From Old Europe to Iron Age – the Ethnogenesis of Europe

copper The earliest recorded metal employed by humans seems to be gold which can be found free or “native”. The first evidence of this extractive metallurgy dates from the 5th and 6th millennium BC, and was found in the archaeological sites of Majdanpek, Yarmovac and Plocnik, all three in Serbia. To date, the earliest copper smelting is found at the Belovode site,[5] these examples include a copper axe from 5500 BC belonging to the Vinča culture. By combining copper and tin, a superior mettmetal could be made, an alloy called bronze, a major technological shift which began the Bronze Age about 3500 BC. According to National Museum archaeologist Dušan Šljivar, experts found a “copper chisel and stone ax at a location near Prokuplje in which the foundation has proven to be 7,500 years old, leading us to believe that it was one of the first places in which metal weapons and tools were made in prehistoric times.” The oldest evidence of copper metallurgy is from the Vinča culture in Serbia around 5500 BCE. From there is quickly spread to Bulgaria (Gumelniţa-Karanovo culture, etc.), then to the eupbrCarpathians (Cucuteni-Tripyllian culture) and the Danubian basin. These cultures of ‘Old Europe’ would have included haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, J and T (as well as I2a1 for Cucuteni-Tripyllian).
The Khvalynsk culture in the Volga region marks the first appearance of the chalcolithic in the steppe. Copper working quickly spread in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe and associated cultures further north (Fatyanovo–Balanovo culture) and west (Corded Ware culture). This dispersal was of course linked to haplogroups R1b and R1a. It is noteworthy that the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus (from 3800 BCE) immediately started off as a Bronze Age culture, and apparently the world’s oldest.

Metal_production_in_Ancient_Middle_EastPersianGulfTrade_CopperTin_BronzeAge Before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC bronze artefacts were without tin bronzes in western Asia. Copper-tin ores are rare, in the Mediterranean region there was then no significant reserves of tin. The amber was xBronzeAge2-01_3.jpg.pagespeed.ic.UwwIIGnqt1the gold of the Baltic Sea, the Baltic Sea was not then on the periphery of the civilized world, but it was a supplier of luxury goods that world. The Amber Trail was used to transport the most important raw material of this era, the tin. These raw materials controlled the northern and central part of Europe. Tin was the main raw material of the Bronze Age. It was the most important strategic resource, tin is next to the copper the main component of bronze alloys. It was much more important than copper because it was much less accessible. Tin was then more important than gold, it was so crucial today as oil or gas. Caesar invaded Britain precisely because of its important tin mines! (Just as Traian invaded Dacia because of the Gold.)
The Tin (Cassiterite) Distribution Google Earth 3D GIS Project was tinoriginally initiated in 2007 and has finally come to fruition. It is intended to definitively present all currently known instances of the primary ore of Tin throughout the entirety of Europe, the Middle East, and all of North Africa in an attempt to begin to finally put to an end the lingering controversy regarding the availability of Tin to the Eastern Mediterranean during the Bronze Age.


Not far from the actual border between Poland and Germany, the border between the Slav and Celt worlds, between R1a and R1b, archeologists are digging up the remains of the biggest battle of the Bronze Age, rewriting the history.  At 1300BC maybe this battle was tarbetween R1a and R1b, just before the invasion of the Mediteranian world by the Sea People, who destroyed all the city state of the Middle East. Here used to be the beginning of the Amber route, the battle for the control of these resources – amber and tin was obvious, this route was used to invade the Mediterana (and Black Sea, down the Dnieper). Here was a big city Wolin so this city is similar with the Trojan war. German Bishop Adam of Bremen in 1080 wrote that “in Pomerania at the mouth of the Oder River (the most abundant in the rivers of the Slavs) there is the largest city in Europe, controlling the trade of northern Europe. Slavs live together with other nations, Greeks and the barbarians.”
The 1200BC exodus is similar with the viking conquest of Rusia, England, Normandy, Sicily which led to the fall of the Byzantin Empire. The exodus was probably caused by climatic changes and it was possible because of the superior metal technology, hence military superiority of the R1a world with it’s center in Erzberg area. See translation with google translate of this great article Excavations at Tollense can be compared with the excavations of the Battle of Grunwald 600 years ago considered the greatest battle of medieval Europe. Archaeological research in the fields of Grunwald was conducted more than fifty years, but so far found only the remains of 200 fighters. Meanwhile the excavations at Tollense found bones belonging to at least 130 fighters and all this after digging only 450 m2, ie maybe only 10% of what was yet to dig up. DNA testing teeth, revealed genetic material from Italy, Poland and Scandinavia.

Uncovering a colossal Bronze Age battle – after a series of excavations between 2009 and 2015, researchers have begun to understand the battle and its startling implications for Bronze Age society. Along a 3-kilometer stretch of the Tollense River, archaeologists from the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Department of Historic Preservation (MVDHP) and the University of tollenseGreifswald (UG) have unearthed wooden clubs, bronze spearheads, and flint and bronze arrowheads. They have also found bones in extraordinary numbers – “If our hypothesis is correct that all of the finds belong to the same event, we’re dealing with a conflict of a scale hitherto completely unknown north of the Alps,” says dig co-director Thomas Terberger, an archaeologist at the Lower Saxony State Service for Cultural Heritage in Hannover. “There’s nothing to compare it to.” It may even be the earliest direct evidence—with weapons and warriors together—of a battle this size anywhere in the ancient world. Historical accounts from the Near East and Greece described epic battles, but few artifacts remained to corroborate these boastful accounts. “Even in Egypt, despite hearing many tales of war, we never find such substantial archaeological evidence of its participants and victims,” UCD’s Molloy says. In 2013, geomagnetic surveys revealed evidence of a 120-meter-long bridge or causeway stretching across the valley. Radiocarbon dating showed that although much of the structure predated the battle by more than 500 years, parts of it may have been built or restored around the time of the battle, suggesting the causeway might have been in continuous ThingsTheyCarrieduse for centuries—a well-known landmark. “The crossing played an important role in the conflict. Maybe one group tried to cross and the other pushed them back,” Terberger says. “The conflict started there and turned into fighting along the river.” Chemical tracers in the remains suggest that most of the Tollense warriors came from hundreds of kilometers away.
DNA from teeth suggests some warriors are related to modern southern Europeans and others to people living in modern-day Poland and Scandinavia. “This is not a bunch of local idiots,” says University of Mainz geneticist Joachim Burger. “It’s a highly diverse population.” As University of Aarhus’s Vandkilde puts it: “It’s an army like the one described in Homeric epics, made up of smaller war bands that gathered to sack Troy”—an event thought to have happened fewer than 100 years later, in 1184 B.C.E. That suggests an unexpectedly widespread social organization, Jantzen says. “To organize a battle like this over tremendous distances and gather all these people in one place was a tremendous accomplishment,” he says.
“They weren’t farmer-soldiers who went out every few years to brawl, these are professional fighters.” But why did so much military force converge on a narrow river Tollensetal Impressionsfrakturvalley in northern Germany? Kristiansen says this period seems to have been an era of significant upheaval from the Mediterranean to the Baltic. In Greece, the sophisticated Mycenaean civilization collapsed around the time of the Tollense battle; in Egypt, pharaohs boasted of besting the “Sea People,” marauders from far-off lands who toppled the neighboring Hittites. And not long after Tollense, the scattered farmsteads of northern Europe gave way to concentrated, heavily fortified settlements, once seen only to the south. “Around 1200 B.C.E. there’s a radical change in the direction societies and cultures are heading,” Vandkilde says. “Tollense fits into a period when we have increased warfare everywhere.” Tollense looks like a first step toward a way of life that is with us still. From the scale and brutality of the battle to the presence of a warrior class wielding sophisticated weapons, the events of that long-ago day are linked to more familiar and recent conflicts. “It could be the first evidence of a turning point in social organization and warfare in Europe,” Vandkilde says.

