geto-Dacian people, who worked gold and iron in Transylvania mountains, simillar to Hallstat and LaTene celts in the Alps.

Eastern LinearProtoItaloCelts

Thus the Middle Danube & Tisa basins plus Transylvania were the turntable, the area from where 1#Linear Pottery spread to Central Western Europe than later 2#Pro Italo Celts  conquered all Western Europe.
1511011_1560341227535398_2685410854139634778_n

Wietenburg culture spread east to the Noua culture of Moldavia and Sabatinovka culture of the Steppe as far as the Dnieper. Pastoralism was practiced extensively in the central to South East Europe history - 1,400 BC mapeast of Romania. Seven of the nine superior Bronze “Mycenaean” swords found in Romania were found in Transylvania showing connections with the southern Balkans through the Morava-Vardar corridor.
Suciu de Sus – Felchesevch-Stanova Culture: Origins – either from Otomani & Sighişoara, or Vučedol-Zok-Nir, Area – Maramures & Ukraine sub Carpathians, & part of Crişana, Pottery – spirals & solar designs, also geometric, Houses – surface huts of wattle & daub, Economy – on trade route from central to north Europe, Technology – metallurgy, Burials – cremation, tumulus graves.

The shift to cremation rather than interment around 1300 BC, gave archaeologists a name for the burgeoning Urnfield culture. The typical Urnfield burial used a urn to contain the ashes of the desceased, capped by an upturned bowl, set into a pit. The usage had spread over much of Europe by 1000 BC.
Any type of cremation was uncommon earlier over most of Europe except the Carpathian Basin, where it appears urnamong the Makó and Bell Beaker groups as early as c. 2700 to 2400 BC. So this region has often been considered the starting point for the Urnfield tradition. Two of the Middle Bronze Age cultures of Hungary favoured cremation, but only one of them placed a capped burial urn in a pit. That was the Vatya Culture of sheep-breeders living in the settlements along the Danube. These were well-placed foUrnfieldCulturer trading, as well as having good grazing land nearby. So the idea could easily have travelled up the Danube to the trading nexus at its head. From there it spread west and north into Germany and Poland and south into Italy. Finally it moved into France and part of Spain. There was also a transition to cremation burial in Scandinavia and the British Isles in the Late Bronze Age, but without the vast cemeteries of Continental Europe.
The distribution of the Urnfield Culture is very similar to that of the Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b-U152. The origins of the cremation rite are commonly believed to be in Hungary, where it was widespread since the first half of the 2nd millennium BC.[3] The neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillian culture of modern-day northeastern Romania and Ukraine were also practicing cremation rituals as early as approximately 5,500 BC.

The village Malaya Kopanya (укр: Мала Копаня) is located on the banks of the river Tisa. The village is famous for its hill-fort (Gorodyshche) located one and a half kilometers Malaya Kopanya 2from the center of the village, where excavations were conducted for many years. The hill-fort reffers to the Dacian culture and occupies an area of almost 5 hectares of which only 2 were investigated. Here is a study about iron swords found at Malaya Kopanya, stating that the dava, the Dacian fort, was built around 60BC in the time of Burebista king, replacing the ”North Thracian environment”. The  settlement  was destroyed by the Romans in 107AD. All findings convey to Vynohradiv (Seleuşu Mare) State Museum.

La 20 de kilometri de graniţa cu România, (48° 10′ 0″, 23° 6′ 0″) la intrarea Tisei în bazinul Maramureşului istoric, săpăturile arheologice au fost demarate în 1977 si din anul 2.000 au continuat în baza unui acord de colaborare științifică dintre Muzeul Județean Satu Mare și Malaya Kopanya 1Universitatea Națională din Ujgorod, cu finanțare de la Ministerul Culturii şi Cultelor din România. Încununarea cercetărilor arheologice a venit o dată cu campania de săpături din 2008, când arheologii sătmăreni au descoperit mormintele şi, odată cu acestea, cea mai mare şi reprezentativă cantitate de bijuterii dacice după vestitele brăţări din aur. Săpăturile au fost oprite în 2011 pe fondul lipsei de finanțare. Acesta este al doilea cimitir-cetate dacic descoperit, pe lângă cel din Zemplen – Slovacia, aflat la 200 de kilometri de graniţa cu România.
Cea mai mare descoperire de la Malaya Kopanya se referă la cele 70 de morminte, mai Malaya Kopanya 3multe decât au fost descoperite vreodată în tot arealul Marii Dacii, ceea ce a determinat arheologii să afirme că suntem în fața celei mai mari necropole dacice. Cercetătorii speră să dea de câteva sute de morminte pe când vor finaliza săpăturile. Stratul de cultură coboară până la 3, 8 m. Este vorba despre un cimitir de incineraţie, în care defuncţii au fost puşi pe rug, osemintele calcinate depuse în urne şi îngropate în pământ. În mormintele de femei au fost descoperite bijuterii, fibule, catarame, inele şi verigi, în timp ce în mormintele bărbaţilor au Descoperirile-arheologilor-din-Satu-Marefost descoperite arme, printre care şi unele foarte spectaculoase, precum spade îndoite, o armă specială numită fica – un fel de sabie cu un singur tăiş, pinteni și vârfuri de lance. Mormintele datează din perioada lui Burebista. Sistemul de apărare al cetăţii este deosebit de complex, demn de un mare centru politic, comercial şi religios, cetetea de la Malaya Kopanya se aseamănă cu Sarmisegetuza Regia, doar că cetatea din Ucraina ar fi avut zidurile din lemn, pe când Sarmisegetuza le avea din piatră.

Epoca bronzului mijlociu cuprinde, conform datelor 14C calibrate, prima jumatate a mil. II i.Ch., sau conform cronologiei traditionale, sec. 17-14 i. Hr. Aceasta epoca, in toata Europa de Sud-Est si Centrala, se caracterizeaza prin cristalizarea unor entitati etnoculturale bine delimitate geografic si tipologic, prin trecerea treptata la forme de habitat mai stabile, prin cresterea complexitatii structurilor sociale, proces a carui expresie cea mai elocventa a reprezentat-o cresterea accentuata a numarului asezarilor fortificate, depunerea tezaurelor de piese de aur si argint – simboluri ale puterii sacrale si sociale; prin progrese baia mareremarcabile in metalurgia bronzului: inlocuirea treptata a tiparelor de lut cu cele de piatra, folosirea pe scara larga a cositorului pentru obtinerea bronzului de calitate. Avand in vedere lipsa cositorului in zacamintele din toata Europa de Est si Sud-Est, tehnologia bronzului nu ar fi fost posibila fara sa fi existat o retea transeuropeana de circulatie a acestui metal. Cositorul folosit in Transilvania provenea din Slovacia. Mai sus piese din colectia muzeului Baia Mare.
Perioada mijlocie a epocii bronzului in Bazinul Carpatic se caracterizeaza si prin manifestari artistice deosebite: eleganta formelor si ornamentare extrem de bogata si expresiva a vaselor ceramice, care in unele privinte repeta motivele ornamentale din eneolitic. Printre motivele decorative caracteristice bronzului mijlociu un loc aparte il ocupau simbolurile solare si reprezentari de plante, motive care sugereaza cultul solar, cel al fertilitatii si al fecunditatii. Probabil, un rol ritual au jucat si carele votive, figurine de animale si pasari.
Majoritatea cercetatorilor atribuie culturile arheologice ale epocii bronzului mijlocii din spatiul Carpato-Dunareano-Pontic unor grupuri prototracice sau tracice. Pe tot parcursul bronzului mijlociu, sudestul Transilvaniei a fost net dominat de cultura Wietenberg, raspandita in toata Transilvania.

Valea Muresului este ‘autostrada preistorica’ prin care au patruns in Ardeal toti migratorii care au venit din Zona Dunare/Tisa. Arheologii au inventariat 57 de situri pe traseele din judetul Alba ale viitoarei autostrazi de pe Culoarul IV Pan-European, practic, la fiecare 2,5 kilometri exista cate un sit arheologic. Cetatea preistorica de la Santana – Troia Romaniei – are 78 de hectare! si este cea mai mare cetate hallstattiana din Europa! Csantanauprinde o necropola din prima epoca a cuprului, cultura Tiszapolgar circa 4000BC, apoi o asezare ce dateaza de la sfarsitul epocii bronzului, de la circa 1200BC si o fortificatie ridicata de traci la inceputul primei epoci a brnz sntnfierului. o necropola din prima epoca a cuprului, cultura Tiszapolgar circa 4000BC, apoi o asezare ce dateaza de la sfarsitul epocii bronzului, de la circa 1200BC si o fortificatie ridicata de traci la inceputul primei epoci a fierului. În 1988, cu ocazia unor lucrări de modificare a terasamentului căii ferate ce leagă Aradul de Oradea, se descoperă un vas din pastă grosieră care conţinea oase umane, şi un tezaur compus din 23 de piese din aur.
În 1954, Ioan Mărinoiu a găsit, în urma bronz santanaunor lucrări agricole, un celt şi un fragment de seceră. Tot în această perioadă a mai fost descoperit (întâmplător) un brâu realizat din bronz aurit. În 1976, tractoristul Aurel Bulzea din Sântana, găseşte în spatele fostei halte C.F.R. Cetatea Veche, un cuptor plin (aprox. 200 de piese) cu proiectile (bile) de praştie din lut. Elevii cercului de istorie-arheologie de la Şcoala generală nr.1 din Sântana, aflaţi sub îndrumarea lui Augustin Mureşan, urmărind lucrările la un canal care a traversat fortificaţia, salvează în 1980 mai multe obiecte: un topor din piatră găurit şi şlefuit, proiectile din lut pentru praştie, două râşniţe din piatră, două greutăţi de la războiul de ţesut, ceramică şi un fragment dintr-un tipar de gresie, folosit probabil pentru turnarea unor piese de harnaşament.

Metsamor The citadel on top of the volcanic hill is about 10.5 hectares in size, but the entire city is believed to have covered 200 hectares at its greatest extent, housing up to armenia50,000 people. Excavations have shown strata of occupancy going back to the Neolithic period 7,000-5,000 BC, but the most outstanding features of the site were constructed during the early, middle and late Bronze Ages 5,000-2,000 BC.  Inscriptions found within the excavation go back as far as the Neolithic period, and a sophisticated pictograph form of writing was developed as early as 2000-1800 BC.  The “Metsamor Inscriptions” have a likeness to later scripts.
Metallurgy – The excavations uncovered a large metal industry, including a foundry with 2 kinds of blast furnaces (brick and in-ground).  Metal processing at Metsamor was among the most sophisticated of its kind at that time:  the foundry extracted and processed high-grade gold, copper, several types of LLchashen-chariot-museumbronze, manganese, zinc, strychnine, mercury and iron. Metsamor’s processed metal was coveted by all nearby cultures, and found its way to Egypt, Central Asia and China.  The iron smelting process was not advanced in Metsamor, probably due to the vast quantities of pure bronze alloys at hand, and Metsamor primarily mined and sold iron ore to neighbouring cultures which took better advantage of its properties.
The Foundry – The foundry dates from the Early Bronze Age – ca. 4,000 BC, though recent digs in the area uncovered signs of metal processing as early as 5,000 BC.  The Medzamorcoppersmelter3000complex of smelting furnaces and moulds date from the mid Bronze to Early Iron Age (3,000-2,000 BC).  The complex becomes more astounding the more you walk through it.  Several huge underground caves were uncovered that are thought to have been storehouses for base metal, as well as a granaries for winter months.  The first iron in the ancient world was probably forged here, though it was not considered as important as bronze, giving the jump on development to the Babylonians.

The Varna culture belongs to the late Neolithic of northern Bulgaria. It is conventionally dated between 4400-4100 BC, contemporary with Karanovo in the South. It is characterized by polychrome pottery and rich cemeteries, the most famous of which are varnaVarna Necropolis, the eponymous site, and the Durankulak complex, which comprises the largest prehistoric cemetery in southeastern Europe, with an adjoining coeval Neolithic settlement (published) and an unpublished and incompletely excavated Chalcolithic settlement.
294 graves have been found in the necropolis, many containing sophisticated examples of copper, some of the world’s oldest gold jewelry, pottery (about 600 pieces, including gold-painted ones), high-quality flint and obsidian blades, beads, and shells.
The findings showed that the Varna culture had trade relations with distant lands, possibly including the lower Volga region and the Cyclades, perhaps exporting metal goods and salt from the Provadiya rock salt mine. The copper ore used in the artifacts originated from a Sredna Gora mine near Stara Zagora, and Mediterranean spondylus shells found in the graves may have served as primitive currency.

The pix bellow – distribution of polymetallic deposits in the Western Carpathians including the Slovakian Erzgebirge. The triangles mark Early Bronze Age settlements.
The Mondsee group was a neolithic Austrian Pile dwelling culture spanning the period erzgbrgfrom roughly 3800 to 2800 BC, of particular interest due to its production of the characteristic “Mondsee Copper” arsenical bronze, apparently the first in central Europe to emulate the Serbian Vinča culture.  
Metalurgy in the Elbe-Saale (Harz) region. A recent paper (2012, in German) discusses a copper dagger that has been found in a late Neolithic grave from Aspenstedt near Halberstadt (15 km north of the Harz mountains), and uses the opportunity to, based on other finds in the region, reconstruct the early history of metallurgy in the area:
According to the paper, the process included the following stages:
1] 4.100-3.800 BC : Occasional import of copper tools from western Slovakia
2] 3.800-3.500 BC: Increased occurrence of copper artefacts and indication of local processing of imported copper. The supply source shifts towards East Alpine Mondsee copper. The Aspenstedt dagger, a Mondsee dagger that exhibits signs of local re-shaping, belongs into this group.
3]3.500- 3.350 BC: First indication of the use of local copper alongside imported one.
4]3.350 – 3.100 BC: Strong increase in copper finds (8% of all locations, compared to 4% before), mostly decorative items, increasingly produced from local copper.
5]3.100 – 2.800 BC: Further increase of copper finds (11% of all locations). The increased occurrence of copper axes, produced from local copper, indicates a well developed local tool making industry.

Eupedia Forum: I think it makes a lot of sense to associate baking pottery with copper age revolution. You do not need an oven to make simple pottery, that can be done in an open fire. But for fine pottery, with proper glazing, you need higher temperatures and also some control over the amount of oxygen inside the oven. It is true that copper in natural form could be found and cold molded for tools, and was in sporadic use very early, but ubiquitous copper use, the true copper revolution, only came with ability to smelt it and cast it.
Clay pottery to harden needs to be baked in fire/heat. But how hot kiln needs to be to achieve the ceramic state of clay? Required temperature turned to be no less than 1,000 C, and in some cases as high as 1,400C for best quality. Temperature needed for melting copper is 1,084C, pottery kilns were hot enough to melt copper.
Interestingly, to cast copper we need clay/ceramic molds. Should we mentioned that clay molds were readily available around pottery kilns? A very convenient circumstance.
Another interesting fact is that copper, copper oxide and dioxide, was used as pottery colorant. At this high temperatures copper evaporates in kiln and is absorbed by pottery, giving it greenish and reddish colour. This colouring technique could have been primary introduction of copper in kilns. From this it is only a short step to accidental invention of smelting copper.

Tainted ores and the rise of tin bronzes Excavations at Plocnik, a Vinca culture site in Serbia, recovered a piece of tin bronze foil from an occupation layer dated to the mid fifth millennium BC. The Plocnik and Gomolava objects are similar in composition to 13 previously analysed early tin bronzes from Bulgaria and Serbia. Their shape implies that they were used for decorative purposes; visual appearance played a significant role in their use. The foil from Plocnik was left in a soft annealed state so that it could be wrapped around a ceramic vessel, while the ring from Gomolava was left in the work-hardened state. This study provides archaeological and analytical evidence for the independent emergence of tin bronze production, from complex copper-tin ores, some 1500 years 6500-year-old-tin-bronze-from-serbiabefore the first tin bronze alloys of south-western Asia. They also preceded by almost half a millennium the earliest use of natural alloys of arsenical copper (Roberts et al. 2009). Thus the fifth millennium tin bronzes fundamentally challenge the established sequence of the evolution of metallurgy in western Eurasia.
Copper, tin bronzes and gold are not the only metals used in the Balkans at this period. There is evidence of mid fifth millennium BC use of both lead and galena from the Vinca culture sites of Selevac, Opovo, Autoput and Donja Tuzla (Glumac & Todd 1987). In the wider Balkan region the use of silver is attested by the hoard of more than 100 silver artefacts from the Alepotrypa Cave in Greece, and dated to the mid fifth–early fourth millennia BC (Muhly 2002). The near-contemporary use of tin bronze, gold, lead/galena and, most likely, silver in addition to the dominant copper in the Balkans during the mid to late fifth millennium BC defies the conventional narrative of a slow unilinear evolution of metallurgy. Quite the reverse, the early trajectory of metallurgy in the Balkans emerges almost from the very beginning as polymetallic in nature.
The production of complex tin bronzes in the Balkans declined towards the end of the fifth millennium BC. Significantly, this coincided with the collapse of the gold-using cultures in Bulgaria. Explanation could be sought in population dynamics, which were a powerful mechanism for both the generation and decline of innovations in prehistoric societies (Henrich 2004; Powell et al. 2009). Tin bronzes only re-appeared some 1500 years later, based on cassiterite tin.

cotofeniThe Coţofeni culture (Serbian: Kocofeni), also known as Usatove culture, is a Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age archaeological culture that in south-eastern Central Europe facing the Black Sea between the mouths of the Bug River and the Danube in present-day Romania, Moldova, and southern Ukraine, between roughly 3500 and 2500 BCE.

Mid fourth-millennium copper mining in Liguria, north-west Italy: the earliest known copper mines in Western Europe. PROTOHISTORIC METALLURGY IN LIGURIA. The earliest copper mining on the European continent (Figure 7) is in the Balkans and may be dated generically to the later fifth millennium cal copper-mine-02BC: Ai Bunar in Bulgaria (Cernych 1978) seems to be dated to Karanovo V (approximately 4230-4000 cal BC) and Rudna Glava in Serbia (Jovanovic 1979; Jovanovic & Ottaway 1976) to Vina D (approximately 4670-4980 cal BC). Copper mining in Liguria is thus about a millennium later than that in the Balkans.
To the west, an independent origin is now generally accepted for Iberian metallurgy, with Ruiz-Taboada and Montero-Ruiz (1999) recently publishing a radiocarbon date in the first half of the fifth millennium cal BC for copper smelting at Cerro Virtud in Almer´ıa. Other dates for copper metallurgy in Almer´ıa are in the mid fourth millennium BC, and Rothenberg & Blanco Freijeiro (1980) have claimed late fourth/third millennium BC copper mining at Chinflon (Huelva) – although the interpretation of this latter site is controversial.