Where did Bronze Age people get the tin needed to forge and smelt the dark yellow metal that gives the period its name? The BRONZEAGETIN project, funded by the EU’s European Research Council (ERC), is able to perform such measurements because of a recent tool: plasma source mass spectrometry.  (2,340,800€)


“The transition to today’s arid climate was not gradual, but occurred in two specific episodes. The first, which was less severe, occurred between 6,700 and 5,500 years ago. The second, which was brutal, lasted from 4,000 to 3,600 years ago. Summer temperatures increased sharply, and precipitation decreased, according to carbon-14 dating. This event devastated ancient civilizations and their socio-economic systems.”[15]
Cultures that rely on nomadic herding, where the livestock may be moved around to greener pastures freely, survive much better in arid regions than cultures that have permanent settlements that are based on subsistence farming techniques. With verified evidence that Kurgan pastoralists were living cheek-to-jowl with the Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements throughout their entire region for many centuries before the end of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, it is becoming very difficult to support Gimbutas’ claim of a military conquest of a peaceful civilization. Rather, it is much more believable and logical to conclude that the members of the Cucuteni-Trypillian society that were facing starvation by farming their dry and barren plots of depleted soil chose instead to take up the practice of their neighbors, and became pastoralists instead.
However, as stated earlier, it is still very important to keep in mind that the Vinca / Cucuteni-Trypillian culture managed to thrive for thousands of years without any concept of warfare, and produced one of the most sophisticated civilizations of its time. As the Indo-Europeans continued to move through the former lands of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture and on to spread across the entire landscape of Europe and beyond, they carried with them the genetic lineage of the Cucuteni-Trypillian people. Today, this genetic line makes up a significant contribution to the European DNA code. In other words, the people of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture did not die out, but their descendants are still very much alive and thriving to this day, and are spread across the entire world.–Trypillian_culture



R1b1b2 is thought to have arrived in central and western Europe around 2500 BCE, by going up the Danube from the Black Sea coast. The archeological and genetic evidence (distribution of R1b subclades) point at several consecutive waves towards the Danube between 2800 BCE and 2300 BCE – beginning of the Unetice culture. It is interesting to note that this also corresponds to the end of the Maykop culture (2500 BCE) and Kemi Oba culture (2200 BCE) on the northern shores of the Black Sea, and their replacement by cultures descended from the northern steppes. It can therefore be envisaged that the (mostly) R1b population from the northern half of the Black Sea migrated westward due to pressure from other Indo-European people (R1a) from the north, like the burgeoning Proto-Indo-Iranian branch, linked to the contemporary Poltavka and Abashevo cultures. It is undeniable that the following Unetice (2300-1600 BCE), Tumulus (1600-1200 BCE), Urnfield (1300-1200 BCE) and Hallstatt (1200-750) cultures were linked to the spread of R1b to Europe, as they abruptly introduce new technologies and a radically different lifestyle. herebedragons/y-dna


Unetice R1b is associated with the diffusion of Proto-Germanic and Proto-Celto-Italic speakers. Emergence of chiefdoms. Long-distance trade in bronze, amber, faience and gold prestige goods. Widespread use of bronze. Gold, copper and bronze objects include torcs, flat axes, halberds, flat triangular daggers, bracelets with spiral-ends, disk- and paddle-headed pins and curl rings. Coarse pottery typically decorated with twisted cord impressions, and sometimes with other types of impressions or incisions. The dead were inhumed in flat graves or in barrows/tumuli for richer burials. Corpses were accompanied by ceramic vessels, jewellery, personal items made of bronze or bone, and occasionally flint tools. Coffins were sometimes used.


Little is known about the arrival of Proto-Greek speakers from the steppes. The Mycenaean culture commenced circa 1650 BCE and is clearly an imported steppe culture. The close relationship between Mycenaean and Proto-Indo-Iranian languages suggest that they split fairly late, some time between 2500 and 2000 BCE. Archeologically, Mycenaean chariots, spearheads, daggers and other bronze objects show striking similarities with the Seima-Turbino culture (c. 1900-1600 BCE) of the northern Russian forest-steppes, known for the great mobility of its nomadic warriors (Seima-Turbino sites were found as far away as Mongolia). It is therefore likely that the Mycenaean descended from Russia to Greece between 1900 and 1650 BCE, where they intermingled with the locals to create a new unique Greek culture.