Obsidian trade, amber trade, prehistoric flint are all related the early copper mines.  The mining history of Sardinia started probably around the 6th millennium BC with the mining of obsidian. About 3000 BC, the metal working practices expanded into Sardinia too, where they reached a highly practical level. Together with metal working, mining practices developed too allowing the mining of growing amounts of minerals and then of metals. The geographical position of the island, but also its mining asset, attracted between the tenth and the 8th century BC. Phoenician merchants, that were replaced by Carthaginians.

Haplogroup-R1b-S28

How did R1b come to replace most of the older lineages in Western Europe ?  Until recently it was believed that R1b originated in Western Europe due to its strong presence in the region today. The theory was that R1b represented the Paleolithic Europeans (Cro-Magnon) that had sought refuge in the Franco-Cantabrian region at the peak of the last Ice Age, then recolonised Central and Northern Europe once the ice sheet receded. The phylogeny of R1b proved that this scenario was not possible, because older R1b clades were consistently found in Central Asia and the Middle East, and the youngest in Western and Northern Europe. There was a clear gradient from East to West tracing the migration of R1b people (see map bellow). This age of the main migration from the shores of the Black Sea to Central Europe also happened to match the timeframe of the Indo-European invasion of Europe, which coincides with the introduction of the Bronze-Age culture in Western Europe, and the proliferation of Italo-Celtic and Germanic languages.

Haplogroup-R1b-S21

Historians and archeologists have long argued whether the Indo-European migration was a massive invasion, or rather a cultural diffusion of language and technology spread only by a small number of incomers. The answer could well be “neither”. Proponents of the diffusion theory would have us think that R1b is native to Western Europe, and R1a alone represent the Indo-Europeans. The problem is that haplogroup R did arise in Central Asia, and R2 is still restricted to Central and South Asia, while R1a and the older subclades of R1b are also found in Central Asia. The age of R1b subclades in Europe coincide with the Bronze-Age. R1b must consequently have replaced most of the native Y-DNA lineages in Europe from the Bronze-Age onwards.

Haplogroup-R1b-L23

However, a massive migration and nearly complete anihilation of the Paleolithic population can hardly be envisaged. Western Europeans do look quite different in Ireland, Holland, Aquitaine or Portugal, despite being all regions where R1b is dominant. Autosomal DNA studies have confirmed that the Western European population is far from homogeneous. A lot of maternal lineages (mtDNA) also appear to be of Paleolithic origin (e.g. H1, H3, U5 or V) based on ancient DNA tests. What a lot of people forget is that there is also no need of a large-scale exodus for patrilineal lineages to be replaced fairly quickly. Here is why.
1]Polygamy. Unlike women, men are not limited in the number of children they can procreate. Men with power typically have more children. This was all the truer in primitive societies, where polygamy was often the norm for chieftains and kings.
2]Status & Power. Equipped with Bronze weapons and horses, the Indo-Europeans would have easily subjugated the Neolithic farmers and with even greater ease Europe’s last hunter-gatherers. If they did not exterminate the indigenous men, the newcomers would have become the new ruling class, with a multitude of local kings, chieftains and noblemen (Bronze-Age Celts and Germans lived in small village communities with a chief, each part of a small tribe headed by a king) with higher reproductive opportunities than average.

Haplogroup-R1b-L21Haplogroup-R1b-DF27

3]Gender imbalance. Invading armies normally have far more men than women. Men must therefore find women in the conquered population. Wars are waged by men, and the losers suffer heavier casualties, leaving more women available to the winners.
4]Aggressive warfare. The Indo-Europeans were a warlike people with a strong heroic code emphasising courage and military prowess. Their superior technology – metal weapons, wheeled vehicles drawn by horses and attitude to life would have allowed them to slaughter any population that did not have organised armies with metal weapons i.e. anybody except the Middle-Eastern civilizations.
5]Genetic predisposition to conceive boys. The main role of the Y-chromosome in man’s body is to create sperm. Haplogroups are determined based on mutations differentiating Y-chromosomes. Each mutation is liable to affect sperm production and sperm motility. Preliminary research has already established a link between certain haplogroups and increased or reduced sperm motility. The higher the motility, the higher the chances of conceiving a boy. It is absolutely possible that R1b could confer a bias toward more male offspring. Even a slightly higher percentage of male births would significantly contribute to the replacement of other lineages with the accumulation effect building up over a few millennia. Not all R1b subclades might have this boy bias. The bias only exist in relation to other haplogroups found in a same population. It is very possible that the fairly recent R1b subclades of Western Europe had a significant advantage compared to the older haplogroups in that region, notably haplogroup I2 and E-V13. Read more

R1b-tree

Replacement of patrilineal lineages following this model quickly becomes exponential. Imagine 100 Indo-European men conquering a tribe of 1000 indigenous Europeans (a ratio of 1:10). War casualties have resulted in a higher proportion of women in the conquered population. Let’s say that the surviving population is composed of 700 women and 300 men. Let’s suppose that the victorious Indo-European men end up having twice as many children reaching adulthood as the men of the vanquished tribe. There is a number of reason for that. The winners would take more wives, or take concubines, or even rape women of the vanquished tribe. Their higher status would garantee them greater wealth and therefore better nutrition for their offspring, increasing the chances of reaching adulthood and procreating themselves. An offspring ratio of 2 to 1 for men is actually a conservative estimate, as it is totally conceivable that Bronze-Age sensibilities would have resulted in killing most of the men on the losing side, and raping their women (as attested by the Old Testament). Even so, it would only take a few generations for the winning Y-DNA lineages to become the majority. For instance, if the first generation of Indo-Europeans had two surviving sons per man, against only one per indigenous man, the number of Indo-European paternal lineages would pass to 200 individuals at the second generation, 400 at the third, 800 at the fourth and 1600 at the fifth, and so on. During that time indigenous lineages would only stagnate at 300 individuals for each generation.
Based on such a scenario, the R1b lineages would have quickly overwhelmed the local lineages. Even if the Indo-European conquerors had only slightly more children than the local men, R1b lineages would become dominant within a few centuries. Celtic culture lasted for over 1000 years in Continental Europe before the Roman conquest putting an end to the priviledges of the chieftains and nobility. This is more than enough time for R1b lineages to reach 50 to 80% of the population.
The present-day R1b frequency forms a gradient from the Atlantic fringe of Europe (highest percentage) to Central and Eastern Europe (lowest), the rises again in the Anatolian homeland. This is almost certainly because agriculture was better established in Eastern, then Central Europe, with higher densities of population, leaving R1b invadors more outnumbered than in the West. Besides, other Indo-Europeans of the Corded Ware culture (R1a) had already advanced from modern Russia and Ukraine as far west as Germany and Scandinavia. It would be difficult for R1b people to rival with their R1a cousins who shared similar technology and culture. The Pre-Celto-Germanic R1b would therefore have been forced to settled further west, first around the Alps, then overtaking the sparsely populated Western Europe.

R1b-M269 (the most common form in Europe) is closely associated with the diffusion of Indo-European languages, as attested by its presence in all regions of the world where Indo-European languages were spoken in ancient times, from the Atlantic coast of Europe to the Indian subcontinent. It has been hypothetised that R1b people (perhaps alongside neighbouring J2 tribes) were the first to domesticate cattle in northern Mesopotamia mayakopsome 10,500 years ago. The analysis of bovine DNA has revealed that all the taurine cattle (Bos taurus) alive today descend from a population of only 80 aurochs. The earliest evidence of cattle domestication dates from circa 8,500 BCE in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures in the Taurus Mountains. The two oldest archaeological sites showing signs of cattle domestication are the villages of Çayönü Tepesi in southeastern Turkey and Dja’de el-Mughara in northern Iraq, two sites only 250 km away from each others. This is presumably the area from which R1b lineages started expanding – or in other words the “original homeland” of R1b. Horses were first domesticated around 4600 BCE in the Caspian Steppe, perhaps somewhere around the Don or the lower Volga, and soon became a defining element of steppe culture. Nevertheless it is unlikely that R1b was already present in the eastern steppes at the time, so the domestication of the horse should be attributed to the indigenous R1a people.

It is not yet entirely clear when R1b crossed over from eastern Anatolia to the Pontic-Caspian steppe. This might have happened with the appearance of the Dnieper-Donets culture (c. 5100-4300 BCE). This was the first truly Neolithic society in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe. Domesticated animals (cattle, sheep and goats) were herded throughout the steppes and funeral rituals were elaborate. Sheep wool would play an important role in Indo-European society, notably in the Celtic and Germanic (R1b branches of the Indo-Europeans) clothing traditions up to this day. However, many elements indicate a continuity in the Dnieper-Donets culture with the previous Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, and at the same time an influence from the Balkans and Carpathians, with regular imports of pottery and copper objects. It is therefore more likely that Dnieper-Donets marked the transition of indigenous R1a and/or I2a1b people to early agriculture, perhaps with an influx of Near Eastern farmers from ‘Old Europe’. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from Dnieper-Donets culture showed clear similarities with those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Carpathians (haplogroups H, T and U3).
The first clearly Proto-Indo-European culture was Sredny Stog (4600-3900 BCE), when small kurgan burials begin to appear, with the distinctive posturing of the dead on the back with knees raised and oriented toward the northeast, which would be found in later steppe cultures as well. There is evidence of population blending from the variety of skull shapes. Towards the end of the 5th millennium, an elite starts to develop with cattle, horses and copper used as status symbols.
The Maykop culture, the R1b link to the steppe? Another migration across the Caucasus happened shortly before 3700 BCE, when the Maykop culture, the world’s first Bronze Age society, suddenly materialized in the north-west Caucasus, apparently out of nowhere. The origins of Maykop are still uncertain, but archeologists have linked it to contemporary Chalcolithic cultures in Assyria and western Iran. Archeology also shows a clear diffusion of bronze working and kurgan-type burials from the Maykop culture to the Pontic Steppe, where the Yamna culture developed soon afterwards (from 3500 BCE). Kurgan (a.k.a. tumulus) burials would become a dominant feature of ancient Indo-European societies and were widely used by the Celts, Romans, Germanic tribes, and Scythians, among others.
<<So the blending of Cucuteni I2 and R1a herders produced the first elites, herders with horses and copper from Cucuteni. Maykop could correspond to the crossing of  Caucasus by the R1b-M269, and the mixture of Cucuteni farmers with R1a&R1b produces the first ”arians”, the first true kurgan society, with superior bronze technology from R1b Maykop, horses from R1a and farming&pottery&salt from Cucuteni culture.>>
The Yamna period (3500-2500 BCE) is the most important one in the creation of Indo-European culture and society. Middle Eastern R1b people had been living and blending to some extent with the local R1a foragers and herders for over a millennium, perhaps even two or three <<and with I2 Cucuteni culture>>. The close cultural contact and interactions between R1a and R1b people <<I2>> all over the Pontic-Caspian Steppe resulted in the creation of a common vernacular, a new lingua franca, which linguists have called Proto-Indo-European (PIE). It is pointless to try to assign another region of origin to the PIE language.

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Sardinia – Vinca I2a1 + Beaker R1b >> Nuragic culture. 1200bc The Sea Peoples>First Dark Age. R1b & R1a ‘Aryan’ waves.


At the site near Prokuplje called Pločnik, serbian archaeologists found evidence of what could be the oldest metal workshop in all of Europe. According to National Museum 10392443_1558687581034096_3118940659047911408_narchaeologist Dušan Šljivar, experts found a “copper chisel and stone ax at a location near Prokuplje in which the foundation has proven to be 7,500 years old, leading us to believe that it was one of the first places in which metal weapons and tools were made in prehistoric times.”  Archaeologists hope that this find in southern Serbia will prove the theory that the metal age began a lot earlier than it was believed to have, Šljivar said.

e1

After the Last Ice Age most of Europe was I1,2. Old Europe, Cardium Culture and Western Europe had I1,I2 as dominant substratum into which neolithic farmers J2,E1&G inserted. So oldest bronze items were discovered in Vinca area, where I2a1 concentration is highest. I2a1 continuum is also very high in Cucuteni area but Sardinia is the area with highest I2a1 concentration after Bosnia, S of Croatia & W of Serbia.
Consider the Nuragic Civilization,  lasting from the Bronze Age (18th century BC) to the 2nd century AD. They were one of the Sea Peoples that wiped out most of Middle Asia, around 1300-1200Bc.

I2a1

Butmir culture existed in Butmir, near Ilidža, Bosnia and Herzegovina, dating from the Neolithic period. It is characterized by its unique pottery, and is one of the best researched 13European cultures from 5100–4500 BC.[1][2] It was part of the larger Danube civilization.
The Butmir culture was discovered in 1893, when Austro-Hungarian authorities began construction on the agricultural college of the University of Sarajevo. The finds caused interest among archaeologists worldwide. They were largely responsible for the International Congress of Archaeology and Anthropology being held in Sarajevo in August 1894. The most impressive finds were the unique ceramics, which are now found in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Certain characteristics of the Butmir pottery designs (e.g. its resemblance with Kamares Butmir-vdvdv14style Minoan pottery) made some suggest a connection to the Minoan culture on Crete. The Butmir culture was the home for several large settlements, among them was the site of Okoliste in Bosnia dating to 5200-4500 B.C. with a population size of 1000-1500 people. The settlement was largest in the early phase (5200 B.C) with an area of 7.5 hectare, from there it gradually declined to reach the size of 1.2 hectare in 4500 B.C. The site likely consisted of parallel rows of houses that ranged in size from four to ten meters in length.

European_Late_NeolithicDating to the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the nuraghe are megalithic towers with a truncated cone shape, which are widespread in the whole of Sardinia, about one nuraghe every three square kilometers. According to Massimo Pallottino, a scholar of Sardinian prehistory, the architecture produced by the Nuragic civilization was the most advanced of any civilization in the western Mediterranean during this epoch, including those in the regions of Magna Graecia.
Sardinia, a land rich in mines, notably copper and lead, saw the construction of numerous furnaces for the production of alloys which were traded across the Mediterranean basin and nuragic people became skilled metal workers; they were among the main metal producers in Europe [8] and with bronze they produced a wide variety of objects and new weapons as swords, daggers, axes, and after drills, pins, rings, bracelets, typical bronze statuettes, and the votive bronze boats show a close relationship with the sea.nuragic
The late Bronze Age (14th-13th centuries BC) saw a vast migration of the so-called sea people, described in ancient Egyptian sources. They destroyed Mycenaean and Hittite sites and also attacked Egypt. According to some scholars the Sherden, one of the most bebeb945571e3674e32fffdae6fc986cimportant tribes of the sea peoples, are to be identified with the Nuragic Sardinians.[12]Another hypothesis is that they arrived to the island around the 13th or 12th century after the failed invasion of Egypt.
Archaeologists define the nuragic phase as ranging from 900 BC to 500 BC (Iron Age) the season of the aristocracies. The handicraft produced fine ceramics and more and more elaborate tools, and the quality of the weapons increased.
With the flourish of the trade, metallurgy products and handcrafts were exported to every corner of the Mediterranean, from the Near East to Spain and the Atlantic. The huts in the villages increased in number and there was generally a large increase in NURAGHE BARUMINI (1)population. The construction of the nuraghi stopped and individual tombs replaced collective burials (Giant’s Tombs). But the real breakthrough of that period, according to archaeologist Giovanni Lilliu, was the political organization which revolved around the Parliament of the village, composed by the heads and the most influential people, who gathered to discuss the most important issues. The nuragic people dominated Sardegna until they were defeated by the Carthaginians around 500 BC and forced to take refuge in the mountainous interior. The Carthaginians were defeated in turn by the Romans, and Sardegna became a Roman province. The nuragic civilization still maintained a separate identity until around 200 AD.

europe-map1383px-Beaker_culture_diffusion.svg

The Bonnanaro culture is the last evolution of the Beaker culture in Sardinia (c. 1800 BC), and shows several similarities with the Bronze-Age Polada culture of northern Italy. These have been connected with prehistoric settlements from the Italian peninsula through Corsica.[4] The introduction of bronze from the new people arriving from the mainland brought numerous improvements, such as in agriculture, in which more effective tools could be used, but also in war and hunting. To this period date the construction of the platformlike so-called proto-nuraghe.
Throughout the second millennium and into the Etnie_Nuragiche-2.svgfirst part of the first Sardegna_Barbariamillennium BC, Sardinia was inhabited by the single extensive and uniform cultural group represented by the Nuragic people. Centuries later, Roman sources describe the island as inhabited by numerous tribes which had gradually merged culturally. They however maintained their political identities and the tribes often fought each other for control of the most valuable land. The most important Nuragic populations mentioned include the Balares, the Corsi and the Ilienses, the latter defying the Romanization process and living in what had been called Civitatas Barbarie.

Abb2_klein
The most ancient settlements have been discovered both in central Sardinia and Anglona; later several cultures developed in the island, such as the Ozieri culture 3200−2700 BC. Remains from this period include more than 2,400 hypogeum tombs called Domus de Janas, the 3rd millennium BC statue Copper Age walled city, Los Millares, Iberiamenhirs representing warriors or female figures, and the stepped pyramid of Monte d’Accoddi, near Sassari, which has some similarities with the monumental complex of Los Millares (Andalusia) and the later Talaiots in theBalearic Islands. According to some scholars, the similarity between this structure and Mesopotamian ones is due to cultural influxs coming from the Eastern Mediterranean.[3] During this period copper objects and weapons also appeared in the island. The altar of Monte d’Accoddi fell out of use starting from c. 2000 BC, when the Beaker culture, which at the time was widespread in almost all western Europe, appeared in the island.

bell1

Thus in Sardinia, the dominant I2a1 (+J2/E1/G) substratum, related to the Vinca/Cucuteni cultures via the Butmir Culture from Bosnia, Croatia, via the sea, was ”fertilized” around 2000bc by the R1b warriors coming from North via Corsica, to produce the Nuragic civilization. On the other hand it’s interesting to note that the R1b migrations coming to Europe from the Middle East through the N of Anatolia and Thracia, went AROUND Bosnia, where they probably met a I2a1 population too strong to go through. The I2a1 economy was based on agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and trading with the mainland just as in Old Europe and already had metalurgy, R1b brought weapons&war, they came for the copper mines, they conquered military the island but they were absorbed by the substratum.

Haplogroup I1 I2*/I2a I2b R1a R1b G J2 J*/J1 E1b1b
Corsica 0 18.5 1 0 49 7.5 14 0 8
Sardinia 0 37.5 2 1 18.5 12 9 4 9.5
Croatia 5.5 37 1 24 8.5 2.5 6 1 10
Bosnia 3 55.5 0 15 3.5 1.5 4 0.5 12
Bosniaks 4 56 0 16 3 2 3.5 0.5 10
Bosnian Croats 0 71 2 12 2 1 1 0 9
Bosnian Serbs 2.5 31 2.5 13.5 6 1 8.5 0 22.5
Romania 4.5 26 2.5 17.5 12 5 13.5 1.5 15
Moldova 5 21 3 30.5 16 1 4 4 13
Kosovo 5.5 2.5 0 4.5 21 0 16.5 0 47.5

Above you can see present day percentages of Y haplogroups. We can see that the Cardial_map‘farming’ substratum remained dominant in Sardinia: I2/39.5%+G/12%+E1/9.5%+J2/9%. R1b brought the aristocracies, but as I2a1 substratum remained dominant, the overall resulting civilization remained pretty much egalitarian. Present day Sardinian haplo structure is similar to Croatian percentages with 2 differences: Croatians received an R1a influx in second stages from Thracia & Pannonia, while Sardinians received the R1b influx from Western Europe through Corsica.
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I2a1: Vinca/Cucuteni> Butmir>Mediterranian Neolithic>Nuragic Sardinia>Sea People
1]Farming came to Old Europe from Middle East through J2+E1+G haplos resulting Old Europe with 2 epicenters in Vinca & Cucueni areas.
2]Bronze technology starts in Vinca/Serbia, Vinca farmers go West to the sea through Butmir culture
3]When they hit the sea, they learn shipping technology and start spreading from Croatia to Italy and further, producing the farming Meditteranian Neolithic Cultures.
4]Cardinal culture in Sardinia 5000bc. Farmers arrive in Sardinia 3000Bc. According to wiki during this period copper objects and weapons also appeared in the island!!
5]Around 2000Bc R1b warriors from Beaker culture arrive from N, through Corsica. They bring the bronze technology, they find in Sardinia the copper mines. wiki:the Bonnanaro culture is the last evolution of the Beaker culture in Sardinia (c. 1800 BC), and shows several similarities with the Bronze-Age Polada culture of northern Italy.e3

e4In the second millennium BC, Mycenae was one of the major centers of Greek civilization, a military Pozzo_Sacro_Santa_Cristinastronghold which dominated much of southern Greece. The period of Greek history from about 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is called Mycenaean in reference to Mycenae. At its peak in 1350 BC, the citadel and lower town had a population of 30,000 and an area of 32 hectares. Some of the pottery and architecture (above picture) of older Nuragic culture, show resemblance with the Minoan culture. Between 1600-1200bc there were obvious commercial relations between the 2 areas.

BACollapse936In around 1200 BC the Sea Peoples produced the Late Bronze Age collapse.  In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit.[3] Drews writes “Within a period of forty to fifty years at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the twelfth century almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed, many of them never to be occupied again” (p. 4). The palace economy of the Aegean Region and Anatolia which characterized the Late Bronze Age was replaced, after a hiatus, by the isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages. The Sea Peoples from the north weakened and destroyed the Egyptians and the Hittites respectively. In the resulting power vacuum, a number of Phoenician cities rose as significant maritime powers to dominate the Medeterana.1200Bc – The Dorian invasion of Greece ends the Mycenian culture. Expanding R1b Hallstatt Culture is probably the main wave behind the Sea Peoples and the Dorians are one of those ‘Sea Peoples’ pushed down by the The Alpine Celts. The Iron technology produced the more competitive weapons, the R1b warriors mixed with growing populations from Sardinia, Sicily, S of Italy and Anatolia destroyed all the palace empires.

Egypt survived with great effort and Phoenicians were the only area NOT invaded in Levant.  Phoenicia  was the enterprising maritime trading culture the spread in Mediterana starting with 1550Bc, that dominated the Mediterranean shores from 1200BC PhoenicianTradeto 300 BC, after the raids of the Sea People. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to ancient Greece. The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make extensive use of the alphabet. The Phoenician phonetic alphabet is generally believed to be the ancestor of almost all modern alphabets.  Through their maritime trade, the Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to North Africa and Europe, where it was adopted by the Greeks, who later passed it on to the Etruscans, who in turn transmitted it to the Romans. Phoenicia was an early example of a “world-economy” surrounded by empires. The high point of Phoenician culture and sea power is usually placed c. 1200–800 BC.

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# 1800bc-200ad Nuragic Civilization from the Bronze Age – metal industry; in 500bc Cartagina invades the island.
# 1850-1600bc first Indo-Aryans invade Greece – the Ionians & the Aeolians – according to Eupedia this wave is mainly R1a, the Thracians, the Macedonians and the Mycenians are R1a warriors over Old Europe substratum.
# The Indo-European invasions brought the Hittites 1750bc, the Lydians & Lycians 1450bc, the Phrygians 1200bc and the Proto-Armenians 1200bc. All were probably predominantly R1b-L23, considering its high percentage in the regions they settled.
# 2000-1200bc Crete navy dominates Mediterana
# 1600–1150bc – Mycene, aristoi palace society
# 1194–1184bc legendary war of Troy
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# 1200bc -R1b Dorians are pushed south by Illyrians, end of Mycene & Crete, end of all Middle East empires. End of Bronze Age, start of Iron Age and start of Bronze Age collapse.
# 1200-300bc –  Phoenicia dominates the seas from. So first ‘Greek wave’ was R1a, the second was R1b, that is why Macedonians, Athenians, Spartans and Asian Ionians were never too united, having the  Peloponesian war between Athens & Sparta  and later Alexander conquered Athens and  RAZED Thebes!
# 750bc – starts the big Greek colonizations, Sparta rules the South, Athens rules the North of Greece.
# around 700bc t
he Cimmerians are probably the last wave of migration  from the Pontic Steppe. They push into Anatolia and later into Pannonia. By that time the Pontic Caspian steppe would have been thoroughly overrun by R1a people.

Haplogroup_G2a

# 10.000-6.000bc, after last Ice Age, I2 go E to W, I1 go S to N to Scandinavia, from Danube/Carpathian area, to recolonize deserted Europe, following the ice retreat.
#6.000-4000bc, J2+E1+G neolithic famers go from E to W and S to N, to spread farming in Europe, coming from Middle East, along the Danube and by sea.
#4.000-2.000bc – R1b enters in Europe around the Black Sea, S&N of Black Sea, go over Romania from E to W, than to the W along the Danube. First base on Western shores of Black Sea, second base in Transylvania, final base above the Alps. R1b becomes dominant haplogroup in Western Europe.
#3.500-1500bc – R1a goes W to E becomes dominant in Central and NE Europe.
# 2.000-1.500bc R1b accumulation in W Europe, population grows. R1b becomes ruling elite, military dominant in Anatolia also.
First tide which is not E to W: first Aryan migration to Greece – R1a from N to S, over Romania –  Thracians, Macedonians, Mycenians.
# 1.200-1.100bc – the Hallstatt accumulation produce the first wave W to E, the celt explosion produces the Sea People raids in Mediterana. R1b Italics occupy N of Italy, Dorians end Mycenian & Mynoic cultures, Sea People end all palace empires in Anatolia. The First Dark Age of Europe ends aristocratic ‘civilizations’, destroy the cities, egalitarian/rural area begins.
#700bc – Starting with the Cimmerians, the tide changes again, from now on there will be waves only from E to W – R1a Scytians, the Big Hun tsunami that will be the beginning of the End for the Roman Empire, the Goths that will bring the Second Dark Age and so on, Avars, Magyars, Mongols, Slavs (N to S), Turkish peoples…

Europe-diffusion-farming

Let’s take a look to the Eupedia neolithic maps:
1] Expansion of agriculture (above)
1.1] 6300-5800 bc: Old Europe and western coast of Italy – that implies expansion BY SEA from Croatia to W Italy, if we consider that the farming arrived to the northern shores of Adriatic Sea in a later phase
1.2] 5800-5300 bc: Sicily, Sardinia/Corsica, NW shores of Italy, S shores of France and SE shores of Spain, all that BEFORE central Italy – this implies also expansion BY SEA to western Mediterana and Sardinia – the subject of this article. Thus the neolithic I2, E1, J2, G farmers seem to arrive to Sardinia by sea from Old Europe. The ‘Fenician’ route by sea around the N shores of Africa seems to be not so continuous at this time, to my logic it was developed in a later phase.
1.3] Obviously the Croatian Alps were not inhabited in neolithic, but it is hard to believe for me that people were not able to travel over these mountains, so I guess we can talk about a link between #neolithic farmers from Bosnia – Butmir culture and #the Croatian shores, so we can talk about an expansion to W – Vinca >> Butmir >> Croatia by land than E of Italy >> Sicily >> Sardinia by sea

Copper_Age_Europe
2] So we have farming in Sardinia by 5000bc according to Eupedia maps, now let’s consider the expansion of bronze technology, Copper Age.
2.1] 5800-5000bc – Now this map is fascinating to me. For one, we see that copper technology appeared in Serbia and on the Lower Danube BEFORE spreading to Greece.
2.2] 4000-3000 bc – Vinca&Lower Danube is the epicenter, from there Copper Age arrives to Croatia. According to wiki during this period copper objects and weapons also appeared in the island.
2.3] Copper expands in Anatolia from ANOTHER epicenter, and in Pontic-Caspian steppes from a THIRD epicenter. At about 3500bc there seems to be a connection between all the 3 epicenters, around the Balck Sea, through the areas in between.
2.4] 3000-2500 bc Copper expands to Central Europe than to N&W of Italy, the classic Celtic area. BY LAND not by sea, with R1b expansion up the Danube.
2.5] Copper technology arrives from N to Sardinia by sea through Corsica, brought by R1b around 2000 bc.
2.6] Here is a nice study on academia.edu about Sardinian bronze figurines, which dates the first famous bronzetti around 1200bc.
Thus I can conclude/speculate:
3.1] I2 basic layer arrived to Sardinia after last Ice Age and remained dominant according to present day percentages.
3.2] farming and J2/E1/G haplos arrived to Sardinia BY SEA from Old Europe around 5000bc
3.3] copper technology and R1b expanded up the Danube BY LAND to Central Europe than to Sardinia by sea through Corsica, around 2000bc

On Eupedia Forum sparkey: A recent study on 1200 Sardinians is raising a question. The type of I2 dominant in Sardinian Y-DNA Phylogeny per Francalacci et al. 2013_thumb[2]Sardinia is a young branch of I2-M26. The I2-M26 in Sardinia is not even one of the oldest haplogroups in Sardinia, see here: eupedia.com/forum/threads-2013. In addition, I2-M26 has its greatest diversity around France, not SE Europe, and every indication is that it diversified in Western Europe by the Neolithic. Some ancient I2-M26 from Neolithic France have been found already to help substantiate that. It branched from I2a1b, nowadays dominant in SE Europe, well before it spread to Sardinia. Not that I2a1b spread from SE Europe itself; it seems to have spread from farther west as well, based on both modern diversity and ancient samples.
adamo/eupedia: Haplogroup I-M26, the “Sardinian” I2a variety, is found in 40-45% of Sardinian males for example; most people do not realize it is also about 19-20% of Spanish Castillan male lineages in Central Spain. In fact, the very center of Spain, the countries nucleus has a high of 33% hg I. Most of Portugal has 5-10% hg I. But Spain has 10-30% I across most of the country. This means that these men certainly moved from southeastern Europe towards Central Europe, then to Iberia, from where they arrived in Sardinia.
sparkey/eupedia: The days of supposing an I2-M26 origin in Sardinia are over; it’s clearly a founder effect there. Iberia has significant diversity, considering that the most common subclade (L160+) has high diversity there, and an outlier (L277+ L247+) is found there. See Cullen. That could indicate that most modern I2-M26 passed through Iberia, at least visigoths_thumb[2]northeastern Iberia near the Pyrenees. However, it’s worth noting that the greatest I2-M26 outlier is in fact German, as is a cousin of the Iberian outlier, indicating that before arriving in Iberia, it was indeed in or around Germany, or at least expanded that direction as well between the end of the Ice Age and the beginning of the Neolithic.
adamo again: That is correct. It actually seems to have arrived in central Spain/Castile where 33% of males are I, and 20% of it is I-M26 like in 40-45% of Sardinians. About 10% of spaniards are I on a national level though. There was probably an I migration from the Balkans to Central Europe a very long time ago. From there, it would move towards central Iberia. From here it somehow reached Sardinia.
wiki on Sardinian people : Sardinia was first colonised in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic from Iberian and Italian peninsulas, during the Neolithic from Italy, Spain and Aegean [farming], during the Early Bronze Age by Beaker folk from Central Europe and Franco-Iberian area [bronze technology].
i-m26.blogspot.ro : According to most theories, Haplogroup I is associated with Gravettian culture. The western Gravettians were responsible for the cave paintings at Lascaux, and other sites in France. I-M26’s Overlay with the Distribution of Megaliths. Conclusion: It is likely that small groups of megalithic mariners influenced greatly the religious, political, cultural (and physical) landscape of the lands to which they ventured during the Neolithic. M26 is a strong candidate for the marker of a “single population of colonizers, navigators and cultivators” (Cavalli-Sforza 1995) which likely originated somewhere in the vicinity of the Pyrenees shortly after the LGM. As Cavalli-Sforza noted, “the Megalithics may have even been a priesthood or some kind of prehistorical aristocracy, who had good ships and perhaps good weaponry, as well as a much more advanced understanding of astronomy and architecture than their contemporaries.”

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The Getes big-bang theory


neolithic-expansionfarming

Byzantine Creation Era  ”The Making of the World”- Facerea Lumii – 5600 BCthe Indo-European_isoglossesbreaking of the Bosphorus, the Fresh Water Lake becomes the Salt Water Black Sea.
The Proto Getes living around the banks of Black Sea migrate outwards. ProtoGetes going up the Danube to Western Europe became ProtoCelts and ProtoGetes going east became Massagetae / IndoAryans – vedic & iranian cultures. Present day Romania is the turntable, the intersection of all indo-european branches!!

5kBC1pastoralR1b origin is SE of Caspian sea. R1b goes round S of Caspian Sea than to the N of Black Sea. Here we have the SECOND BIG BANGThe southern Steppe R1b culture  culture mixed with northern forest-steppe R1a culture AND Old Europe I2+J1/E1/G Cucuteni farming culture!! This mixture produced the Arian Getes. 

r1b-migration-mapBut the center of gravity in my opinion is not the N of the Black Sea – it is the Cucuteni/Vinca/Hamangia area, ie Old Europe around present day Romania, which is the area with BIGGEST population. I2 is the basic layer which absorbed first Haplogroup_I-bordersthe J1/E1/G neolithic farmers that came from Middle Asia producing the Old Europe civilization. This is the FIRST BIG BANG, based on FARMING the first mixture that produced a stronger culture, better technologies, better living conditions, population growth!! The farming, the east shores of the Black Sea and the lower Danube basin produced the biggest population growth &concentration whichlater started to expand, to Western Europe – the ProCelts and than through the Aryan migrations, to the Pontic Caspian steppes and down to the vedic and iranian cultures.arian-home europa1000bc

The Cucuteni culture also had a big asset – SALT.   The Salt Industry is essential for the Second Big Bang!! First Cucuteni started to develop farming and living close to the salt area in the Carpathians, but slowly they were able to transport the salt to the Dniester, Don are and further.

salt1Salt2

The provision of salt was a major logistical problem for the largest Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements. As they came to rely cucuteni_trypillianupon cereal foods over salty meat and fish, Neolithic cultures had to incorporate supplementary sources of salt into their diet. Similarly, domestic cattle need to be provided with extra sources of salt beyond their normal diet or their milk production is reduced. Cucuteni-Trypillian mega-sites, with a population of likely thousands of people and animals, are estimated to have required between 36,000 and 100,000 kg of salt per year. This was not available locally, and so had to be moved in bulk from distant sources, probably from the Carpathian Mountains by river.

romanianhistoryandculture.com/indoeuropean Sites: A]Mikhailovka, B] Petrovka, C]Arkhaim; D]Sintashta, E]Botai, F]Namazga, G]Gonur, H]Togolok, I]Dashly Oasis, J]Sapelli, K]Djarkutan, L]Hissar, M]Shahr-i-Sokhta, N]Sibri, O]Shahdad, P]Yahya, Q]Susa.
Cultures: 1]Cucuteni -Tripolye, 2]Pit Grave/Catacomb, 3]Sintashta/Arkhaim, 4]Abashevo, 5]Afanasievo, 6]Andronovo, 7]Bactrian Margiana archaeological complex, 8] Indus, 9]Akkadian, 10]Hurrian, 11]Hittite

pie2

The Afanasievo culture is the earliest Eneolithic archaeological culture found until now in south Siberia. Radiocarbon estimates give a date of around 3300 BC for the start of the culture. The culture is mainly known from its inhumations, with the deceased buried in Tarimconic or rectangular enclosures, often in a supine position, reminiscent of burials of the Yamna culture. Settlements have also been discovered. The Afanasevo people became the first food-producers in the area by breeding cattle, horses, and sheep. Metal objects and the presence of wheeled vehicles are documented. These resemblances to the Yamna culture make the Afanasevo culture is a strong candidate to represent the earliest cultural form of a people later called the Tocharians. The Afanasevo culture was succeeded by the Andronovo culture as it spread eastwards.
Haplogroup_R1b_WorldR1a1a_distributionThe Abashevo culture is a later Bronze Age (ca. 2500–1900 BCE) archaeological culture found in the valleys of the Volga and Kama River north of the Samara bend and into the southern Ural Mountains. Artifacts are kurgans and remnants of settlements. The Abashevo culture does not pertain to the Andronovo culture and genetically belongs to the circle of Central European cultures of the Fatyanovo culture type corded ware ceramics. The economy was mixed agriculture. Horses were evidently used, inferred by cheek pieces typical of neighboring steppe cultures.[3] The population of Sintashta derived their stock-breeding from Abashevo, although the role of the pig shrinks sharply. It follows the Yamna culture and Balanovo culture[5] in its inhumation practices in tumuli. There is evidence of copper smelting, and the culture would seem connected to copper mining activities in the southern Urals. The Abashevo culture was an important center of metallurgy[9] and stimulated the formation of Sintashta metallurgy. The Abashevo ethno-linguistic identity can only be a subject of speculation, reflecting both northern penetration of the earlier Iranian steppe Poltavka culture as well as an extension of Fatyanovo-Balanovo traditions. It was preceded by the Yamna culture and succeeded by the Srubna culture and the Sintashta culture.

steppes

The last Ice Age covered most of the Eurasia, the Europe population was reduced to a few pockets of resistance. When the ice started to retreat all Europe was re-colonized from the Danube/Carpathian are with I1/I2 populations. So first we have the first big-bang – I2 Europeans absorb the J1/E1/G migrations form Middle Asia, we have the first technologies, farming and pottery.
Based on salt the Cucutenians go East to the fertile areas north of the Black Sea where they meet the R1b people coming form the S of Caspian sea and the R1a hunters from the northern forest steppes. The second big bang is based also on a second wave of ”technologies”: the Salt mining coming from the Carpathians and the horse domestication coming from the Sredny Stog culture on Dnieper.
Farming + salt/food preservation + transportation/trade + ”a sparkling ethnic mixture” produced POPULATION GROWTH and competition which will produce EXPANSION. This Second Big-Bang will expand to East, to the next basins that are offering good living conditions – Donets, Volga, Caspian Sea steppes, Aral Sea and the Oxus/Amu_Darya, and down to Indus and Middle Asia again.
The I2/R1a/R1b mixture is not based so much on farming, it is based on animal herding and horse domestication with transportation based on primitive chariots. At about 2000BC we have a THIRD BIG-BANG the Aryan Getes going east develop the ”modern chariot technology” AND copper mining and bronze metallurgy while they mix with asian populations. They are retracing the R1b route, going back the original area of R1b, where they will meet again with big farming culture/cities of BMA Complex.  The peak of this culture will produce the amazing Arkaim/Sintashta cities.