mycenae05The Mycenaeans, or Achaeans, had invaded the Greek mainland between 1900 BC and 1600 BC, and the term Achaeans was sometimes used to refer to all Greeks of this period. The center of their culture was Mycenae, which flourished from about 1500 to 1100 BC. Before 1400 BC the Mycenaeans conquered the Minoans. The war against Troy took place in the 13th or early 12th century BC

erzbrghungaryslavi si celtiRecap: 4000-3500BCE. Most of Europe is basically I2 plus the layers of E/J/G who brought agriculture from the Middle East. N of Black Sea, the steppe is “red” R1b, further north the forests are “yellow” R1a. Old Europe is thriving, the melting pot between Cucuteni, Yamna and Maykop is where all the technologies and genes are giving birth to the Aryan mix – agriculture and first metal technology from Cucuteni (via Vinca), horses and chariots from the steppes plus the new metal technologies from the Caucaz. R1b enters Europe on the shores of the Black Sea, in the E of present day Romania – Hamagia Culture.
Before 2500BC Eastern and Central Europe plus the North of Europe invaded and dominated by R1A who are pushing also down R1b Maykop culture. Expansion of Yamna into Corded Ware Culture in all Europe except Megalithic I2 culture in Western Europe.
R1b pushed down (south) by R1a is going W through the S of the Black Sea and up on the Danube to Central Europe. First base of R1b in Europe is Transylvania!
2500-2000BCE From Transylvania R1b invades Central and Western Europe, Unetice is a mix of R1a and R1b, Bell Beaker in W Eu is a mix of I2&R1b.
2000-1500BCE – R1a expands again to W and S: Tezciniec culture pushes W the boundary between R1a/R1b domination, proto Greek & Macedonians & Thracians go down from N/Central Eu to Balkans & Greece.
After 1500BCE R1b founds a new power base in Erzberg region, the metal mines and trades gives them wealth, power and military superiority. They thrive and start the huge expansion E, W and S. They totally dominate Western and Central Europe, they invade Greece. So first “Greeks” were “Afrikans” E-V13 and J1/2 “Asians”, second wave of “Greeks” the Mycenians were “Slavs” ie R1a and finnally the last wave of “Greeks” the Dorians were “Celts” R1b.  Smile This huge wave of R1b expansion with the Hallstatt epicenter wipe out all Middle East, invade the Levant and Egypt (the Sea People) but they go over Thrace and can not invade E of Europe (Lusatian Culture). And also go over the N of Greece and Macedonia hence the difference between R1a Macedonians and R1b Spartans.

In all this time “Dacia/Romania” remains with the majority of the tufalaupopulation with I2, plus the R1a&R1b mix, up to present day. Transylvania is more “red”, the future base of Dacians is similar with the Erzeberg R1b base of the Hallstatt culture, it is based on the mines and metal workshops in the Transylvanian mountains  (“Rosia Montana” gold).



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Nu avem crize ale resurselor, avem doar crize politice. Suntem pierduți doar când ne credem învinși, când ne pierdem crezul.

Jose Mujica – cel mai ”sărac” președinte din lume:  M-am gândit mult la toate astea, am avut timp să mă gândesc pentru că am petrecut 10 ani izolat într-o celulă și 7 ani fără nici o carte. Ori ești fericit cu puțin, liber de greutați pentru că fericirea ta vine din interiorul tău, ori alergi după iluzii și nu vei ajunge niciodată nicăieri. Eu încurajez întelepciunea nu sărăcia. Pentru societațile consumiste lipsa de creștere este o tragedie, se inventează constant false nevoi, suntem condamnați să cumpărăm încontinuu, să ne irosim viata. Cand cumpărați obiecte nu le plătiți cu bani, le plătiți cu ore, cu timp din viața voastră, timp în care lucrați ca sclavi pentru a produce bani. Dar viata, timpul petrecut ca ”sclav fericit”, anii voștrii, sunt singurul lucru care nu poate fi cumpărat cu bani. Ne sacrificam viata, ne irosim anii pentru obiecte de care nu avem nevoie, pe care le vom arunca pentru a cumpăra noi și noi obiecte, ca într-un blestem continuu, atât ca o facem nu obligați cu biciul ci din ”entuziasm propriu”.

Președenția Uruguay a ales să cumpere un elicopter de salvare în loc să cumpere un avion prezidențial. E simplu, mai toate deciziile publice se reduc la ”dileme” asemănătoare, ar trebui să fie alegeri similare. Pur si simplu să nu mai risipim resurse pe lucruri inutile și lux, resursele să le consumăm pe nevoile reale ale comunitaților. Acesta e sensul real al democratiei. Sens profund distorsionat de politicienii de azi care fac exact invers, care în loc să serveasca comunitațile nu fac decât sa le jefuiasca. Problema noastra nu e lipsa de resurse ci lipsa de guvernare corecta. Politicienii actuali sunt preocupati doar de cine va câstiga alegerile ca să poate fura mai departe, cine vor fi cei care împart prada. Guvernanții se luptă doar pentru bani și putere, în loc să se lupte pentru oameni. Nu avem crize ecologice, crize ale resurselor, avem doar crize politice. Am ajuns să ne distrugem planeta din setea de dominatie a celor puternici, din cauză ca cei care au prea mulți bani sunt niște psihopați,  cu atât mai nesătui cu cât sunt mai bogați .

Când esti cel mai jos te confrunți cel mai palpabil cu realitatea, lupta și speranța dau sensul adevarat al vietii. Nu poti trăi în ură, durere, critică. Când doar ne plângem de milă nu putem merge mai departe, starea de veșnică cârteală ne blocheaza, nu mai facem nimic, ajungem condamnați la pasivitate. Fiecare generatie poate învăța cu adevarat doar din propria experiență, doar din propriile greșeli. Poti schimba ceva doar dacă vrei să construiesti, răzbunarea nu e solutie pentru nimic.

Oamenii învață mai mult din suferinte decât din lux. Nu promovez o cale a suferinței, vreau doar să spun că întotdeuna se poate reîncepe de la zero, poți sa te ridici din nou și din nou de o mie de ori, atât timp cât mai ai viață în tine. Se poate și merită, din greutăți ne putem ridica mai întelepți, de jos ne putem ridica mai puternici, aceasta e cea mai mare lecție a vieții. Nu suntem învinși decât în momentul în care ne credem învinși. Pierdem doar cand ne pierdem crezul.

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The African DNA of Europe E-V13

hg In 1975, the mummy of Ramesses II was taken to France for preservation. Professor Pierre-Fernand Ceccaldi, the chief forensic scientist at the Criminal Identification Laboratory of Paris. determined that: “the hair of Ramses II, astonishingly preserved, showed complementary data about pigmentation: he was a fair-skinned person with Red hair – cymnotriche leucoderma.”
Forensic artists and physical anthropologists from Egypt, France, nefertitiand the United States independently created busts of Tutankhamun, using a CT-scan of the skull. Although modern technology can reconstruct Tutankhamun’s facial structure with a high degree of accuracy, determining his skin tone and eye color is impossible. The cranial cavity indicated an African, while the nose opening suggested narrow nostrils, which is usually considered to be a European characteristic.
The race and skin color of Cleopatra, has also caused frequent debate. Scholars generally identify Cleopatra as of Greek and Persian ancestry, based on fact that her Greek Macedonian family had intermingled with the Persian aristocracy of the time.
iGENEA was able to reconstruct the Y-DNA profile of Tutankhamun, his father Akhenaten and his grandfather Amenhotep III with the help of a recording of the Discovery Channel. The astonishing result is that Tutankhamun belongs to the haplogroup R1b1a2, which more than 50% of all men in Western Europe belong to.”