arkaim

The Arkaim/Sintashta cities/area, are based on copper mining, arsenical bronze industry and on the trade with the rich BMAC farming cities/areas. The empires and city-states of Iran and Mesopotamia provided an almost bottomless market for metals. These trade routes later became the vehicle through which horses, chariots and ultimately Indo-Iranian-speaking people entered the Near East from the steppe.
The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilization of Central Asia, dated to ca. 2300–1700 BCE. The inhabitants of the BMAC were sedentary people who practised irrigation farming of wheat and barley. With their impressive material culture including monumental architecture, bronze tools, ceramics, and jewellery of semiprecious stones, the complex exhibits many of the hallmarks of civilization. In the same time Arkaim features sewerage, fireproof impregnation of walls and other technologies. Climatic pressure, maybe pressure from asian populations, the attraction of the rich BMAC cities probably pushed the Getes to migrate south.
Around 1700BC #1-Arkaim is suddenly abandoned, #2 it’s the end of the BMAC culture and #3 we have the first aryan migration into the Indus valley! This is the FOURTH BIG-BANG, the mixture between scythia-parthia”kurgan Aryans” with farming southerners, the Getes will become MassaGetes, the Big Getes. R1b has returned to origins, farming and all the technologies are coming together with the best warriors, to produce the strongest mix, the most competitive hybrid culture. These warriers/aristocracy will conquer the Indus Valley, will produce the big Hittite, Mittani Empires, the IndoIranien and Vedic civilizations.  Massageteans/on the Oxus, south of Aral Sea, are in the center of Scythian/Getae/Jet continuum from Dniester to Indus, the Great Scythia. This epicenter on the Oxus river of the Great Getes (the MassaGetes) will produce resistance to Persians & Alexander the Great, will produce the Greco Bactrian Kingdom and the Kushan Empire. The eastern Getes will have a natural affinity with the western Getes, the Macedonians of Alexander the Great. greco-bactriankingdommap1Kushan-Empire_100ad

Under the pressure of the rising Turkish populations-the Huns, the most eastern branch of the indo-europeans, the Tocharians / The Yuezhi  and the the Hephthalites, with a mixed blood, will produce the last Aryan invasion of the Indian subcontinent. Yueh-Chih Migrations_thumb[4]Hephthalites_500ad_thumb[3]

And that is the beginning of the END!! The Huns, the Mongols and the Turks will wipe out the Aryan Getes of the Asia, the Aryan Cultures/States, Turkish populations will become dominant in all the Asia.hunsmongol-empire-large

 

So again let’s see the cultures going from Cucuteni area to the East, from river to river, aquiring new technologies in time.
>> 0] Old EuropeVinca + Cucuteni/Dniester
>> 1] Sredny Stog/Dnieper 5th millennium Bc, horse domestication
>> 2] Yamna/Dnieper-Donets 36-23rd century BC, kurgan proto IE
>> 3] Poltavka /Volga 2700—2100BC

BC4500-3500SrednyStogSitesAndronovo_cultureForestSteppeCultureshorsepower%20map%20yamnayaAbove the maximal extent of the Andronovo culture, in orange. The formative Sintashta-Petrovka culture is shown in darker red. The location of the earliest spoke-wheeled chariot finds is indicated in purple. Adjacent and overlapping cultures (Afanasevo culture, Srubna culture, BMAC) are shown in green.

>> 4] ”bi-etnic” Abashevo 2500–1900BC Volga and southern Ural Mountains
>> 5] THIRD BBSintashta-ARKAIM-Petrovka/North of Caspian Sea 2100–1800BC earliest known chariots (with spoked wheels) & copper mining and bronze metallurgy
>> 6] Andronovo/East of Caspian Sea 1800–1400BC, copper ore in the Altai Mountains
>> 7] Tocharians/Tarim Basin maybe linked with the Afanasevo culture of eastern Siberia (c. 3500 – 2500 BC), the Tarim mummies(c. 1800 BC) and the Yuezhi of Chinese records >> 8] FOURTH BB: kurgan warriors meet  BMAC 2300–1700 BCE farming civilization/ Oxus/Amu_Darya – results a much stronger hybrid culture
>> 9] Indus 1700BC first arian conquest
>> 10] Anatolia Hittites 1600-1500Bc and Mittani 1400bc
>> 11] Vedic Indus Culture 1750–500 BC
>> 12] Massageteans/on the Oxus, south of Aral Sea, are in the center of Scythian/Getae/Jet continuum from Dniester to Indus. Resistance to Persians & Alexander the Great, the Greco Bactrian Kingdom and the Kushan Empire.

r1a-y-dna-eupedia

Then the direction of the tides changes again, the migrations are starting to flow from E to W, from the Caspian Pontic steppes to Europe, with the Huns and the Mongols pushing from behind the biggest waves.
>> The Cimmerians were an ancient Indo-European people living north of the Caucasus and the Sea of Azov as early as 1300 BC[1]until they were driven southward by the Scythians into Anatolia during the 8th century BC. Linguistically they are usually regarded as Iranian, or possibly Thracian with an Iranian ruling class. After their exodus from the Cimmerians[6]Pontic steppe the Cimmerians probably assaulted Urartu about 714 BC, but in 705, after being repulsed by Sargon II of Assyria, they turned towards Anatolia and in 696–695 conquered Phrygia. In 652, after taking Sardis, the capital of Lydia, they reached the height of their power. Their decline was rapid, and their final defeat is dated between 637 and 626, by Alyattes of Lydia. There are no further mentions of them in historical sources, but it is likely they settled in Cappadocia. Herodotus thought the Cimmerians and the Thracians closely related, writing that both peoples originally inhabited the northern shore of the Black Sea, and both were displaced about 700 BC, by invaders from the east. Whereas the Cimmerians would have departed this ancestral homeland by heading east and south across the Caucasus, the Thracians migrated Odrysian.svgsouthwest into the Balkans, where they established a successful and long-lived culture.
>> The Sarmatians were an Iranian people during classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.[1][2] They spoke Scythian, an Indo-European language from the Eastern Iranian family. At their greatest reported extent, around 1st century AD, these tribes ranged from the Vistula River to the mouth of the Danube and eastward to the Volga, bordering the shores of the Black and Caspian seas as well as the Caucasus to the south.[5] The Sarmatians declined in the 4th century with the incursions connected to the Migration period (Huns, Goths). The descendants of the Sarmatians became known as the Alans. Strabo in the 1st century names as the main tribes of the Sarmatians the Iazyges/Pannonia, the Roxolani/Moldavia, the Aorsi and the Siraces.
>> The Odrysian Kingdom was a state union of Thracian tribes that endured between burebista3the 5th and 3rd centuries BC.
>> Burebista was a king of the Getae and Dacians, who unified their tribes for the first time and ruled them between 82 BC and 44 BC. He led plunder and conquest raids across Central and Southeastern Europe, subjugating most of the neighbouring tribes. After his assassination in a palace coup, the empire was divided into smaller states.

2000px-roman_empire_125

Huns_450ad

The Getes were known by the Greco-Romans to the west, by the Chinese to the east, and by the Indians and Persians to the south. In the fourth and third centuries BC, after IE expansionresisting Alexander the Great, the Massagetae subdued nearly all the nomad tribes of Central Asian north of the Macedonian frontier, eastward to the Tien-Shan Mountains, and possibly many tribes of the Kazakhstan steppes; this led to a tremendous extension of their culture. Sakas, Dahae, Daae, Sacae, Daks, Alans, Sarmatians, ThracoGetians, Thyssagetae, Tyrigetae, Great Yuezhi, Ephthalites or White Huns, Kushans, Tochari, Cimmerians,  Goths, Iazygians, Roxolani, Dacians, there seems to be a continuity between the vast steppes, from neolithic to the Middle Age.

Metallurgical_diffusion

Diffusion of metallurgy in Europe and Asia Minor. The darkest areas are the oldest.
#1. The first evidence of extractive metallurgy dates from the 5th and 6th millennium BC and was found in the archaeological sites of Majdanpek, Yarmovac and Plocnik, all three in Serbia. To date, the earliest evidence of copper smelting is found at the Belovode site,[6]including a copper axe from 5500 BC belonging to the Vinča culture. Metallurgists of the Cucuteni Trypilliaculture knew various procedures of copper processing, cucuteni spiralbut also of obtaining alloys, such as the one of copper and silver. To a smaller extent, gold was also being processed, being meant for creating prestigious jewelry. Metal items sometimes accumulated within treasures (such as those discovered in Ariuşd, Hăbăşeşti, Brad, Cărbuna, Horodnica etc.). Thus, the treasure of Ariuşd (Romania) contained 1992 copper items, and the treasure of Cărbuna (Rep. Moldova) brought to light 444 metal items; the treasures of Ariuşd and Brad (Romania) also contained golden items.

#2. Social changes which began in Eastern Europe and Western Asia around 2300 BC were consolidated across Europe during the Bronze and Iron Ages. Warrior aristocracies developed. Travelling on horseback, warriors could travel long-distances. Wietenberg_culture_axes_at_National_Museum_of_Transylvanian_History_2007The invention of the spoked wheel made the war chariot possible. There was a marked increase in the manufacture of weapons. In the Stone Age, axes and daggers could be made, but the long sword was the work of bronze-smiths and clearly a weapon of war. Sheet-metal working developed in the Urnfield Culture of the Late Bronze Age, making possible shields and armour. With this focus on conflict came thecar-ritual development of fortifications. Warfare itself was not new. What we see in the Bronze Age is the development of a society in which the warrior had a special place – indeed a leading role.
According to ‘wiki’ the sword developed in the Bronze Age, evolving from the dagger; the earliest specimens date to ca. 1600 BC. in the Black Sea region and the Aegean. A good article here- The Greek Age of Bronze. The Mycenaean culture starts around 1700BC when Indus has Mycenaean_sword_and_Wietenberg_culture_axes_at_National_Museum_of_Transylvanian_History_2007the first Aryan invasion.
The Wietenberg culture was a Middle Bronze Age archeological culture in Central Transylvania that roughly dates to 2200–1600/1500 BCE. The above pix – Wietenberg culture battle axes found at Valea Chioarului, Maramureş County,Romania. In display at the National Museum of Transylvanian History, Cluj-Napoca and Mycenaean bronze sword found at Dumbrăvioara, Mureş County, Romania. The Mycenians came to Greece from the North of present day Romania, where this sword was found.

2000bc

#3. The shift to cremation rather than interment around 1300 BC, gave archaeologists a name for the burgeoning Urnfield culture. The typical Urnfield burial used a urn to contain the ashes of the desceased, capped by an upturned bowl, set into a pit. The usage had spread over much of Europe by 1000 BC. Any type of cremation was uncommon earlier over most of Europe except the Carpathian Basin, where it appears urnamong the Makó and Bell Beaker groups as early as c. 2700 to 2400 BC. So this region has often been considered the starting point for the Urnfield tradition. Two of the Middle Bronze Age cultures of Hungary favoured cremation, but only one of them placed a capped burial urn in a pit. That was the Vatya Culture of sheep-breeders living intellsettlements along the Danube. These were well-placed for trading, as well as having good grazing land nearby. So the idea could easily have travelled up the Danube to the trading nexus at its head. From there it spread west and north into Germany and Poland and south into Italy. Finally it moved into France and part of Spain. There was also a transition to cremation burial in Scandinavia and the British Isles in the Late Bronze Age, but without the vast cemeteries of Continental Europe. The distribution of the Urnfield Culture is very similar to that of the Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b-U152.  herodot

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Excerpts from – THE GETES by Sundeep S. Jhutti – 2003


SINO-PLATONIC PAPERS is an occasional series dedicated to making available to specialists and the interested public the results of research that, because of its unconventional or controversial nature, might otherwise go unpublished. The editor-in-chief actively encourages younger, not yet well established, scholars and independent authors to submit manuscripts for consideration. This series is not the place for safe, sober, and stodgy presentations. Sino-Platonic Papers prefers lively work that, while taking reasonable risks to advance the field, capitalizes on brilliant new insights into the development of civilization.

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Sino-Platonic Papers, 127 (October, 2003)  – THE GETES by Sundeep S. Jhutti

INTRODUCTION. Iranian-speaking nomads have caught the attention of many societies, from early Greco Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese writers to modem scholars intrigued by their unique, somewhat romantic lifestyle as horse-mounted warriors constantly searching for greener pastures, military challenges, and riches. Spread throughout the vast Central Asian steppes, they were known to the Greeks, the Persians, the Indians, and the Chinese.
Of these Iranian-speaking nomads, the best known were the Scythians, due to their contact with the West, particularly Greece. According to Webster’s Encyclopedia Dictionary, the Scythians were “a nomadic Indo-European people who settled in Scythia before the seventh century B.C. and were displaced by the Sarmatians. They were specially noted in warfare for their mounted archers and in art for their rich gold ornaments. They spoke an Iranian language”. Herodotus, dedicated a great portion of his Histories solely to the Scythians during the days when the Persian and Egyptian empires were thriving. He was keen in noting another important and more eastern Iranian tribe called the Massagetae, whom he considered to be like the Scythians (Rawlinson 1928, 79). In addition, the geographer Strabo applies the comprehensive name Scythian to the Sakas, Dahae, and Massagetae. He states: Now the greater part of the Scythians, beginning at the Caspian Sea, are called Daae, but those who are situated more to the’ east are called Massagetae and Sacae, whereas all the rest are given the general name of Scythians, though each people is given a separate name. They are all for the most part nomads. In the works of the Alexandrian age, writers repeatedly called these nomads at “various times, ‘Scythian,’ ‘Massagetae,’ or ‘Dakhs‘”
Interestingly, Alexander Cunningham, the former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India, believed that the Dahae of the Greeks and the Dahyu of the Persians were the same word as the colloquial term daku used in India (Indo-English “dacoit“), which literally means “a robber or enemy’~ (Cunningham 1888,32). The Scythians could have been perceived as dacoits by these sedentary societies, and these terms could have been those of reproach (Cunningham 1888, 32). The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica also holds this view: The predatory tribes of Turan [Turkistan ] (e.g., Massagetae) seem to have belonged to the same stock [Iranian]. These tribes are distinguished by the Iranian
peasants as Daha (Gr. Daai), “enemies,” “robbers”; by the Persians as Sacae; and by the Greeks generally as Scythians.
The Sakas, in particular, made their way to the Indian subcontinent. In his Guide to Taxila, Marshall, the former Director-General of Archaeology of India, says the following about the Sakian invaders of India: Known to the western world under the comprehensive name of Scythians, to the Indians as Sakas, and to the Chinese as Sai or Sai-wang~ these invaders came principally from the three great tribes of Massagetae, Sacaraucae, and Dahae, whose home at the beginning of the second century B.C. was in the country between the Caspian Sea and Jaxartes river. (Marshal11960, 24) In addition to the tribes mentioned by Marshall, there were many other lesser-known nomadic tribes not mentioned, for example, the Thyssagetae, Tyrigetae, etc., who probably were like the Sakas. Marshall, therefore, believes that the Scythian term was an all-inclusive name applied to all Iranian-speaking Central Asian nomads. Cunningham, on the other hand, referring to the Scythian invaders of India, included the non-Iranian-speaking Ephthalites or White Huns. He states: the different races of Scythians, which have successively appeared on the border provinces of Persia and India, are the following … Sakas or Sacae, the Su or Sai of the Chinese … Kushans, or Tochari, the Great Vue-chi of the Chinese … Kidaritae, or Later Kushans, the Little Vue-chi of the Chinese … Ephthalites, or White Huns, the Ye-tha-i-lito of the Chinese. (Cunningham 1888, 27) Tod also classifies the White Huns as a “Scythian” people!
Now it is difficult to believe the Scythians were ever really one ethnic entity, since they were so greatly separated along the vast Central Asian steppes. What seems more reasonable is that they were groups of many independent nations with a similar language and culture. Therefore, the comprehensive name “Scythian” probably signifies a people who shared a common culture, language, and extended geographical area Names of tribes such as Massagetae, on the other hand, were more geographically specific, referring to, in this case, a tribe east of the Caspian Sea with almost unique, customs. Leaving tribal origins aside, the history of these Scythian tribes is impressive. They were known by the Greco-Romans to the west, by the Chinese to the east, and by the Indians and Persians to the south. One of the most interesting aspects of these tribes was their mobility as mounted nomads who left little of Eurasia unexplored.
In his In Search of the Indo-Europeans, referring to a map of Eurasia, Mallory says: Reading from west to east we can include as Iranian speakers the major Iron Age nomads of the Pontic-Caspian steppe such as the Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians and Alans. The incredible mobility of these horse-mounted nomads becomes all the more impressive when we recall their westward expansions through Europe. Sarmatian tribes not only settled in the Danube region, but during the second century AD, were conscripted to defend the borders of Roman Britain. The Alans traveled as far as France and forced their way south through Spain, ultimately to establish a state in North Africa. (Mallory 1989, 48-49)
It cannot be overemphasized that the mobility of the Scythian tribes was often the result of their being driven on by other tribes, even kindred tribes, so that an event on one side of the steppes would cause a chain reaction of events reaching the other. This was the case with the Huns (Hsuing-Nu), a nomadic Mongol people, who uprooted the nomadic Yuezhi near the Great Wall of China before· the Christian era. The Chinese Emperor Zheng (Shi Huangdi, 246-210 B.C.) linked together the existing frontier walls into a continuous defense system, thereby creating the Great Wall of China (Haywood 2000, 26). As a result the restless Hsuing Nu tribe attacked their neighbors “the Caucasian Wusun and Yuezhi, which led to a wholesale movement of these nomads (Dhillon 1994, 41). Not only were the fleeing Yuezhi uprooted, but so also were a perhaps kindred people, the Sakas, near the Aral Sea. Eventually this chain of events led to these nations appearing on the Indo-Iranian borderlands and settling in these regions (Dhillon 1994, 41). This same movement of tribes was the driving force that finally led the Alans to enter Roman territory. Haywood provides a good summary of this large-scale movement: The rise of the Xiongnu [Huns] had a destabilizing effect on the Iranian nomads to the west. In 170 the Xiongnu inflicted a crushing defeat on the Vue Qi [Yuezhi], who fled westward, unsettling the Sakas, before overrunning the Bactrian kingdom around 135. The Sakas headed south, first to invade the Parthian empire and, around 141, northern India, and were able to occupy much of the northwest without facing much serious opposition. On the western steppes, the Sarmatians defeated and absorbed the Scythians in the 2nd century and by 150 three distinct groups appeared: the Iazygians, the Roxolani, and the Alans. (Haywood 2000, 28)
It does not seem mere coincidence that the time line for the “barbarian” invasions of Rome corresponds very closely to that of the similar invasions of northwest India and northeastern Iran, or that Huns were associated with these assaults. For example, the Alans reached Gaul in A.D. 408 (Dhillon 1994, 91), and the Ephthalites conquered Transoxiana and Bactria around 440 and reached India around 455-460 (Grousset 1970, 67-68). McGovern provides a bird’s-eye view of the movement of these tribes: The Sakas, like their neighbors, the Alani, were destined to play an important part in later history. But whereas the Alani spread westward into Europe, the Sakas chose the lands south of them for the seat of their later actions; and at one time they were lords of much of Eastern Iran and Northern India. (McGovern 1939)… Earlier it was mentioned that the Scythians may have had similar customs and language, but it is doubtful that they were ever one ethnic entity. This statement, however, could be partially untrue. The dominance by one group in particular, the Massagetae, who in post-Alexandrian times were classified as Sarmatians, may have led to some homogeneity across most of the steppes. McGovern wrote, “The decay and eventual downfall of the Scythians was due almost entirely to invasion by their distant kinsmen, the Sarmatians” (McGovern 1939, 38).
The Sarmatians were “a member of the nomadic Indo-European people who displaced the Scythians on the lower Don. First the enemies and then the allies of Rome, they were displaced by the Goths in the third century A.D.” (W.E.D.1988, 887). The term “Sarmatian” gradually began to replace “Scythian” in classical accounts. Littleton and Malcor call them “Eastern Scythians” (Littleton and Malcor 2000, 16). And for good reason, as the Sarmatians were not much different from Scythians-they spoke an Iranian language and wore trousers, soft leather boots, and round or peaked caps, although some also went bare-headed (Sulimirski 1970). 
Regarding the Sarmatians, Jeannine Davis-Kimball wrote a rather interesting paragraph in her popular book Warrior Women: they were also Caucasoids and spoke an Indo-Iranian language, their skeletons revealed a variety of ethnic types, with some being tall and large boned … while others were shorter and delicate in stature. My theory, based on a number of notable comparisons between funeral offerings, is that some of these people might have been younger generations of Saka who were forced from their territories near the Tien Shan Mountains or the southern Aral Sea by the need for additional summer pasturelands. Around the third century A.D., they began migrating westward and eventually these expert horsemen equipped with sophisticated weapons and armor constituted a real threat to the Roman legions guarding the Danube frontier. The enterprising legionnaires, however, defused the situation by recruiting some of the Sannatians to join their army. In A.D. 175, more than five thousand of the steppe tribesmen (most likely along with their families) were dispatched to the northern English border to guard Hadrian’s Wall, which helped repel incursions into Roman Britain by the Picts and the Celtic Scots. Twenty years later, the Sarmatian regiment was redeployed to Gaul (the ancient designation for France and Belgium) to quell a rebellion. Later they were returned to Britain, and as they grew old, the battle-weary Sarmatians retired to a veteran’s home in Lancashire.
The destruction by Alexander the Great of the Achaemenid (Persian) monarchyand his subsequent conquest of Bactria and Sogdiana in 330-328 BC also influenced the history and development of all the peoples of Central Asia. Neither the Chorasmians nor the Massagetae were subjugated by Alexander, but as a result of having to fight against the highly trained and organized Macedonian army, they developed new military tactics using armoured cavalry, the ‘cataphracti’. Some authors think that the Massagetae owed their conquests solely to the use of this armoured cavalry against weaker adversaries. (Sulimirski 1970, 81). “In the fourth and third centuries BC, the Massagetae subdued nearly all the nomad tribes of Central Asian north of the Macedonian frontier, eastward to the Tien-Shan Mountains, and possibly many tribes of the Kazakhstan steppes; this led to a tremendous extension of their culture which to a great extent derived from that of Achaemenid Iran” (Sulimirski 1970, 81). Moreover, this mechanism led to the expansion of their culture east to China, west to the German frontier, and perhaps even southward to India. So did the Massagetae – provide at least some continuity between the vast steppes, before this nation was scattered by the Huns?
In a rather bold paragraph in their recent book on The Tarim Mummies, James P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair suggest that there may have been more cohesion among these nomads than was previously believed. They wrote in the following paragraph regarding the Yuezhi nomads near the border of China: Da (Greater) Yuezhi, or in the earlier pronunciation d’ad-ngiwat-tieg, has been seen to equate with the Massagetae who occupied the oases and steppe lands of West Central Asia in the time of Herodotus; here Massa renders an Iranian word for “Great,” hence “Great Getae.” … Others have seen in this word an attempt to capture in Chinese the name of a tribe that is rendered in Greek as the Iatioi who are recorded in Ptolemy’s geography. The original pronunciation has been reconstructed as gwat-ti or got-ti or gut-si, which opens up distant lexical similarities with the Goths, the Getae (the Dacian, i.e., Balkan, tribes northwest of the Black Sea), the Guti (a people on the borderlands of Mesopotamia), the Kusha (our Kushans), the Gushi (a people mentioned in Han texts and regarded as brigands along with the peoples of Kroran) , or a combination of some but not all of the above. (Mallory and Mair 2000, 98-99).  This comparison of like-sounding tribal names, although merely a paragraph in length, could potentially generate volumes of discussion and can help us understand more definitively the nature of the barbarian invasions in ancient Rome, the powerful Kushan Empire in India, the possible origins of the Guti people, the Guti kings of Mesopotamia, and the similarity between the Goths, Getae, and the Yuezhi. Moreover, this opens up the possibility that at least some of the people termed “Scythians” were a single tribe-the Getae. So could there have been a nation of nomads who knew themselves as Gets, Gats, Guts, or Yuts?
This is not the first time that the suggestion has been offered that the Yuezhi could be related to Goths. In his Tableaux Historiques De L ‘Asia, Julius Von Klaproth (1783-1835) wrote: The name of Yueti or Yut recalls that of Yuts or Goths, which came to Europe: it would be very possible that the Yutes who arrived in Scandinavia with Odin, are the same people who three centuries before our era, still inhabited the area … northwest of the Chinese Kansu province. This would suppose the emigration of the Goths of Central Asia. This identification between the Yuezhi and the Goths by Klaproth suggests that the tribes involved in the movement of nomads into Roman territory may have been greater than modem scholarship holds. Could it be that the Goths, along with the Alans, were pushed into Europe under pressure from the Huns? Moreover, could these same tribes be found in the Indian and Persian frontiers? The South Asian Jats are one such group that may lead us in the proper direction, as their settlement corresponds geographically with the Indo-Scythian settlement on the Indian subcontinent. Perhaps by examining the customs and characteristics of this living population we can better understand the role the Getae played in history.

Jats, Getae, and Yuezhi. According to Williams, “The extent of the Scythian invasion [of India] has been variously estimated. Some scholars believe they virtually supplanted the previous population of [northwest] India, and there seems little doubt that by far the most numerous section of the Punjab population is of Scythian origin” (Williams 1905, 481). We also know that many, if not most, of the Massagetae went to India (Tarn 1966, 306-307). So it would not be outrageous to suppose that the inhabitants of northwest India may be descended from these ancient invaders. The South Asian Jats are an Indo-European people who number roughly 35 million and follow the three religions of Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism in roughly equal percentages, based on Dhillon’s estimates in 1994 (Dhillon 1994, 1). They are found in Northwest India and Pakistan, mainly in the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, Kashmir, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan. Roughly speaking, Jats are Muslims in the West, Sikh in the center, and Hindus in the East (Rose
1883,1: 361).
Father Monserate (1536-1600), a Jesuit priest at the Moghal king Akbar’s court considered the Jats to be the descendants of the Getae (Maclagan 1990, 154). By the mid-18th century, Joseph De Guignes (1721-1800) would equate the Jats with the Scythians, as well, but this time also with the Chinese Yuezhi (De Guignes 1756, Dhillon 1994, Tod 1829, Elphinstone 1874). De Guignes, a French Orientalist, believed the Jats of Punjab were descendants of Yuezhi who were known to the Indians under the Kushan Dynasty. James Tod, relying on De Guignes, presented quite an interesting histQry to the Jats and Raj puts , whom he thou~ht were both descendants of Yuezhi and Getae, as he equated the Getae and Yuezhi. In his Annals and Antiquities of Rajas than, written in 1829, he says (note Jit, Jat, and Jut are the same): ‘[A] translation of the Nehrwalla conqueror’s inscription, which will  prove beyond any doubt that these Jit princes of Salpoori in the Punjab, were the leaders of that very colony of the Yuti from Jaxartes, who in the fifth century crossed the Indus and possessed themselves of the Punjab. In short, whether as Yuti, Getae, Jats, Juts, or Jauts … their habits confirmed the tradition of their Scythic origin. In his Tableaux Historiques De L’Asia, Klaproth (1783-1835) also identified the Jats with the Yuezhi. The Jats offered resistance not only against the Arabs, but also against invaders such as Ghaznavi, Timur, Babar, Jahangir, and eventually the British at Bharatpur and under the Sikh Empire (Dhillon 1994). This demonstrates the continuity of the existence of these people in India and the preservation of their martial qualities.
Alexander Cunningham held that the Jats were descended from Strabo’ s Zanthi and Ptolemy’S Iatioi. In his 1888 work, Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, he said: The Xanthii are very probably the Zaths [Jats] of early Arab writers. The Xanthii were a sub-branch of the Dahae, as per Strabo.. In his Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, George Rawlinson, when writing about the original homeland of the Scythian invaders of India, makes the identification between the Jats and the Massagetae: Of these tribes the principal were the Massagetae (‘great Jits, or Jats’), who occupied the country on both sides of the lower course of the Oxus; the Dahae, who bordered the Caspian above Hyrcania, and extended hence to the latitude of Herat; the Tochari, who settled in the mountains between the upper Jaxartes and the Upper Oxus, where they gave name to the tract known as Tokharistan; the Asii, or Asiani, who were closely connected with the Tochari; and the Sakarauli (Sacarucae?), who are found connected with both the Tochari and the Asiani. (Rawlinson 1872, 118) .. Modern scholarship has interpreted the Yuezhi as the phonetic Ywati, and has identified the tribe with Ptolemy’s Iatioi or Jatioi..
Who were the Tokharoi? Pulleyblank, as aforementioned, believed the Jatioi and the Tokharoi were closely associated with each other (Pulleyblank 2002, 425). M. Lin, in “Qilan and Kunlun-The Earliest Tokharian Loan-Words in Ancient Chinese,” believes the Yuezhi to be the Tokharoi. He writes, “The Yuezhi people who came from Dunhtiang were called Tokharoi in classical Greek works and Tukhara in the ancient Indian texts” (Lin 1998, 477). Further, Rosenfield in his Dynastic Art of the Kushans, says about the Kushans, “the Chinese continued to call these people the Ta (Great) Yueh-chih …. In India, strangely enough, the name Kushan as such never appears in the Puranas, Mahabharata, or other quasi-historical sources. These people must have been denoted by variations of the Tokhari, such as Tuskara, Tushara, Tukhara, Turushka” (Rosenfield 1967,8). 
To summarize, we have Alexander Cunningham, who identified the South Asian Jats with Ptolemy’s Iatioi and then equated the Da Yuezhi (Great Yuezhi) with the Massagetae (Great Getae). Adding Torday, Marquart, and Pulleyblank’s identification of the Iatioi with the Yuezhi, it is logical to conclude that the Getae were the Yuezhi and the Jats.
Ibbetson (who performed the 1880 census of India) says about the modem Dahiya Jats: “They are probably the Dahae of Alexander” (Ibbetson 1916, 130). McGovern believed the Dahae Sakas were a “branch of the Massagetae” (McGovern 1939,68). It is no wonder that we have writers like Trevaskis who, in The Land of the Five Rivers in 1928, wrote, “But the great mass of the [Scythian] tribes who took more readily to agriculture were called Jats, a name which may possibly be identified with the Latin Getae or Goths” (Trevaskis 1928, 87). By the early 20th century, most authorities accepted the Scythian origin of South Asian Jats, which is affirmed in the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica: “Some writers have identified the Jats with the ancient Getae, and there is strong reason to believe them a degraded tribe of Raj puts, whose Scythic origin has also been maintained”
The Jats and Rajputs, as well as Gujars, have been identified as descendants of Scythian invaders, of which many became followers of the Sikh religion. MacMunn believed the “Martial Races” of India were somehow all connected to the Scythian descendants: “the martial races, almost without exception, come from some branch or derivative of the great peoples of Northern India who we lmow as Rajputs and Jats” (MacMunn 1932,223). 
Joseph Davey Cunningham wrote in his famous book, A History of Sikhs, in 1849: The plains of Upper India, in which the Brahmans and Kshattriyas had developed a peculiar civilization, have been overrun by Persian or Scythic tribes, from the age of Darius and Alexander to that of Babar and Nadir Shah. Particular traces of successive conquerors may yet perhaps be found, but the main features are: 1) the introduction of the Muhammadan creed; and 2) the long antecedent emigration of hordes of Jats from the plains of Upper Asia. It is not necessary to enter into the antiquities of Grecian Getae and Chinese YueChi, to discuss the asserted identity of the peasant Jat. … or try to trace the blood of Kadphises in the veins of Ranjit Singh. (J.D. Cunningham 1849,4). It should be noted that J.D. Cwmingham equates the Greek Getae with the Chinese Yuezhi. Further, in the same book, Cunningham discusses the etymology of the word “Jat.” “[We may] derive Jat from the Sanskrit Jyest’ha, old, ancient, and so make the term equivalent to aborigines; but this etymology perhaps too hastily sets aside the sufficiently established facts of Getae and Yuechi emigrations, and the circumstance of Taimur’s [Timur’s] warfare with Jettahs in Central Asia” (J. D. Cunningham 1849, 299). 
An interesting addition to this statement was made by C. Twiggs, who, in discussing Timur’s Zafarnama, or Memoirs, says, “We know from the ‘Zafarnama’ of Sharfuddin that Timur, when he invaded India, believed the Jats of the Punjab to be the same race as Tartars whom he met in Central Asia” (Twigg 1870, 318-19). With the generic word “Tartars,” I believe he means Sakas or eastern Scythians. This further implies that the Getae kept their tribal identification as Jatae or Jatahs intact as late as Timur’s age. Further, Toynbee, in discussing the modem Turkish word “Jatah” or “cheteh,” which means “guerilla,” wonders, “Is it perhaps derived from the tribal name of the Getae (Massagetae and Thyssagetae) or Jats, who were the nearest Nomadic neighbors of the Oxus-Jaxartes oases in the Achaemenian Age, before they erupted out of the Steppe and poured over the Hindu Kush into the Panjab in the second century B.C.?” (Toynbee 1934, 2: 145). Interestingly, Gibbon, the author of The Decline and Fall of Rome, believes that the “Jatah” of Transoxiana mentioned by Timur were Getes (Gibbon 1850, 6: 249), suggesting the survival of the name of the ancient race in Central Asia.
Briggs had this to say as early as 1829, in his History and Rise of Mahomedan Power in India, about Jats: “We have no satisfactory account of these Juts; but there seems reason to believe them to be a horde of Tartars of the same stock as the Getae so often mentioned in ancient history …. ” (Briggs 1829, 1: 81). One after another, British and other historians related the South Asian Jats to Scythian tribes, usually the Yuezhi or the Getae. Syad Muhammad Latif, a Muslim author, wrote, “A portion of these settlers, the descendents of Masagetae, were called Getes, from whom sprung the modem Jats” (Latif 1891, 56). Even some Indian historians, who are not Jats themselves, claim that the Jats are descendants of the Getae. Satya Shrava, in his 1981 work, Sakas in India, said, “The Jats are no other than the Massagetae (Great Getae) mentioned in Diodoms as an off-spring of the ancient Saka tribe…. a fact now well-known” (Shrava 1981,2-3).
J.F. Hewitt related the Thracian Getae, a tribe mentioned by Herodotus, to the Massagetae and the Jats, stating: These Thracian Getae must, as a Northern race of individual proprietors, have held their lands on the tenure existing in the Jat villages, and these Indian Jats, or Getae, have not degenerated from the military prowess of their forefathers, for those Jats who have become Sikhs in the Punjab, are known as some of the best and most reliable Indian soldiers…. Further evidence both of early history and origin of the race of Jats, or Getae, is given by the customs and geographical position of another tribe of the same stock, called the Massagetae, or Great Getae (Hewitt 1894, 482). We will discuss later the relationship between the Thracian Getae, or Tyrigetae, with the other branches of the Getae.

Massagetae. When first hearing the word “Massagetae,” a Sikh would quickly be reminded of Massa Ranghar or the Great Ranghar, a Muslim Rajput, who insulted the greatest Sikh Shrine, the Golden Temple or Harmandar (Durbar) Sahib, by seizing it and making it a dancing hall, 3 centuries ago. It was relatively common for Jat Sikhs in those days to have Persian or Farsi personal names and “Massa” or “Massa Singh” was common. Even today some Sikhs are named Massa Singh, or the “Great” Singh. “Massa” was simply the Persian or Pehlavi equivalent of the Indian “Maha,” meaning “great” (Pawar 1993, 364). This is also the view of Elliot, who says “Massa” means “Great” in the PehIavi language (Elliot 1870, 133). The root word “Mas,” in the Pehlavi glossary by Nyberb, is believed to mean “great” (Nyberb 1974, 127). Thus it follows that Massagetae means “Great Getae.” The ninth-century work De Universo of Rabanus Maurus clearly states, “The Massagetae are in origin from the tribe of the Scythians, and are called massagetae, as if heavy, that is, strong Getae” (Migne 1864, Col 439). Therefore, we can conclude that the  Massagetae are the Great Getae.

Thyssagetae. Little is known about Herodotus’s Thyssagetae, other than that they were found east of the river Don (Tanais) (Rawlinson 1928, 241). “The Thyssagetae appear to be a branch of the Gothic family, ‘the lesser Goths’ as distinguished from the Massa-Getae, ‘the greater Goths'” (H. Rawlinson 1880, 16). Therefore, the Thyssagetae were the Lesser Getae, as Rawlinson equated Goths with Getae. Crooke endorses Rawlinson’s identification, claiming the Thyssagetae were “the lesser Getae” (Tod 1829, 72). The Getae and Goth connection will be discussed later. The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central Europe. It rises in Ukraine, after passing through Hungary, it flows into the Danube in Vojvodina, Serbia.