 Following the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12,000 years ago, European hunter-gatherers recolonised the continent from the Ice Age refugia in southern Europe. The vast majority of Mesolithic Europeans would have belonged to Y-haplogroup I. This included I*, pre-I1, I1, I2*, I2a*, I2a2, but the most widespread appears to have been I2a1, which was found in most parts of Europe. Northeast Europeans would have belonged mostly to haplogroup R1a.

Archaeologist Manfred Bietak conducted extensive research on ancient Greek civilizations and their connections to ancient Egypt. Bietak unearthed evidence from artwork as early as 7000 B.C. that depicts the early people inhabiting Greece were of African descent. The Minoan culture of Ancient Greece reached its peak at about 1600 B.C. They were known for their vibrant cities, opulent palaces and established trade connections. Minoan artwork is recognized as a major era of visual achievement in art history. Pottery, sculptures and frescoes from the Minoan Bronze age grace museum displays all over the world. Palace ruins indicate remnants of paved roads and piped water systems.

Many scholars have concluded that the founders of the first Mesopotamian civilization were Black Sumerians. Mesopotamia was the Biblical land of Shinar (Sumer), which sprung up around 3000 B.C. After deciphering the cuneiform script and researching ancient Mesopotamia for many years Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895) discovered that the founders of the civilization were of Kushite (Cushite) origin. He made it clear that the Semitic speakers of Akkad and the non-Semitic speakers of Sumer were both Black people who called themselves sag-gig-ga or “Black Heads.”
John Baldwin wrote in his book “PreHistoric Nations” (1869): “The early colonists of Babylonia were of the same race as the inhabitants of the Upper Nile.” This was corroborated by other scholars including, Chandra Chakaberty, who asserted in his book “A Study in Hindu Social Polity” that “based on the statuaries and steles of Babylonia, the Sumerians were “of dark complexion – chocolate colour, short stature, but of sturdy frame, oval face, stout nose, straight hair, full head; they typically resembled the Dravidians, not only in cranium, but almost in all the details.”

Haplogroup-E1b1b The Sahara changed many times from a lush green place to a hot and arid desert in the last 20,000 years. It was as arid as today at the end of the last Ice Age 13,000 years ago, then the warming climate brought tropical monsoons again from 10,000 to 7,000 years before present. The desertification taking place today started around 6,200 years ago. This series of severe transformations of their environment surely had a tremendous effect on the indigenous (E1b1b) people, causing populations booms during the green millennia following the Last Glacial Maximum, then again during the Neolithic period, and prompting migrations to milder climes once the rain had gone. The region most affected by the desertification would have been around modern Libya. The northern Maghreb enjoys the protection of the mountains that stopped the advance of the desert. Egypt had the Nile and its delta. As a result, if desertification did prompt North Africans to cross the Mediterranean at one time or another, they would most probably have crossed to Sicily first.
A strong argument in favour of E1b1b crossing directly from North Africa to southern Italy is that South Italians have more African admixture than people in the Balkans, Greece or Anatolia. This is true of the Northwest African admixture and theEast African (Red sea) admixture. Another argument is that E1b1b has never been found among the dozens of Neolithic Y-DNA samples in the Balkans or Central Europe.
The Neoltihic farmers who migrated from the Levant to the Balkans would have brought mostly Southwest Asian admixture and apparently exclusively Y-haplogroup G2a. Many Neolithic sites yielded an occasional “outsider” to the G2a majority, but these were lineages (C1a2, F, I1, I2) that are thought to belong to assimilated (or enslaved) Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. That was very probably the case with E-V13 in Catalonia too.
E-V13The hypothesis of E1b1b settling in Mediterranean Europe since the Late Paleolithic or Mesolithic would also explain:

  • 1)…why South Italians and Iberians are remarkably dolichocephaliclong-headed like North Africans, while North Italians, who are more of Italo-Celtic descent are quite brachycephalic – broad-headed like Central Europeans, Eastern Europeans and West Asians. A direct migration from North Africa to South Italy would have resulted not only in higher African admixture in South Italians, but also in a similar morphology. The Greeks are intermediary because they would have been blended with broad-headed West Asian Neolithic farmers G2a and later Bronze Age invaders (Indo-European R1a and R1b, but also Anatolian J2). Further north in the Balkans, the Mediterranean dolicocephalic type were supplanted by the Eastern European, Central Asian and West Asian brachycephalic type over time due to the numerous migrations to the region.
  • 2)…the almost complete absence of other Paleolithic lineage (notably I2) from southern and central Italy, except in Sardinia, which was presumably not settled by Paleolithic North Africans due to its distance from the nearest coast. It would rather have been settled through Corsica from North Italy by Central European hunter-gatherers (I2a1). The modern Sardinian population distinguishes itself by its higher frequency of non-Mediterranean Mesolithic ancestry (such as WHG) but the nearly complete absence of East African admixture. Sardinia is also the only region of Italy which almost doesn’t have any E-V13.

Nowadays E1b1b is the only Mediterranean haplogroup consistently found throughout Europe, even in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Baltic countries, which are conspicuous by the absence of other Neolithic haplogroups like G2a (bar the Indo-European G2a3b1), J1 and T (except in Estonia). However, since G2a is the only lineage that was consistently found in all Neolithic sites tested to date in Europe, the absence of Neolithic G2a lineages from Scandinavia and the Baltic implies that no Neolithic lineage survives there, and consequently E1b1b (mostly E-V13) does not date from the Neolithic in the region. It could easily have been brought by the Indo-European invasions during the Bronze Age, as a minority lineage picked up in Southeast Europe by the R1b tribes before they made their way to Central Europe and eventually Scandinavia. At present the most consistent explanation is that E-M78 was indigenous to southern Europe in the Mesolithic, and was assimilated by G2a farmers, then by R1b Indo-Europeans. There is in fact a very low diversity among E-V13 in central and north-east Europe, which is consistent with a relatively recent (Bronze to Iron Age) dispersal from a common source.

E-M81 in Iberia: Neolithic or Phoenician?
Two alternative time frames can be envisaged for the entry of E-M81 to Iberia. The first possibility is that E-M81 was assimilated by North African herders during the Neolithic. Cattle were probably domesticated in West Asia around 8,500 BCE by R1b tribes. The southern branch, R1b-V88 propagated from the Fertile Crescent into Egypt and across North Africa. Archeology shows that cattle herders reached Lybia by 5,500 BCE and Algeria by 4,500 BCE. Goats were domesticate around the same time as cattle in West Asia, but probably by carriers of haplogroup J1 and T1a. Various groups would have spread in all directions from the Near East, including to North Africa. Thus, at least two separate groups of Neolithic herders would have arrived in the Maghreb and mixed with local E1b1b populations. This new lifestyle could have been the factor that prompted the sudden expansion of E-M81 lineages. The resulting population  increase (a mix of R1b, J1 & E-M81) would have encouraged goat and cattle herders to seek new pastures in Iberia, which they could have done sometime between 4,000 and 3,000 BCE.

Cumulatively, some E-M81 lineages could have settled in Iberia when the Phoenicians and the Carthaginians were actively trading between both sides of the West Mediterranean, a period that spans one full millennium (c. 1200-146 BCE). The Phoenicians were known to trade as far north as the British Isles, and may have had trading posts along the coast of Portugal, Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria, which would have brought a mixture of Near Eastern (J1, J2, E-M34, T, G2a) and Berber (E-M84, R1b-V88) lineages to the region, as is observed today.
The Phoenicians possessed a variety of paternal lineages reflecting the complex ancient history of the Middle East. One of them was E-M34, which makes up about 15% of modern Lebanese Y-DNA, but was probably a higher before the Greek, Roman, Arabic, Byzantine, medieval crusader and Ottoman occupations. E-M34 is the main Middle Eastern variety of E1b1b and is thought to have arrived with the Proto-Semitic people in the Late Copper to Early Bronze Age. The Phoenicians would have spread E-M34 to Cyprus, Malta, Sicily, Sardinia, Ibiza and southern Iberia.

E-M78 is the most common variety of haplogroup E among Europeans and Near Easterners. E-M78 is divided into 4 main branches : E1b1b1a1 (E-V12), E1b1b1a2 (E-V13), E1b1b1a3 (E-V22) and E1b1b1a4 (E-V65), each subdivided in further subclades.

E-V13 is clearly linked to the Thessalian Neolithic and its offshoots, such as the Linear Pottery (LBK) culture. It was also part of the Cardium Pottery Culture, as attested by the 7000-year-old E-V13 sample from Catalonia, which belonged to that culture. E-V13 also seems to have spread the Neolithic to the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and Iran, but could have bypassed Syria, where it isn’t found, except in Assyria and Kurdistan.
The Kurds have the highest percentage of E-V13 in the Middle East. They also have have high percentages of I2a1b and R1a, which makes me think that they could be descended from the Thracians or a relative tribe from the region of Romania or Bulgaria. Or at least it would mean that a Thracian-related tribe settled in what is now Kurdistan, probably long before the actual Kurds arrived. Maybe the Cimmerians are the source they invaded that (Kurd) area of the mid east around 2,600-2,800ybp according to Herodotus they lived around Ukriane and Russia north of the black sea were I2a1b is pretty popular. Cimmerians appeared like an Iranian group which showed strong connections to Thracians. Almost like the bridge between Iranians and Thracians.
The very even dispersal show an ancient origin. Looks like they were involved in farming from the beginning. E-V13, G2a and I2a are European groups. E-V13 IS European because that particular mutation took place in southeastern Europe, but it’s parent E-M78 probably originated somewhere near the Egyptian/Sudan frontier and spread across much of Libya, Egypt, Somalia, Ethiopia. E-V13 is European, with parent from North East Africa. G2a (the one observed in Europe) is European parent from Caucaz. I2a is European with parent I2 the most European haplogrouop in the world. Germanic and Celtic R1b is European with parent from Anatolia and great parent from Central Asia! E-V13 is massively “European” in its distribution, some sub clade of it made it all the way into the western Mediterranean with the Neolithic. It is also clear from many papers that the extremely high Balkan frequencies stem from a founder effect and then a large expansion in relatively more recent times.
Gypsies are not big in E-V13, some have it due to drift. Bulgarians, Serbs, Macedonians and Albanians slept with Gypsy women and majority of the children 99+ were raised as Gypsies. E-V13 has nothing to do with Egypt itself, its father M78 has. Gypsies are mostly H1a the second biggest being I1 (a mystery who have sex with them to give it to them, maybe Hungarians and Austrians), I2a, J2a4b and E-V13. Just like between 0.5-2% of the Eastern European have Gypsy H, just like 30-40% of the Gypsies have European I1, I2a and E-V13. Also majority of Gypsies in the Balkan come from Central and West Europe, because they were used as slaves there and the Ottomans treated them better. They are from India, then they went to Iran, then some went to Egypt yes.

  • E-V22 is found primarily in western Ethiopia, northern Egypt and in the southern Levant. In Europe it is therefore associated with the Phoenicians and the Jews. The Phoenicians could have disseminated E-V22 to Sicily, Sardinia, southern Spain and the Maghreb, and the Jews to Greece and mainland Italy and Spain. However, V22 might have been found among Mesolithic South Europeans like V13.
  • E-V12 is the most common subclade of M78 in southern Egypt – over 40% of the population, while its V32 subclade is the dominant paternal lineage in Somalia, southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. The moderate presence of V12* in the Near East and across Europe (except Nordic countries) indicates that it could have been a minor Mesolithic South European lineage accompanying E-V13. Its V32 subclade has not been found outside Northeast Africa.
  • E-V65 is found chiefly in North Africa, with a maximum frequency (20-30%) observed in Lybia, Tunisia and northern Morocco.

e1 Expansion of E-V13 explained E-V13 is the main European clade of haplogroup E. It has been variously interpreted as a signature of early Balkan Bronze Age, or Mesolithic, the Greek colonization of Southern Italy, Greek ancestry in some Pakistanis, or Roman soldiers of Balkan origin in Britain. A proper understanding of its age would help resolve the problem of its origins. The age and distribution of E-V13 chromosomes suggest that expansions of the Greek world in the Bronze and later ages were the major causes of its diffusion.