Massagetae and Thyssagetae = Da Yuezhi and Xiao Yuezhi. We have already shown that the Iranian Massagetae can be equated with the obscure Yuezhi that appeared on the borders of China, but can we be more precise? Views equating the Massagetae with the Da Yuezhi are fairly common, such as the statement made by Edgar Knobloch in his Monuments of Central Asia: “This time the nomads were the Yue-Che (Yue-czi) who, according to one authority (Tolstov), could be the same as the Greater Getae or Massagetae” (Knobloch 2001, 15). Tod went further, to equate the Massagetae, the Yuezhi, and the Indian Jats, as he says: “We will merely add, that the kingdom of the Great Getae, whose capital was on the Jaxartes, preserved its integrity and name from the period of Cyrus to the fourteenth century, when it was converted to Islam” (Tod 1829, 127). “The Yuchi, established in Bactria and along the Jihun, eventually bore the name Jeta or Yetan, that is to say, Getae. Their empire subsisted a long time in this part of Asia, and extended even to India” (Tod 1829, 78).
But eventually what strengthens the supposition that the Massagetae are the Yuezhi is that the Yuezhi were divided into two groups, the Da Yuezhi and the Xiao Yuezhi, meaning the “Great” and the “Lesser” Yuezhi, respectively. We have already shown that the Massagetae must mean the Great Getae and Thyssagetae probably means Lesser Getae, thereby suggesting a likelihood of both the Greek and Chinese both not only recognizing the characteristic denomination of this tribe, but also remaining consistent.  Repeating Alexander Cunningham’s comments, “By the Chinese the Kushans were called Ta-Vue-ti, or the ‘Great Lunar Race’ . That is, if ‘Vue’ be taken for the ‘Moon’, But I incline to, take Yue-ti or Gueti, the general name given by the Chinese … And further, I think that as Ta means ‘Great’, the ‘Ta-Gweti’ must be the Massa-Getae” (Cunningham 1894, 112). It also seems possible that the Thyssagetae, who are known the Lesser Getae, as per Rawlinson and Crooke, must correspond with the Xiao Yuezhi, meaning Lesser Yuezhi. Therefore, the Greek and the Chinese must be identifying the same people. The conclusion is well put by B.S. D.ahiya, who wrote about the Massagetae and Thyssagetae, “These Guti people had two divisions, the Ta-Yue-Che and Siao-Yue-Che, exactly corresponding to the Massagetae and Thyssagetae of Herodotus … ” (Dahiya 1980, 23). Therefore, the Iranian Getae were probably the Yuezhi who appeared strangely on the Chinese frontiers and the Chinese transcribed their name semi-vocally to Yuet with a dental t.
Some may be apprehensive about reducing the Massagetae and Thyssagetae to branches of the Getae. But this supposition can be strengthened, as there are additional tribes with the denomination Getae, such as the Thracian Tyrigetae, the Euergetae, and the “frozen” Getae, which will be discussed later.
For now, we can remark that it appears that the “Massa” term added to the Getae perhaps denoted their military prowess, as they became famous for their defeat of Cyrus the Great and later their hard-fought battles against Alexander the Great in Bactria and Sogdiana. This compound name may be analogous, therefore, to the naming of “Great Britain.” Perhaps this term was known to both the Greeks and the Chinese as the original homeland of the Getae before they spread out in various directions and at various times. If this belief is prudent, then the term “Thyssa,” which means “Lesser” Getae, corresponding to the Xiao Yuezhi, may have had a somewhat less spectacular, although no less important, history, hence Lesser Getae. The other groups of Getae, whose names similarly must have characteristic or regional meanings, will be discussed later.
If our supposition that the Yuezhi and Getae were different names for the same people, then we can more precisely identify the Indo-Scythian invaders of India rather as Getic invaders. Moreover, this identification may further show that the Getes so often talked about by classical writers were originally from the Caspian region. However, before we can claim the Indo Scythians to be “Getic,” we must first examine yet another obscure tribe, known at the Ephthalites or White Huns, who entered India after the Xiao Yuezhi or Kiddara Kushans . (Cunningham 1888,59). This is a tribe whose name may strengthen our belief in the existence of a nation called Getes.

Yetha, the White Huns, or Ephthalites, were known to the Chinese as Ye-tha-i-li-to, a name curtailed to Yetha (Cunningham 1888, 28). Grousset claims the Yetai were known as such by the Chinese since they derive their name from the royal clan of “Yeta” (Grousset 1970, 67). In the Chinese work Sui-Shu the name of this tribe is “I-ta” (Enoki O.N.E. 1998, 135). The Chinese authority Wei Chieh wrote in his His-Jan-chi, “I had a personal talk with some Ephthalites and knew that they also called themselves I-t’ein” (Enoki D.N.E. 1998, 135). I-t’ein renders the name phonetically close to the word Jatan, which is the Panjabi plural form of Jat.
McGovern writes in detail about the Yetha: The origin and exact ethnic affinities of the Ephthalites are shrouded in mystery. By the contemporary Greek and Roman histories they are frequently referred to merely as Huns. The Hindu legends and traditions regarding the dreaded ‘Hunas’ also go back to the period of Ephthalites invasions and show that the word Hun must have been intimately associated with the Ephthalites …. We know, however, from various sources that the Ephthalites were a very peculiar group and differed radically from most of the Hunnish groups. Thus, for example, the Byzantine writers are careful to distinguish between the ordinary Huns, such as those who  invaded Europe, and the Ephthalites, who are more specifically referred to as White Huns.
‘The Ephthalites,’ says Procopius, ‘are of the Hunnish race and bear the Hunnish name, but they are completely different from the Huns we know. They alone among the Hunnish people have white skins and regular features…. The Chinese are always careful to distinguish between the Huns proper or the Hsuing-nu and the Ephthalites, whom they call the Ye-ti-i-lido or Ye-da. .. According to one Chinese chronicle the Ephthalites were ultimately of the same origin as the Yueji [Yuezhi] …. (McGovem·1939, 405) Some authorities claim the name “White Huns,” as used by Procopius, is erroneous, but this does not seem to be the case because, in India, Varahamihira refers to a group called Sveta Hunas, and the Persians noted the Spet Hyon or White Huns (Biswas 1973,27-28).
Kephart believes the Massagetae divided into the Tokhari (Ta Yuezhi) and the White Huns (Yetha) (Kephart 1960, 522-23). T. Watters claims, “[Northwest India] was conquered by the Veta, i.e., the Vets or Gats, apparently near the end of our fifth century. The Veta, who were a powerful people in Central Asia, in the fifth century, are also said to have been of the Vue-Chi stock … ” (Watters 1903,200-201). Klaproth also sees the Veta or Vita as the descendants of the Yuezhi or Yueti (Klaproth 1826, XII, 135). And if we recall, Cunningham holds the Yetha to be the last wave of Indo-Scythians (Cunningham 1888).
The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica states, “Our earliest information about the Ephthalites
comes from the Chinese chronicles, in which it is stated that they were originally a tribe of the great Vue-Chi [Da Yuezhi or Massagetae], living to the north of the Great Wall. … “(E.B. 1911, 9: 680).” The Chinese work Pei-shih states, “[The Ephthalites] are a branch of the Ta-Yueh-chih” (Enoki O.N.E. 1998, 139). Thakur writes, “The annals of three Chinese dynasties assert that the Yetha or Ephthalites were a branch of the great Vue-chi race” (Thakur 1967, 42). Thakur then refers to Ma-tuan-lin: Ma-tuan-lin in his Encyclopaedia has given two comments on the origin of the Ephthalites: (i) Ye-ta belonged to the Ta-yue-chi stock but according to some they are a branch of the Kao-che; and (li) I-tan belonged to the same race as the Ta-yuechi. (Thakur 1967, 50). In both cases it seems that the Ephthalites are descended from the Great Yuezhi, and the Ephthalites are also shown as coming from a different origin than the Huns. The weight of authority, the testimony of Chinese accounts, and the phonetic resemblance between Yuezhi or Yueti (Klaproth 1826, 288) with the Yetha or Ita (Enoki O.N.E. 1998, 141, 157) is too strong to ignore. The name Ita used by the Northern Dynasties (Enoki O.N.E. 1988, 157) renders it seemingly close to the latii of Pliny, and to the name of Jat or Jata, for that matter. By examining the customs of the Ephthalites, even more strength is added to this theory.
That the Ephthalites practiced sun worship has been suggested by Enoki, who says, “[That] the Ephthalites built their tents with their entrances facing to the east would also imply the practice of sun-worship among them (Enoki O.N.E. 1988, 175). He also adds, “We may also recall the practice of sun-worship among the Massagetae (Herodotus I, 212) and the Kushanians [Ta Yuezhi]” (Enoki O.N .E. 1998, 175). Now the implied practice of sun worship still exists today in the structure of the modem Panjabi villages.
Further, Enoki suggests that the Yetha worshipped the Fire-god (Mithra) and the God of Heaven (Daeva-Worship), thereby remaining consistent with his idea of the Iranian origin of the Yetha (Enoki O.N.E. 1998, 177). Based on the coins of the Ephthalites, namely the coins of Khingila (father of Toramana Jauvla), Gobl suggests that the later Ephthalites may have followed the practice of skull deformation (Gobl 1967, 200-201). At this stage it is difficult to determine whether they originally practiced this custom or it was adopted (Gobl 1967, 200-206). Nonetheless, this practice was prevalent among many of the Sannatian tribes, most especially, the Alans (Sulimirski 1970).
Another peculiar habit that was unique to the Yetha, as opposed to the other Hunnish groups, was their practice of polyandry. McGovern writes: One feature of the Ephthalite social culture is worthy of especial mention, namely the fact that they went in for polyandry, or the custom whereby each woman was allowed to have several husbands …. the various husbands were for the most part brothers, the eldest brother marrying the girl, and the younger brothers being automatically admitted to conjugal rights …. The fact that the Ephthalites went in for polyandry is of especial interest inasmuch as this custom was entirely unknown to the other Hunnish tribes …. (McGovern 1939, 406). The Massagetae were known to have a similar practice, in which they kept all women in common, and any male had access to the females. Herodotus writes, “Each man has but one wife, yet all the wives are held in common; for this is a custom of the Massagetae … ” (Rawlinson 1928, 80). Enoki notes this as well: “Massagetae, an Iranian tribe inhabiting the course of the Syr Darya and the north bank of the Aral River, had this custom [polyandry]” (Enoki O.N.E. 1998, 181). Whether this is accurate or not, Pawar claims that certain Jat tribes followed a similar practice as that mentioned by Herodotus (pawar 1993, 303). Minns writes: The [Ephthalites] had supplanted the Yue-chih, and destroyed the kingdom of the Kushanas. We hear of their polyandry, a primitive Malthusianism which seems to have been endemic in their country, as it is ascribed to the Massagetae, to the Yue-chih and Tu-huo-Io or Tochari, and to the Vi-tao (Minns 1971,93). The Jats are well known in India for widow ret1¥lll’iage and allowing for levirate marriage, that is, the marriage of the widow with the younger brother of the deceased.
The Gujars, who may represent the Gurjara tribe (Rose 1883, 2: 306), still practice their
nomadic life, including vertical transhumance. Baines writes about the Gujars: Next to the Jat in rank, and probably akin in ongm, comes the Gujar … [which] … is now generally affliated to the Gurjara, a tribe which was settled in the neighborhood of the Caspian, and entered India either in company with or at the same time as, the Yetha or White Huna, of whom they are said to have been it branch. (Baines 1912, 44).
In any event, the Yetha appear to have significantly influenced the Jat and Rajput people of northwest India. Grousset puts it well: Yet from the second half of the seventh century the Huns [Ephthalites] of India vanish from history, no doubt either exterminated or absorbed by the Punjabis. Some of their clans most likely succeeded in gaining admission to the Hindu aristocracy, in the manner of the ‘Rajput’ clan of Gurjara, which may possibly have the same origin. (Grousset 1970, 72). Amongst Rajputs, the Hun tribe represents one of the 36 royal races of Rajasthan (Tod 1829, 131). Tod recognizes this tribe as the descendants of the White Huns (Tod 1829, 132-33). V.A. Smith believes the White Huns to be the ancestors of the agnikula or frrebom tribes of the Rajputs. He says, “[T]here is no doubt that the Parihars and many other famous Rajput clans of 30 Sundeep S. Jhutti, “The Getes,” Sino-Platonic Papers, 127 (October, 2003) the north were developed out of the barbarian hordes [White Huns] which poured into India during the fifth and sixth centwies” (Smith 1914,322). It appears that some of the successful clans of the Yetha or White Huns were absorbed into the Jat and Rajput fold, who were themselves simply earlier settlers from Central Asia.  Many scholars believe that the proud Rajput clans of Rajputana [Rajasthan] and stalwart Jats of the Punjab are likewise descended, in part at least, from these ancient invaders [White Huns], even though the Gurjaras [Gujars], the Rajputs and the Jats have long since adopted an Indian language and been absorbed in the vast bulk of Hinduism. (McGovern 1939,419). Cunningham states, “But the successive Scythian invasions of the Sakas, the Kushans and the White Huns, were followed by permanent settlements of large bodies of their countrymen, which lasted for many centuries … ” (Cunningham 1894, 93). We can replace the word “Scythian” with “Gets” or “Guts”.

Etymology of Jat. If we look up the word “Jat” in the well-respected Panjabi Dictionary by Maya Singh, who was designated to create this lexicon by Denzil Ibbetson (at that time Director of Public Instruction), we find, “The name of a great tribe, descendents of the Massagetae, which forms the backbone of the Punjab peasantry, they are usually farmers and may be of any religion … ” (M.Singh 1895, 485). It first should be mentioned that Getae is pronounced GUT-AY. Strabo pluralizes the Getae as “Getan” (Jones 1928 3, 221). Further, Russian authors, such as Sulimirski and Yablonsky, pluralize the Getae as Getan.  We can compare this to the pluralization of the word “Jat” in Panjabi, “Jatan” (Dhillon 1994, 110). This “Jatan” is very close to “Getan” and’ probably represents a palatalization of the latter. Palatalization is “the shifting of a sound so that it is made by the blade of the tongue against the hard palate (notice how your tongue moves when you say keys and then the palatalized cheese), and is a frequent enough sound change in many languages” (Mallory and Mair 2000, 120). In the singular case, then, “Get” (Gut) could be palatalized into “Jat” or “Jut.” It should be further mentioned that in Hindi, Jat is pronounced Jaut, rhyming with “hot,” which renders it perhaps with a palatalization of “Got”.
Further, if we examine “Jat” or “Jut” from the “Yuezhi” or “Yuti” angle, we find that they are again very close. “Yuti,” being possibly the semi-vocal Sinitic transcription of Getae, is rendered once again very close to the pronunciation of “Jat” or “Jut.” The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica, under the subject “Yue-Chi,” summarizes this etymology: Some authorities consider that the Vue-Chi are the same as the Getae and that the original form of the name was Yut or Get, which is also supposed to appear in the Indian Jat. (B.B. 1911,28: 944).
Therefore, Jat < Jut < Yut(i) < Get(i). Moreover, the Jats could be the remnants of the invading Yuts or Guts. This is the view of Dhillon, who attributes it to the rigid Hindu caste
system, which involved forced endogamy (Dhillon 1994, 16) and ritual purity. It seems the palatalized form of the tribal name “Getae” was retained intact as “Jettah” or “Jatta” in Transoxiana up until the time of Timur, as testified by’ his Zafarnama (Twigg 1870, 318-19). Further, even in Punjab today, a term of endearment used to address a Jat is “Jatta” (Pawar 1993, 339). However, those Getic tribes that were noted in the west remained Getae, as in the Thracian Getae, and were later known as Goths by the Roman writers, as will be demonstrated later. So if we believe that the name of the tribe of these ancient invaders remained intact, what about their physical characteristics-do they bear the impress of Central Asian origin? 

IE_expansion

Scheme of Indo-European migrations from c. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the Kurgan hypothesis. The magenta area corresponds to the assumed Urheimat (Samara culture, Sredny Stog culture). The red area corresponds to the area which may have been settled by Indo-European-speaking peoples up to c. 2500 BCE; the orange area to 1000 BCE.

An increasing amount of evidence supports the hypothesis that horses were domesticated in the Eurasian Steppes approximately 4000–3500 BCE.[1][2][3] Recent kazakhstan-internetdiscoveries in the context of the Botai culture suggest that Botai settlements in the Akmola Province of Kazakhstan are the location of the earliest domestication of the horse. A genetic study published in 2012 that performed genomic sampling on 300 work horses from local areas as well as a review of previous studies of archaeology, mitochondrial DNA, and Y-DNA suggested that horses were originally domesticated in the western part of the Eurasian steppe. The Indo-Iranians and their expansion are strongly associated with the Proto-Indo-European invention of the chariot.

Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. The formative Sintashta-Petrovka culture is shown in darker red. In 1987 by a team of Chelyabinsk scientists led by Gennadii Zdanovich discovered here the amazing ARKAIM similar in form but much better preserved than neighbouring Sintashta, where the earliest chariot was unearthed. Due to the assimilation of tribes in the region of the Urals, such as the Pit-grave, Catacomb, Poltavka, and northern Abashevo into the Novokumak horizon, it would seem inaccurate to provide Sintashta with a purely Aryan attribution. The location of the earliest spoke-wheeled chariot finds is indicated in purple.
Adjacent and overlapping cultures (Afanasevo culture, Srubna culture, BMAC) are shown in green. The Sintashta culture emerged from the interaction of two antecedent cultures. Its immediate predecessor in the Ural-Tobol steppe was the Poltavka culture, an offshoot of the cattle-herding Andronovo_cultureYamnaya horizon that moved east into the region between 2800 and 2600 BCE. Several Sintashta towns were built over older Poltovka settlements or close to Poltovka cemeteries, and Poltovka motifs are common on Sintashta pottery. Sintashta material culture also shows the influence of the late Abashevo culture, a collection of settlements in the forest steppe zone north of the Sintashta region that were also predominantly pastoralist.[6] The first Sintashta settlements appeared around 2100 BCE, during a period of climatic change that saw the already arid Kazakh steppe region become even more cold and dry. The marshy lowlands around the Ural and upper Tobol rivers, previously favoured as winter refuges, became increasingly important for survival. Under these pressures both Poltovka and Abashevo herders settled permanently in river valley strongholds, eschewing more defensible hill-top locations.[7] The Abashevo culture was already marked by endemic intertribal warfare;[8] intensified by ecological stress and competition for resources in the Sintashta period, this drove the construction of fortifications on an unprecedented scale and innovations in military technique such as the invention of the war chariot. The Sintashta economy came to revolve around copper metallurgy. Copper ores from nearby mines (such as Vorovskaya Yama) were taken to Sintashta settlements to be processed into copper and arsenical bronze. This occurred on an industrial scale: all the excavated buildings at the Sintashta sites of Sintashta, Arkaim and Ust’e contained the remains of smelting ovens and slag.[7] Much of this metal was destined for export to the cities of the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) in Central Asia. The metal trade between Sintashta and the BMAC for the first time connected the steppe region to the ancient urban civilisations of the Near East: the empires and city-states of Iran andMesopotamia provided an almost bottomless market for metals. These trade routes later became the vehicle through which horses, chariots and ultimately Indo-Iranian-speaking people entered the Near East from the steppe.