The acclaimed theoretical physicist Albert Einstein is presumed to have belonged to Y-haplogroup E-Z830 based on the results from a patrilineal descendant of Naphtali Hirsch Einstein, Albert Einstein’s great-grand-father. Approximately 20% of Ashkenazi Jews belong to haplogroup E1b1b.
Ronny Decorte, a geneticist from the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium, tested relatives of Adolf Hitler and determined that the Fürher belonged to haplogroup E1b1b. Ironically this haplogroup thought to be at the origin of Afro-Asiatic languages, which includes the Semitic languages and peoples that Hitler despised so much.
Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973), the 36th President of the United States, was identified as a member of haplogroup E1b1b1 through the Johnson/Johnston/Johnstone DNA Surname Project.

  • J => 30,000 years ago (in the Middle East)
  • R => 28,000 years ago (in the Central Asia)
  • E1b1b => 26,000 years ago (in Northeast Africa)
  • I => 25,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
  • J1 => 20,000 years ago (in the Taurus/Zagros mountains)
  • J2 => 19,000 years ago (in northern Mesopotamia)
  • E-M78 => 18,000 years ago (in north-eastern Africa)
  • R1b => 18,000 years ago (around the Caspian Sea or Central Asia)
  • R1a => 17,000 years ago (in southern Russia)
  • G => 17,000 years ago (in the Middle East)
  • I2 => 17,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
  • E-V13 => 15,000 years ago (in the southern Levant or North Africa)
  • I2b => 13,000 years ago (in Central Europe)
  • N1c1 => 12,000 years ago (in Siberia)
  • E-M81 => 11,000 years ago (in Northwest Africa)
  • I2a => 11,000 years ago (in the Balkans)
  • G2a => 11,000 years ago (in the Levant or Anatolia)
  • R1b1b2 => 10,000 years ago (north or south of the Caucasus)
  • I2b1 => 9,000 years ago (in Germany)
  • I2a1 => 8,000 years ago (in Southwest Europe)
  • I2a2 => 7,500 years ago (in Southeast Europe)
  • I1 => 5,000 years ago (in Scandinavia)
  • R1b-L21 => 4,000 years ago (in Central or Eastern Europe)
  • R1b-S28 => 3,500 years ago (around the Alps)
  • R1b-S21 => 3,000 years ago (in Frisia or Central Europe)
Posted in AIS, Aryans, ethnogenesis, Genetic Anthropology, Old Europe | Tagged , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

7000 years of history. Ro DNA:68% Old Europe & 29.5% Kurgan

Present day Y-haplogroups in Romania:
Before Farming Ro DNA – 33%: I1-4.5%, I2/I2a-26%, I2b-2.5%
Middle East Farmers DNA – 35%: J2/J1-15%, E1b1b-15%, G-5%
Old Europe DNA – 68% : I1/2-33% + J1/E1/G – 35%
Kurgan, Celt & Slav DNA – 29.5% : R1a-17.5% + R1b-12%.
Kurgan/Celt DNA 17.5% : R1a-17.5%,
Kurgan/Slav DNA – 12%: R1b-12%

vlachsThe true lineage of the historic Arab people (so mainly from Jordan and Saudi Arabia) is J1-YSC235 and its subclade, J1-P858. E1b1b-M34 is another important Arabic lineage, being found in 25% of Jordanians and 10% of Saudis.The two most common Jewish subclades of J1 downstream of P58 are L816 and ZS227.

12.000BC-6000BC – I1/2 before farmers
6000BC-5000BC – J1/2,E1b1,G bring farming from Middle Asia

6500-2000 BC Burned house horizon

5508 BC Anno Mundi – the biblical creation of the world
5700-4500 BC Vinca Culture
5500-2750 BC Cucuteni Culture

4400-4300BC First Kurgan Wave into East-Central Europe
3500BC Second Kurgan Wave-R1b
Transformation of Central Europe
3000BC Third Kurgan Wave-Proto ItaloCelts in Transylvania/Pannonia
2000-1500BC R1a Greco-Macedonians invade ”Greece” from North
1200-1000BC R1b Hallstatt, Dorians & Sea People – First Dark Age

1000BC-82BC Iron Age Thracia/Daco-Getia
460 BC-46 AD The Odrysian Kingdom
82BC-106AD Burebista to Decebal –Magna Dacia & 
Dacian Kingdoms 
106-271 Romans defeat Decebal and have 23 wars with Free Dacians
271-376 Gutthiuda/Gothia – after the final roman retreat
376-454 The Hun Empire –  push south the Goth who destroy Rome
Start of Second Dark Age – fall of economies based on slavery caused by free people, city civilisations replaced by village economy

454-567 Gepid Kingdom
destroyed by avars in 576
Avars & Lombards
567-670 Avar Periods –
Early 567-670, Middle 670-720 & Late 720-804
First Bulgar Empire – 893-927 Simeon the Great
940-1046 Voievodatul lui Iuliu –
primul episcopat Ortodox la Alba-Iulia
1185-1396 Second Vlah-Bulgarian State
1330 Wallachia – Basarab I defeats Charles I of Hungary at Posada
1359 Moldavia –  from Transylvania
to the Dniester River

europe_during_last_ice_ageRestart of Europe after Last Ice Age-I Haplogroup 25 kyr continuity,  I2a-Vinca&Cucuteni-9000bc, I2-Urnfield. I-Italic tribes, Maps of Neolithic Cultures–The Romanian Etnogenesis *1 -‘Latin’ languages have I origin. Palaeolithic Europe 18,000 years ago was in the grip of the last ice age. Glacial ice 2km thick covered much of Northern Europe and the Alps. Sea levels were approx. 125m lower. By 12,000 Y BP the ice has retreated and the land became much more supportive to life. During the last 8 000 years, the climate has been much the same as today. Northern regions were generally re-colonised from the Iberian and Balkan refugia, and Italian lineages were often isolated because of the Alpine barrier.

12.000BC-6000BC most population in Europa was I1/2.During the last 8 000 years, the climate has been much the same as today. Northern regions were generally re-colonised from the Iberian and Balkan refugia, and Italian lineages were often isolated because of the Alpine barrier.

6000BC-5000BC – J1/2,E1b1,G bring farming from Middle Asia. 


6500-2000 BC Burned house horizonThis was a widespread and long-lasting tradition in what is now Southeastern and Eastern Europe, lasting from as early as 6,500 BCE (the beginning of the Neolithic) to as late as 2000 BCE (the end of the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age). A notable representative of this tradition is the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, which was centered on the burned-house horizon both geographically and temporally.


5508 BC Facerea Lumii după Calendarul Vechi – Pisania bisericii Sf. Nicolae din Bălineşti din anul 7007. Era bizantină, întâlnită adesea sub forma de ani de la facerea/zidirea lumii sau ani de la Adam, a fost cronologia folosită oficial în Imperiul Bizantin şi în bisericile ortodoxe, începând din anul 691 d.Hr. până în 1728.


The first Great Civilizations of Europe: Cucuteni–Trypillia 5000–3000 BC + Vinca 6-3millennium BC = I2a in Haplogroup I
5700–4500 BC Cultura Vinca, 5500-2750 BC Cultura Cucuteni, The New York Times-A Lost European Culture; Vlassa-Tartaria, Striga istoria sub noi, oameni buni!

5508BC: An equal mix of hunters I1/2 (50%) and farmers J1/2+E1b1+G (50%) start The Old Europe Era.   Present day Romania, the turntable of Old Europe
Europe before the Kurgan waves. R1a-N of Black Sea, R1b-E of Black Sea. NW of Europe-mostly I1/2, S of Europe-arrival of J/E/G farmers.


4400BC-4300BC The First Kurgan Wave into East-Central EuropeDisplacement and Amalgamation of the Varna, Karanovo, Vinca, and Lengyel Cultures. Emergence of Kurgan Elements in the Milieu of the LBK Culture.


3500BC – The Second Kurgan Wave – the Transformation of Central Europe After the Middle of the 4th Millennium BC. The Source: The North Pontic Maikop Culture with its superior metalurgy. An Amalgam of Kurgan and Cucuteni Traditions: The Usatovo Complex Northwest of the Black Sea.

Kurgan-Influenced Cultures in East-Central Europe: The Baden-Vucedol and Ezero Groups.

3000BC Third Kurgan Wave-Proto ItaloCelts in Transylvania/Pannonia R1b the new metalurgy! Yamna Culture is R1a!

Old Europe – the IndoEuropean Homeland – the Aryan Urheimat

2500-2000BC Western Europe becomes CELTIC. Unetice Culture, Coțofeni, Cernavoda, Ezero, Glina., Otomani, Bubanj-Hum R1b influenced cultures.

2000-1500BC R1a Greco-Macedonians invade ”Greece” from North. Follows Great Hallstatt Culture and distruction of Mycene and of all Middle East states under by the ”Sea People” invasions.


1200-1000BC R1b Hallstatt, Dorians + Sea People & Phoenicians. The First Darg Age, the first distruction of ”civilized states” by ”free peoples”. Around 1200 BC the Sea Peoples produced the Late Bronze Age collapse.  In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit.[3]Drews writes “Within a period of forty to fifty years at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the twelfth century almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed, many of them never to be occupied again”.dark age

palace economy of the Aegean Region and Anatolia which characterized the Late Bronze Age was replaced, after a hiatus, by the isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages. The Sea Peoples from the north weakened and destroyed the Egyptians and the Hittites respectively. In the resulting power vacuum, a number of Phoenician cities rose as significant maritime powers to dominate the Medeterana. 1200Bc – The Dorian invasion of Greece ends the Mycenian culture. Expanding R1b Hallstatt Culture is probably the main wave behind the Sea Peoples and the Dorians are one of those ‘Sea Peoples’ pushed down by the The Alpine Celts. The Iron technology produced the more competitive weapons, the R1b warriors mixed with growing populations from Sardinia, Sicily, S of Italy and Anatolia destroyed all the palace empires. Egypt survived with great effort and Phoenicians were the only area NOT invaded in Levant.  Phoenicia  was the enterprising maritime trading culture the spread in Mediterana starting with 1550Bc, that dominated the Mediterranean shores from 1200BCto 300 BC, after the raids of the Sea People. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar toancient Greece. The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make extensive use of the alphabet.

1000 BC
Iron working begins in the Balkans. RO – an I2 continuity since the Ice Age.The classical Dacian Culture – a fusion between the Old Dacians & the La Tene celts


460 BC–46 AD The Odrysian Kingdom – first unification Thracian tribes under a single ruler after the Persian defeat in Greece. Greek became the language of administrators[20] and of the nobility, the Greek alphabet was adopted. Greek customs and fashions contributed to the recasting of east Balkan society. Thracian kings were among the first to be Hellenized. Odrysian kings though called Kings of Thrace never exercised sovereignty over all of Thrace.[26] Control varied according to tribal relationships.[


Burebista 82 î.Hr.44 î.Hr. a reușit unirea triburile geto-dacice și a întemeiat statului dac. A fost ucis în urma unei revolte, regatul dac s-a destramăt în 5 părți. Centrul din jurul Munțiilor Orăștiei, a rămas sub stăpânirea lui Deceneu.


Roman Dacia 107-271 From the death of Burebista to the rise of Decebalus, Roman forces continued to clash against the Dacians and the Getae. The Romans conquered only a small part of Dacian territories, only enough to exploit the GOLD MINES from Transylvania, the rest was ruled by Free Dacians. The Dacian royal treasury captured by the Romans was of enormous value enough to boost the economy of all the empire: 500,000 pounds (226,800 kilograms) of gold and 1,000,000 pounds (453,600 kilograms) of silver.[ Crito wrote that approximately 500,000 Dacians were enslaved and deported.
Some areas were occupied after 106 by nomadic
Sarmatian tribesmen, most likely a minority ruling over the sedentary Geto-Dacian majority e.g. Muntenia, which was ruled by the Roxolani Sarmatians and possibly also northern Moldavia, which was under the Costoboci, a people of possibly Sarmatian origin. Northern Carpathians, Bukovina was shared by non-Dacian tribes: the Anartes and the Taurisci, who were probably Celtic,[8] and the Germanic Bastarnae are also attested in this region. Free Dacians are reported to have invaded and ravaged the Roman province in 214 and 218. Many emperors after Trajan, as late as AD 336, assumed the victory title of Dacicus Maximus, the titles imply ferocious wars.Aabout 10% of the imperial army‘s total regular effectives were located in Roman Dacia to defend it from Free Dacians between 106 & 275.
In 167 when the Iazyges, having been thrust out of Pannonia, focused their energies on Dacia and took the gold mines at
Alburnus Maior (modern Roşia Montană, Romania).[74] The suburban villas at Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa were burned, and the camp at Slăveni was destroyed by the Marcomanni.[54] By the time Marcus Aurelius reached Aquileia in 168 AD, the Iazyges had taken over 100,000 Roman captives. Between 106 & 271 the Romans had 23 wars with tribes coming from unoccupied Dacia.
In 180, the emperor Commodus, whose reign lasted from 180 to 92, is recorded as having admitted 12,000 “neighbouring Daci”, who had been driven out of their own territory by hostile tribes, for settlement in the Roman province. The latest secure mention of the Free Dacians in the ancient sources is Constantine I’s acclamation as Dacicus Maximus in 336. For the year 381, the Byzantine chronicler Zosimus records an invasion over the Danube by a barbarian coalition of Huns, Scirii & Karpodakai, or Carpo-Dacians a term which  most likely means the “Dacians of the Carpathians”.
230s saw the end of the final peaceful period experienced in Roman Dacia. After 239 the empire was forced to buy peace in Moesia, paying an annual tribute to the Goths.