The Yamna culture dating to the 36th–23rd centuries, was preceded by the Sredny Stog culture, Khvalynsk culture and Dnieper-Donets culture, while succeeded by the Catacomb culture and the Srubna culture. The Yamna culture is identified with the late Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) in the Kurgan hypothesis of yamnaMarija Gimbutas. It is the strongest candidate for the Urheimat (homeland) of the Proto-Indo-European language, along with the preceding Sredny Stog culture, now that archaeological evidence of the culture and its migrations has been closely tied to the evidence from linguistics. The Sredny Stog culture dating from the 5th millennium BC is a pre-kurgan archaeological culture, named after the Russian term for the Dnieper river islet of Seredny Stih, Ukraine, where it was first located, dating from the 5th millennium BC. It was situated across the Dnieper river on both its shores, with sporadic settlements to the west and east. The Sredny Stog culture seems to have had contact with the agricultural Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the west. Most notably, it has perhaps the earliest evidence of horse domestication (in phase II), with finds suggestive of cheek-pieces (psalia).

Indo-European_isoglosses

There is an agreement that the PIE community split into two major groups from wherever its homeland was situated (its location is unknown), and whenever the timing of its dispersal (also unknown). One headed west for Europe and became speakers of Indo-European (all the languages of modern Europe save for Basque, Hungarian, Estonian, and Finnish) while others headed east for Eurasia to become Indo-Iranians. Present day Romania is the turntable, the intersection of all indo-european branches!!

The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia, dated to ca. 2300–1700 BCE, located in present day northern Afghanistan, eastern Turkmenistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centered on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus River). Sarianidi’s excavations from the late 1970s onward revealed numerous monumental structures in many sites, fortified by impressive walls and gates. Reports on the BMAC were mostly confined to Soviet journals,[1] until the last years of the Soviet Union, so the findings were largely unknown to the West until Sarianidi’s work began to be translated in the 1990s.
The inhabitants were farmers who kept herds of goats and sheep and grew wheat and barley, with origins in southwest Asia. The inhabitants of the BMAC were sedentary people who practised irrigation farming of wheat and barley. With their impressive material culture including monumental architecture, bronze tools, ceramics, and jewellery of semiprecious stones, the complex exhibits many of the hallmarks of civilization. The complex can be compared to proto-urban settlements in the Helmand basin at Mundigak in western Afghanistan and Shahr-i Shōkhta in eastern Iran, or at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley.
Sarianidi regards Gonur as the “capital” of the complex in Margiana throughout the Bronze Age. The palace of North Gonur measures 150 metres by 140 metres, the temple at Togolok 140 metres by 100 metres, the fort at Kelleli 3 125 metres by 125 metres, and the house of a local ruler at Adji Kui 25 metres by 25 metres. Each of these formidable structures has been extensively excavated. While they all have impressive fortification walls, gates, and buttresses, it is not always clear why one structure is identified as a temple and another as a palace. Extensive irrigation systems have been discovered at the Geoksiur Oasis.
Models of two-wheeled carts from c. 3000 BCE found at Altyn-Depe are the earliest complete evidence of wheeled transport in Central Asia, though model wheels have come from contexts possibly somewhat earlier. Judging by the type of harness, carts were initially pulled by oxen, or a bull. However camels were domesticated within the BMAC. A model of a cart drawn by a camel of c. 2200 BCE was found at Altyn-Depe.

There is evidence of sustained contact between the BMAC and the Eurasian steppes to the north, intensifying c. 2000 BCE. In the delta of the River Amu Darya where it reaches the Aral Sea, its waters were channeled for irrigation agriculture by people whose remains resemble those of the nomads of the Andronovo Culture. This is interpreted as nomads settling bmacdown to agriculture, after contact with the BMAC. The culture they created is known as Tazabag’yad.[13] About 1800 BCE the walled BMAC centres decreased sharply in size. Each oasis developed its own types of pottery and other objects. Also pottery of the Andronovo-Tazabag’yab culture to the north appeared widely in the Bactrian and Margian countryside. Many BMAC strongholds continued to be occupied and Andronovo-Tazabagyab coarse incised pottery occurs within them (along with the previous BMAC pottery) as well as in pastoral camps outside the mudbrick walls. In the highlands above the Bactrian oases in Tajikistan, kurgan cemeteries of the Vaksh and Bishkent type appeared with pottery that mixed elements of the late BMAC and Andronovo-Tazabagyab traditions.
A significant section of the archaeologists are more inclined to see the culture as begun by farmers in the Near Eastern Neolithic tradition, but infiltrated by Indo-Iranian speakers from the Andronovo culture in its late phase, creating a hybrid. In this perspective, Proto-Indo-Aryan developed within the composite culture before moving south into the Indian subcontinent.[14] As James P. Mallory phrased it ”It has become increasingly clear that ..  steppe cultures were transformed as they passed through a membrane of Central Asian urbanism. The fact that typical steppe wares are found on BMAC sites and that intrusive BMAC material is subsequently found further to the south in Iran, Afghanistan, Nepal, India and Pakistan, may suggest then the subsequent movement of Indo-Iranian-speakers after they had adopted the culture of the BMAC”.[20]

The Andronovo, BMAC and Yaz cultures have been associated with Indo-Iranians. The Indo-Iranians were a community that spoke a common language prior to their branching off into the Iranian and Indo-Aryan languages. Iranian refers to the languages of Iran (Iranian), parts of Pakistan (Balochi and Pashto), Afghanistan (Pashto and Dari), and Tadjikistan (Tajiki) and Indo-Aryan, Sanskrit, Urdu and its many related languages.’ – (Carl C. Lamberg-Karlovsky: Case of the Bronze Age). By the early 1st millennium Scythian tribes, along with Cimmerians, Sarmatians and Alans populated the steppes north of the Black Sea.

The Indo-Aryan migration was part of the Indo-Iranian migrations from the Andronovo culture into Anatolia, Iran and South-Asia. The Indo-Iranian migrations took place in two waves.[6][7]
The first wave, starting at 1700BC consisted of a migration into Anatolia, founding the Hittite empire and Mittani kingdom, and a migration south-eastward, over the Hindu Kush into northern India. It is believed that Indo-Aryans reached Assyria in the west and the Punjab in the east before 1500 BC: the Hurrite speaking Mitanni rulers, influenced by Indo-Aryan, appear from 1500 in northern Mesopotamia, and the Gandhara grave culture emerges from 1600. This suggests that Indo-Aryan tribes would have had to be present in the area of the Bactria-Margiana Complex (southern Turkmenistan /northern Afghanistan) from 1700 BC at the latest (incidentally corresponding with the decline of that culture).
Anatolia – Hittites and Mittani. The only linguistic remains in a Hittite horse-training manual written by one “Kikkuli the Mitannian“. Other evidence is found in references to the names of Mitanni rulers and the gods they swore by in treaties; these remains are found in the archives of the Mitanni’s neighbors. The time period for this is about 1500 BC.[14]:257 In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli’s horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five; compare with Gr. pente), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine; compare with Lat. novem), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race; compare with Lat. vertere, vortex). The numeral aika “one” is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has “aiva”) in general.[15]
Indian Subcontinent- Vedic culture. The standard model for the entry of the Indo-European languages into South Asia is that this first wave went over the Hindu Kush, into the headwaters of the Indus and later the Ganges. The earliest stratum of Vedic Sanskrit, preserved only in the Rigveda, is assigned to roughly 1500 BC.[14]:258[16] From the Indus, the Indo-Aryan languages spread from c. 1500 BC to c. 500 BC, over the northern and central parts of the subcontinent, sparing the extreme south. The Indo-Aryans in these areas established several powerful kingdoms and principalities in the region, from eastern Afghanistan to the doorstep of Bengal. The most powerful of these kingdoms were the post-Rigvedic Kuru (in Kurukshetra and the Delhi area) and their allies the Pañcālas further east, as well as Gandhara and later on, about the time of the Buddha, the kingdom of Kosala and the quickly expanding realm of Magadha. The latter lasted until the 4th century BC, when it was conquered by Chandragupta Maurya and formed the center of the Mauryan empire.
In eastern Afghanistan and southwestern Pakistan, whatever Indo-Aryan languages were spoken there were eventually pushed out by the Iranian languages. Most Indo-Aryan languages, however, were and still are prominent in the rest of the Indian subcontinent. Today, Indo-Aryan languages are spoken in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Fiji and the Maldives.
The second wave is interpreted as the Iranian wave.[9]:42–43 The first Iranians to reach the Black Sea may have been the Cimmerians in the 8th century BC. They were followed by the Scythians, who are considered a western branch of the Central Asian Sakas. Sarmatian tribes, of whom the best known are the Roxolani (Rhoxolani), Iazyges (Jazyges) and the Alani (Alans), followed the Scythians westwards into Europe in the late centuries BCE and the 1st and 2nd centuries of the Common Era (The Age of Migrations). The populous Sarmatian tribe of the Massagetae, dwelling near the Caspian Sea, were known to the early rulers of Persia in the Achaemenid Period. In the east, the Saka occupied several areas in Xinjiang, from Khotan to Tumshuq.
The Medes, Parthians and Persians begin to appear on the Iranian plateau from c. 800 BC, and the Achaemenids replaced Elamite rule from 559 BC. Around the first millennium of the Common Era (AD), the Kambojas, the Pashtuns and the Baloch began to settle on the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau, on the mountainous frontier of northwestern and western Pakistan, displacing the earlier Indo-Aryans from the area.
In Central Asia, the Turkic languages have marginalized Iranian languages as a result of the Turkic expansion of the early centuries AD. Extant major Iranian languages are Persian, Pashto, Balochi and Kurdish, besides numerous smaller ones.

Spread of Vedic-Brahmanic culture. Map of northern India in the later Vedic age. River Indus is shown by its Sanskrit name Sindhu. The location of Vedic shakhas is labelled Vedic_Indiain green. Thar desert is in orange. Main article: Vedic period During the Early Vedic Period (ca.1500-800 BCE[web 1]) the Vedic culture was centered in the northern Punjab, or Sapta Sindhu.[web 1] During the Later Vedic Period (ca.800-500 BCE[web 2]) the Vedic culture started to extend into the western Ganges Plain,[web 2] centering around Kuru and Panchala,[14] and had some influence[15] at the central Ganges Plain after 500 BCE.[web 3] Sixteen Mahajanapada developed at the Ganges Plain, of which the Kuru andPanchala became the most notable developed centers of Vedic culture, at the western Ganges Plain[web 2][14]

The Scythians were mentioned as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes starting with the 7th century BC up until the 4th century AD. Their historical appearance coincided with the rise of equestrian semi-nomadism from the Carpathian Mountains of Europe to the Altai mountains of present-scythiansday Mongolia in the Far East during the 1st millennium BC. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (Eastern Iranian), in orange.
Conclusions which might be drawn thus far, by an increasing number of studies by Russian scholars, from an mtDNA perspective, are (i) an early, Bronze Age mixture of both west and east Eurasian lineages, with western lineages being found far to the East, but not vice-versa; (ii) an apparent reversal by Iron Age times, with increasing presence of East Eurasian lineages in the western steppe; (iii) the possible role of migrations from the sedentary south: the Balkano-Danubian and Iranian regions toward the steppe.[25][26][27]
Ancient Y-DNA data was finally provided by Keyser et al in 2009. They studied the haplotypes and haplogroups of 26 ancient human specimens from the Krasnoyarsk area inSiberia were dated from between the middle of the 2nd millennium BC and the 4th century AD (Scythian and Sarmatian timeframe). Nearly all subjects belong to haplogroup R-M17. The authors suggest that their data shows that between Bronze and Iron Ages the constellation of populations known variously as Scythians, Andronovians, etc. were blue- (or green-) eyed, fair-skinned and light-haired people who might have played a role in the early development of the Tarim Basin civilization. Moreover, this study found that they were genetically more closely related to modern populations of eastern Europe than those of central and southern Asia.[28] The ubiquity and utter dominance of R1a Y-DNA lineage contrasts markedly with the diversity seen in the mtDNA profiles.
The Olanesti/Romania treasure is unique in Europe. Discovered in the 1960 the artefacts are dated to the 5th century BC. The treasure contain six helmets, five greaves and an oil lamp. All the pieces are from the army of the Alexander The Great under Zopyrion command.
Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians (Sakas), who migrated into parts of IndoScythianKingdom.svgcentral and northern South Asia (Sogdiana, Bactria, Arachosia, Gandhara, Sindh, Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, UP and Bihar.), from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD. Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) claims that the Persians gave the name Sakai only to the Scythian tribes “nearest to them”.[5] Another people, the Gimirrai,[6] who were known to the ancient Greeks as theCimmerians, were closely associated with the Sakas. In ancient Hebrew texts, theAshkuz (Ashkenaz) are considered to be a direct offshoot from the Gimirri (Gomer).

The Massagetae, or Massageteans (Greek: Μασσαγέται, Massagetai),[1] were an ancient Eastern Iranian nomadic confederation,[2][3][4][5][6] inhabiting the steppes of Central Asia east of the Caspian Sea, in modern-day Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, western Uzbekistan, and southern Kazakhstan. They are known primarily from the writings of Herodotus.
The Dahae (Persian: داها‎; Sanskrit: Dasa; Latin: Dahae; Greek: Δάοι (Daoi), Δάαι, Δᾶαι (Daai), Δάσαι (Dasai)[1]), or Dahaeans were a confederacy of three Ancient Iranian tribes who lived in the region to the immediate east of the Caspian Sea. They spoke an Eastern Iranian language. The first dateable mention of this nomad confederacy appears in the list of nations of Xerxes the great Daeva inscription. In this list of the peoples and provinces of the Achaemenid Empire, the Dahae are identified in Old Persian as Dāha and are immediately followed by a “Saka” group, who are listed as being neighbors of the Dāha. The Dahae, together with the Saka tribes, are known to have fought in the Achaemenid armies at the Battle of Gaugamela. Following the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, they joined Alexander of Macedon in his quest to India.
The Sarmatians of the east became the Alans, who also ventured far and wide, with a branch ending up in Western Europe and North Africa, as they accompanied the Germanic Vandals during their migrations. Another group of Alans allied with Goths to defeat the Romans and ultimately settled in what is now called Catalonia (Goth-Alania).[44]

scythia

 worldhistorymaps.info/CentralAsia: By 700 BC, Eastern Iranian tribes known collectively as the Scythians (Sakas) dominated most of Central Asia. The Scythians weren’t a unified nation; they were a series of independent tribes with similar languages and customs.  For example, the Massagetae occupied Transoxiana, while the Dahae were in Margiana, the Bactrians near India, the Chorasmians near the Aral sea, etc. They often raided neighboring lands such as Iran and Armenia. They attacked Assyria in 676 BC but were defeated by King Esarhaddon. The Sakas, probably descendents of the Massagetae, pushed by the Yuezhi/Tocharians, fled in what became a massive invasion towards Bactria and Parthia, when the Tocharians settled in Sogdiana. Transoxiana and Bactria were the first Greek provinces to fall to these Sakas. In 145 BC the Greco-Bactrian city of Alexandria-on-the-Oxus (Ai-Khanoum) was destroyed during a massive Saka attack. The last Greek stronghold in Bactria, the Eucratidian kingdom of Heliocles I, was destroyed in 130 BC. About the same time, the Tocharians evicted the Sakas from Bactria and forced them south into Parthian lands. King Kushan-Empire_100adPhraates II of Parthia was killed in battle against the Sakas, as was his uncle and successor, King Artabanus I. The Sakas settled for a while in the province of Aria, which became known as Sakastan. In the early 1st century BC, the Parthian Empire expanded eastward, defeating the Tocharians and subjugating the Sakas. Sakastan became a Parthian province ruled by the Suren family. By 20 AD, one of the Suren by the name of Gondophares became independent from the Parthians and founded the Pahlava or Indo-Parthian Empire.  The Pahlava Empire barely outlasted Gondophares’ death in 45 AD, as the Tocharians were then united into the expanding Kushan Empire. Shortly after 200 AD the Kushan Empire broke up into seperate kingdoms, an “East Kushan” kingdom in the Punjab, and the “West Kushans” in Afghanistan.
The Hephthalites (sometimes called “White Huns“, also known as Hoa or Hoa-tun Hephthalites_500adby the Chinese,Ephthalites by the Greeks, and Hunas by the Indians) were a confederation of nomadic peoples in Central Asia during the 5th and 6th centuries AD.  Their precise origins and composition remain obscure. They were likely of Iranian or Turkish decent (or a mixture of both).  According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, they had no cities or system of writing, lived in felt tents, and practiced polyandry, while very little is known of their language.[2]

wiki: The Yuezhi (Chinese: 月氏; pinyin: Yuèzhī, literally “Moon Clan”) were an ancient Indo-European people[5][6] often identified with the Tókharoi (Τοχάριοι) of Classical sources. They were originally settled in the arid grasslands of the eastern Tarim Basin area, in what is today Xinjiang and western Yueh-Chih MigrationsGansu, in China, before they migrated to Transoxiana, Bactria and then northern South Asia, where one branch of the Yuezhi founded the Kushan Empire.[7][8]  The Yuezhi may have been an Europoid people, as indicated by the portraits of their kings on the coins they struck following their exodus to Transoxiana (2nd–1st century BCE), some old place names in Gansu explainable in Tocharian languages,[28] and especially the coins they struck in India as Kushans (1st–3rd century CE). Ancient Chinese sources do describe the existence of “white people with long hair” (the Bai people of the Shan Hai Jing) beyond their northwestern border. Very well preserved Tarim mummies with Europoid features (light hair and eyes) and dominated by Haplogroup R1a1a (Y-DNA), today displayed at the Ürümqi Museum and dated to the 3rd century BCE, were found at the ancient oasis on the Silk Road, Niya.
Shortly before 176 BCE, the Xiongnu invaded Yuezhi territory in the Gansu region and achieved a crushing victory. Following Chinese sources, a large part of the Yuezhi people therefore fell under the domination of the Xiongnu, and these may have been the ancestors of the Tocharian speakers attested in the 6th century CE. A large group of the Yuezhi fled from the Tarim Basin towards the Northwest circa 165 BCE,[37] first settling in the Ili valley, immediately north of the Tian Shan mountains, where they confronted and defeated the Sai (Sakas or Scythians).  The Tocharians defeated a related tribe, the Issedones, called Wusun by the Chinese, then invaded Dzungaria and evicted the Northern Sakas (called Sai Wang by the Chinese). The Sai then undertook their own migration, which was to lead them as far as Kashmir, after travelling through a “Suspended Crossing” (probably the Khunjerab Pass between present-day Xinjiang and northern Pakistan). The Sakas ultimately established an Indo-Scythian kingdom in northern India. In the year 132 BCE, the Wusun, in alliance with the Xiongnu and out of revenge from an earlier conflict, managed to dislodge the Yuezhi, forcing them to move south.[36] The Yuezhi crossed the neighbouring urban civilization of the Dayuan in Ferghana and settled on the northern bank of the Oxus, in the region of Transoxiana, in modern-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, just north of the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian kingdom. The Greek city of Alexandria on the Oxus was apparently burnt to the ground by the Yuezhi around 145 BCE. In 124 BCE, the Yuezhi were apparently involved in a war against the Parthians. Some time after 124 BCE the Yuezhi moved south to Bactria. (The extremely wealthy Greco-Bactrian Greco-BactrianKingdomMapempire of 1000 cities declared independence in about 255 BC.  In 244 BC Andragoras was overthrown by the Parni a tribe descended from the Dahae, who founded the Arsacid dynasty. The Bactrian king Euthydemus I and his son Demetrius I crossed the Hindu Kush mountains and began the conquest of the Indus valley. For a short time, they wielded great power: a great Greek empire seemed to have arisen far in the East. But this empire was torn by internal dissensions and continual usurpations.)
The conquest of Bactria by the Yuezhi is recorded in Classical Greek sources, when Strabo presented the Yuezhi as a Scythian tribe and explained that the Tokhari—together with the Assianis, Passianis and Sakaraulis—took part in the destruction of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom in the second half of the 2nd century BCE: “Most of the Scythians, beginning from the Caspian Sea, are called Dahae Scythae, and those situated more towards the east Massagetae and Sacae; the rest have the common appellation of Scythians, but each separate tribe has its peculiar name. All, or the greatest part of them, are nomads. The best known tribes are those who deprived the Greeks of Bactriana, the Asii, Pasiani, Tochari, and Sacarauli, who came from the country on the other side of the Jaxartes, opposite the Sacae and Sogdiani.”
As they settled in Bactria from around 125 BCE, the Yuezhi became Hellenized to some degree, as suggested by their adoption of the Greek alphabet and by some remaining coins, minted in the style of the Greco-Bactrian kings, with the text in Greek. The area of Bactria they settled came to be known as Tokharistan, since the Yuezhi were called Tókharoi by the Greeks. The Chinese continued to call them Yuezhi: ”City layouts and palaces are quite similar to those of Daqin (the Roman empire). The skin of the people there is reddish white. People are skilful at horse archery. Local products, rarities, treasures, clothing, and upholstery are very good, and even India cannot compare with it.”
By the end of the 1st century BCE, one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi, the Guishuang managed to take control of the Yuezhi confederation and expanded to the east during the 1st century CE to found the Kushan Empire. During the 1st and 2nd century, the Kushan Empire expanded militarily to the north and occupied parts of the Tarim Basin, their original grounds, putting them at the center of the lucrative Central Asian commerce with the Roman Empire. About 120 CE, Kushan troops expanded their power and influence in the Tarim Basin.
Knock-on effect – The Parthians from Iran and the Bactrian Greeks from Bactria had both been dislodged by the Sakas coming down from somewhere near the Aral Sea. But the Sakas had in turn been dislodged by the Yueh-chi who had themselves been driven west to Xinjiang by the Xiongnu. The Xiongnu would not reach India for a long time. But the Yueh-chi continued to press on the Shakas, and having forced them out of Bactria, it was sections or clans of these Yueh-chi who next began to move down into India in the second half of the first century CE. General Cunningham identified the Kushans as Gurjars or Gujjar.

Kushanmap

The Kushans were one of five branches of the Yuezhi confederation,[7][8] a possibly Iranic[9] or Tocharian,[10] Indo-European[11]nomadic people who had migrated from the Tarim Basin and settled in ancient Bactria.[8] Their official language, the Indo-European Bactrian language, is closely related to the modern Afghan languages. The Kushans spread from the Kabul River Valley to also encompass much of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, from which they took their first official language (Greek),[6] Bactrian alphabet, Greco-Buddhist religion, coinage system, and art. The last of the Kushan and Sassanian kingdoms were eventually overwhelmed by the Hepthalites, another Indo-European people from the north.

Recap: Byzantine Creation Era  ”The Making of the World”- Facerea Lumii5600 BCthe breaking of the Bosphorus, the Fresh Water Lake becomes the Salt Water Black Sea. The Proto Getes living around the banks of Black Sea migrate outwards. ProtoGetes going up the Danube to Western Europe became ProtoCelts and ProtoGetes going east became Massagetae / IndoAryans – vedic&iranian cultures.
Cultures going from Central Europe to East. 
>> 0] Cucuteni/Dniester
>> 1] Sredny Stog/Dnieper 5th millennium Bc, horse domestication
>> 2] Yamna/Dnieper-Donets 36-23rd century BC, kurgan proto IE
>> 3] Poltavka /Volga 2700—2100BC
>> 4] ”bi-etnic” Abashevo 2500–1900BC Volga and southern Ural Mountains
>> 5] Sintashta-ARKAIM-Petrovka/North of Caspian Sea 2100–1800BC earliest known chariots & copper mining and bronze metallurgy; mines just south of Urals @ ARKAIM
>> 6] Andronovo/East of Caspian Sea 1800–1400BC, copper ore in the Altai Mountains 
>> 7] Tocharians/Tarim Basin maybe linked with the Afanasevo culture of eastern Siberia (c. 3500 – 2500 BC), the Tarim mummies(c. 1800 BC) and the Yuezhi of Chinese records >> 8] big-bang: kurgan warriors meet  BMAC 2300–1700 BCE farming civilisation/ Oxus/Amu_Darya – results a much stronger hybrid culture
>> 9] Indus 1700BC first arian conquest
>> 10] Anatolia Hittites 1600-1500Bc and Mittani 1400bc
>> 11] Vedic Indus Culture 1750–500 BC
>> 12] Massageteans/on the Oxus are in the center of Scythian/Getae/Jet continuum from Dniester to Indus.

Then the direction of the tides changes again, the migrations are starting to flow from E to W, from the Caspian Pontic steppes to Europe, with the Huns and the Mongols pushing from behind the biggest waves.
>> The Cimmerians were an ancient Indo-European people living north of the Caucasus and the Sea of Azov as early as 1300 BC[1]until they were driven southward by the Scythians into Anatolia during the 8th century BC. Linguistically they are usually regarded as Iranian, or possibly Thracian with an Iranian ruling class. After their exodus from the CimmeriansPontic steppe the Cimmerians probably assaulted Urartu about 714 BC, but in 705, after being repulsed by Sargon II of Assyria, they turned towards Anatolia and in 696–695 conquered Phrygia. In 652, after taking Sardis, the capital of Lydia, they reached the height of their power. Their decline was rapid, and their final defeat is dated between 637 and 626, by Alyattes of Lydia. There are no further mentions of them in historical sources, but it is likely they settled in Cappadocia. Herodotus thought the Cimmerians and the Thracians closely related, writing that both peoples originally inhabited the northern shore of the Black Sea, and both were displaced about 700 BC, by invaders from the east. Whereas the Cimmerians would have departed this ancestral homeland by heading east and south across the Caucasus, the Thracians migrated southwest into the Balkans, where they established a successful and long-lived culture.

The Getes were known by the Greco-Romans to the west, by the Chinese to the east, and by the Indians and Persians to the south. In the fourth and third centuries BC, after scythia-parthiaresisting Alexander the Great, the Massagetae subdued nearly all the nomad tribes of Central Asian north of the Macedonian frontier, eastward to the Tien-Shan Mountains, and possibly many tribes of the Kazakhstan steppes; this led to a tremendous extension of their culture. Sakas, Dahae, Daae, Sacae, Daks, Alans, Sarmatians, ThracoGetians, Thyssagetae, Tyrigetae, Great Yuezhi, Ephthalites or White Huns, Kushans, Tochari, Cimmerians,  Goths, Iazygians, Roxolani, Dacians, there seems to be a continuity between the vast steppes, from neolithic to the Middle Age.

Physical Characteristics of Jats. Risley writes the following about the Jats and Rajputs of Panjab: We are concerned merely with the fact that there exists in the Punjab and Rajputana at the present day, a defmite physical type, represented by the Jats and Rajputs , which is marked by a relatively long (doUcho-cephalic) head; a straight, finely cut (leptorrhine) nose; a long, symmetrically narrow face; a well developed forehead, regular features, and high facial angle. The stature is high and the general build of the figure is well proportioned, being relatively massive in the Jats and relatively slender in the Rajputs. Throughout the group the predominant colour of the skin is a very light transparent brown, with a tendency towards darker shades in the lower social strata. (Risley 1915,49)
Barstow writes about the physical characteristics of the Jat Sikhs, “The Sikh Jat is generally tall and muscular, with well shaped limbs, erect carriage, and strongly marked and handsome features …. In physique his is not surpassed by any race in India, if indeed he is not put at the top of the tree in this respect” (Barstow 1928, 166-67).
Now the Jats, after being in India for several centuries, obviously intenningled to some degree with the previously settled populations, but still maintained their identity. The main factor is probably the displacement of many of the original inhabitants of the Punjab and surrounding areas toward the interior of India and the forced endogamy of the rigid Hindu caste system, which allows for practically no intermarriage between castes (Dhillon 1994, 16). Although in reality, the situation with the Indo-Scythian populations in the Northwest is that they probably have undergone a process analogous to the American South with regard to the local Dravidian and interleaving Aryan populations once settled there. Moreover, the somewhat allowed institution of hyperagamy may have allowed for women of lower status to marry men of higher status (Barstow 1928, 159). Still the Jats may not be free from elements of subsequent invaders of India, such as the Arabs, Ghaznavids, and Mughals.
Therefore, the physical characteristics of the Indo-Scythian descendants in northwest India are discussed by Coon and Hunt who write: The second invasion [of India was by] … peoples who were related to the Scythians and Sarmatians. The tallest people are found in Rajasthan and the Punjab and beards are fullest among the warrior castes and the Sikhs. Most of these people have glossy black hair, although brown hair is not uncommon. Reddish and blond hair is extremely rare. Almost all of them have brown eyes of various shades, but one sees light and mixed eyes in rare individuals, particularly among the Sikhs. (Coon and Hunt 1965,204-206)
Dhillon claims that around seventy percent of Sikhs are of the Jat background (Dhillon .
1994, 12). In his Germanic People: Their Origin, Expansion and Culture, Owen writes, “In the shape of face, stature and general physical build the Sikhs approximate the Nordic type” (Owen 1960, 50-51). Further, Rose says, ” … [W]e find to this day in the Punjab a physical type predominating which in many respects resembles that of certain European races, and is radically different from the typical characteristics of the other Indian stocks … ” (Rose 1883, 1:58, 2: 362-63). Although physical characteristics alone probably do not satisfy the more skeptical reader, perhaps a brief analysis of their customs, in addition to the aforementioned practice of levirate marriage, will be helpful.

Keeping Unshorn Hair. “In the Punjabi language, the word ‘Gut’ or ‘Gutan’ means long hair. This could very well be derived from the fact that they or their forefathers … Scythians … used to keep long hair” (Dhillon 1994, 1). The baptized Sikh was required to wear unshorn hair. He states: “Uncut hair was a Jat custom … ” (McLeod 1976, 52, 93).
Ancestor Worship. Ancestor worship is believed to have been introduced to India during the Kushan age. The Jats of the Panjab worship their ancestors in a practice known as Jathera.  Talbot-Rice mentions this practice among Slavs: “Among the various practices which the Slavs inherited from the Scythians, the most important consisted in the worship of their ancestors” (Talbot-Rice 1957, 181). “The Alans worshipped or, perhaps more exactly, venerated their ancestors” (Bachrach 1973, 22). We also know that the Goths worshipped their ancestors or heroes (Wolfram 1988, 106).
Veneration of the Sword. Tod writes about the modem Rajput, “The Rajput .. worships his horse, his sword, and the sun, and attends more to the martial song of the bard than to the litany of the Brahman …. ” (Tod 1829, 82). The modem Sikh prayer called Ardas makes reference to some form of sword worship or veneration, even before mentioning any of the Sikh gurus: ”First remember the sword; then remember and meditate upon Guru Nanak” …. Ammianus MarceUinus shows how sword veneration was practiced by the
Alans: ”There the man is judged happy who has sacrificed his life in battle.. a naked sword is fixed in the ground and they reverently worship it as their god of war. (Rolfe1939, 393-95). It probably all goes back to the sword worship of the Scythians; as Wolfram puts it: “That Ares-Mars, in the form of the sword, was the divine father of the Scythians, Getaes, Goths, and Gauts was known to ancient ethnography, which they never tired of mentioning” (Wolfram 1988, 109).
Clan Names. The Jats of Panjab have several clan names that overlap virtually identically with those of certain European tribes; for example, Gill, Mann, Birk, Bains, Dhillon, Maur or Moore, Lally, Hans, Herr, JobI, Chiller, Sandher, etc., overlap with German, French, and English names. These examples are by no means insignificant but in fact are very well known Jat clan names. Dhillon provides an extended list of these names, and he strongly suggests that the Jat clan names are neither corrupted nor borrowed (Dhillon 1994). The second Anglo Sikh war, in which the Sikhs lost and were annexed into British India, occurred in 1849, and within 35 years Rose published his A Glossary of Tribes and Castes of Punjab and the Northwest Frontier Province, in which he recorded these very clan names (Rose 1883), which had been collected by Ibbetson for census data for the 1880 Census (Ibbetson 1916). For example, the number of Gills, as reported by Ibbetson, was around 125,000 in 1880 (Ibbetson 1916, 121).
Euergetae – The “Good” Getae also known as the Ariaspians, dwelt in the Seistan area at the time of Aexander’s invasion of Afghanistan, roughly 328 B.C. Earlier, around 529 B.C., when Cyrus the Great of Persia was waging war against the Massagetae he had “received substantial help from the Ariaspian people. . . [who dwelled] …. in a region that corresponds to the modem Seistan”

The Thracian Getae like the Euergetae, must have experienced an early migration from Scythia into Thrace .. Herodotus writes, “The Getae are the noblest as well as the most just of the Thracian tribes” (Rawlinson 1928, 232). Encyclopedia Britannica “They were experts in the use of the bow and arrows while on horseback” (E.B. 1911, 11: 911). An interesting description of their dress is provided by Dio Chrysostom, a mid-first century writer from Prusa (Turkey), who suggests that the Getae were Scythians: ”Here in [Rome] from time to time are to be seen persons, whom are wearing felt caps on their heads-as today certain of the Thracians who are called Getae do, and as Spartans and Macedonians used to do in days gone by..”
The Getae, about a century before Christ, had expanded from the Danube to the Dniester and indefinitely to the north (Leake 1967, 15). Leake adds, “Thrace, itself the first-attested home of the Getae, is called ‘Little Scythia'”
(Leake 1967, 15). The Greek documents connect the Massagetae, the Tiregetae, and the Thyssagetae also with these Scythians … ” (Iorga 1925, 20-21). Leake then mentions a “large number of people who left Little Scythia and crossed both the Tyras and Ister and took up their abode in the land beyond … ” (Leake 1967, 15). F. Bergmann in his book Les Getes, written in French back in 1859, specifically believed this to be the case, as he writes, “Tyra-Getes, Getes du Tyras … [Tyregetae, the Getae of the
Tyre River] (Bergmann 1859, 27).” Rawlinson adds, “When the Goths (Getae) conquered the region about this river [Tyras], they received the name of Tyri-getae” (H. Rawlinson 1880, 38). The Tyro-Getae, of Pliny, are the same with the Tyritae of Herodotus. For by both writers they are placed on the river Tyres, or Tyras, the Dniester of our modem times. The Tyregetae or the “Tyregetans” of Strabo (Jones 1928, 3: 221), therefore, must be the Getae near the Tyre River. The Tyre River would represent the modem Dniester River (Kephart 1960, 466), which is found in western Ukraine. Further, Mircea Eliade says the Tyregetae dwelled from the Balkans to the Dniester (Tyre) River (Eliade 1970, 12).
Hewitt believed the Getae to be an offshoot Scythian tribe, who were related to the Great Getae or Massagetae living east of the Caspian Sea region.
Strabo writes, “The Daci, I think were called Dai in early times … “ (Jones 1928, 3: 213). This is confirmed by Flaccus’s Argonautica, in which he calls them Dahae. Mircea Eliade, in his book Zalmoxis, equates the Dacians with the Dahae. According to Strabo (304, 7. 3. 12), the original name of the Dacians was daoi.  Certain nomadic Scythians to the east of the Caspian Sea were also called daoi. In all probability their ethnic name was derived from Iranian (Saka) dahae, ‘wolf’ …. The Latin authors called them Dahae, and some Greek historians daai ….
At first the name “Dacians” referred to one of the Thracian tribes in Northwestern Dacia (Strabo 304, 7. 3. 12). In general the name “Getae” occurs more commonly toward the Black Sea, from the ~alkans to the Dniester [Tyregetae], whereas, the name “Dacians” is more frequent in the northwest, west, and the south …. (Eliade 1970, 1-2, 12) Returning to Alexander Cunningham, his analysis of the name Dahae was the following: The original word in the Sanskrit, dasyu, ‘an enemy or robber’. The spoken form in Indian is Daku, which is found in the Latin Dacia. A similar term is still applied to the people on the east of the Caspian, which country is now called Daghistan or Dahistan, or ‘Rebel-land’. (Cunningham 1888, 33)

Hyrcania-Land of the Wolves. The Dahae branch of the Sakas was noted by classical writers to be found at the southeast shore of the Caspian Sea, near the ancient land of Hyrcania (Jones 1928,3: 213). That Daii means ”wolf’ in the Phyrgian language is well attested (Eliade 1972, 1). The same is true of dhaunos in Illyrian (Eliade 1972, 1). Draco, originally a Dacian emblem, may have been introduced to the Roman cavalry by Sarmatian units in the 2nd century. It was actually not a dragon but a wolf head with serpent body, it was used by all Daco Getians from the South of the Danube up to the Dniester as their main military symbol.

 The Agathyrsi. The 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica states, “They are described by Herodotus (iv. 104) as of luxurious habits, wearing gold ornaments and having wives in common. They tattooed their bodies …. Valerius Flaccus (Argonautica, vi. 135) calls them Thyrsagetae … ” (E.B. 1911, 1: 370). We know that the Massagetae kept women in common (Yablonsky 1995, 250) and used only gold and copper, and that the Scythians tattooed their bodies. Further, in his Argonautica, Valerius Flaccus states, “Whom have I failed to mention? The Thyrsagetae, who march to the beat of the drums they carry … ” (Slavitt 1999, 113). Thrysa-getae practiced polyandry, tattooed their bodies, and wore extravagant gold, which opens up cultural similarities to the Massagetae. In summary, we find similarities between the Dacians (Dahae), Getae, Tyrigetae (Getae of Tyras), Agathyrsi (Thyrsagetae), and the Orkoi (Virks) , classical writers referred to them as Scythians.

The Alans. Ammianus Marcellinus (4th century A.D.), perhaps the best authority on the Alans, an Iranian nomadic people, wrote: [T]he Halani mount to the eastward, divided into populous and extensive nations.  [T]he Halani, once [were] known as the Massagetae. (Rolfe 1939, 387-90).

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