2016-01-10 (1)
In the years immediately after the withdrawal, Roman towns survived, albeit on a reduced level. The previous tribes which had settled north of the Danube, such as the Sarmatians, Bastarnae, Carpi, and Quadi were increasingly pressured by the arrival of the Vandals in the north, while the Gepids and the Goths pressured them from the east and the northeast.[226] This forced the older tribes to push into Roman territory, weakening the empire’s already stretched defences further. To gain entry into the empire, the tribes alternated between beseeching the Roman authorities to allow them in, and intimidating them with the threat of invasion if their requests were denied.[226] Ultimately, the Bastarnae were permitted to settle in Thrace, while the Carpi which survived were permitted to settle in the new province of Pannonia Valeria west of their homeland.[225] However, the Carpi were neither destroyed by other barbarian tribes, nor fully integrated into the Roman imperium. Those who survived on the borders of the empire were apparently called Carpodacae (“Carps from Dacia”).
By 291 AD the Goths had recovered from their defeat at the hands of Aurelian, and began to move into what had been Roman Dacia.[230] When the ancestors of the Tervingi migrated into north-eastern Dacia, they were opposed by the Carpi and the non-Romanized Dacians. Defeating these tribes, they came into conflict with the Romans, who still attempted to maintain control along the Danube. By 295 AD, the Goths had managed to defeat the Carpi and establish themselves in Dacia, now called Gothia;[231] the Romans recognised the Tervingi as a Foederatus.[232] They occupied what was the eastern portion of the old province and beyond, from Bessarabia on the Dniester in the east to Oltenia in the west.[233] Until the 320s the Goths kept the terms of the treaty and proceeded to settle down in the former province of Dacia, and the Danube had a measure of peace for nearly a generation.[232]Gutthiudadecline_rome_visigoths2000px-Reino_de_los_visigodos-en.svg

271-376 Gutthiuda the country of Visigoths. Roman wars in Dacia : with Goths, Taifali, Bastarns and the Carpi in 248–250, with Carpi and Goths in 258 & 263, with the Goths and Heruli in 267 & 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was virtually lost during the reign of Gallienus 253–268, the final official retreat was done by Aurelian in 270–275. The name Visigothi is an invention of Cassiodorus, other names for other Gothic divisions abounded. They were “the most formidable military power beyond the lower Danube frontier.” After they left Dacia in 376 they crushed the Roman Empire twice before establishing the Visigoth Kingdom in Hispania and Gallia. The Goth started their migration PUSHED by the HUNS.

376-454 The Hun Empire Huns & Goths start the Second ”Dark Age” – Roman ”Civilization” destroyed by ”barbarians”, fall of economies based on slavery caused by free people, city culture replaced by village economy. The Huns were “a confederation of warrior bands”, ready to integrate other groups to increase their military power. Numerous other ethnic groups were included under Attila‘s rule, including very many speakers of Gothic, which some modern scholars describe as a lingua franca of the Empire. The Romans realized the presence of the Huns when their invasions of the Pontic steppes forced the Goths to move to the Lower Danube to seek refuge in the Roman Empire in 376. Attila the Hun died in 453, the empire broke up the next year.
The Huns first invaded the land of the
Alans – a Scythian people, which was located to the east of the Don River, slaughtering many of them and forcing the survivors to submit or to flee across the Don. After they subjugated the Alans, the Huns and their Alan auxiliaries started plundering the wealthy settlements of the Greuthungi, or eastern Goths
, to the west of the Don. After a while most Greuthungi submitted himself to the Huns. Those who decided to resist marched to the Dniester River which was the border between the lands of the Greuthungi and the Thervingi, or western Goths.[51] They were under the command of Alatheus and Saphrax. Athanaric, the leader of the Thervingi, met the refugees along the Dniester at the head of his troops.[49]However, a Hunnic army bypassed the Goths and attacked them from the rear, forcing Athanaric to retreat towards the Carpathian Mountains.[49] Most Thervingi realized that they could not resist the Huns.[53] They went to the Lower Danube, requesting asylum in the Roman Empire.[53][54] The Greuthingi under the leadership of Alatheus and Saphrax also marched to the river.[53] Most Roman troops had been transferred from the Balkan Peninsula to fight against the Sasanid Empire in Armenia.[55] Emperor Valens permitted the Thervingi to cross the Lower Danube and to settle in the Roman Empire in the autumn of 376.[56][57] The Thervingi were followed by the Greuthingi, and also by the Taifali and “other tribes that formerly dwelt with the Goths and Taifali” to the north of the Lower Danube, according to Zosimus.[56] Food shortage and abuse stirred the Goths to revolt in early 377.[54][58] The ensuing war between the Goths and the Romans lasted for more than five years.
As early as 380, a group of Huns was given Foederati status and allowed to settle in Pannonia. In 395 the Huns began their first large-scale attack on the Eastern Roman Empire.[62] Huns attacked in Thrace, overran Armenia, and pillaged Cappadocia. They entered parts of Syria, threatened Antioch, and swarmed through the province of Euphratesia.

454-567 Gepidia – After the Battle of Nedao, the Hunnic Empire disintegrated and the Gepids became the dominant power in the eastern regions of the Carpathian Basin.Romania

For more than a millennium, the state that we call now inaccurately the Byzantine Empire, was named “Romania” – 41 de împărați au fost de origine traco-daca.


Avar Khaganate Early Avar Period 580-670, Middle 670-720 & Late 720-804 Avar periodsPushed by Göktürks avars allied with Bulgars and moved West. By 562 the Avars controlled the lower Danube basin and the steppes north of the Black Sea. By the time they arrived in the Balkans, the Avars formed a heterogeneous group of about 20,000 horsemen. In 567 the Avars with the Lombards destroyed much of the Gepid Kingdom. By about 580, Bayan I established supremacy over most of Pannonia and Carpathian Basin. Sacked Dalmatia in 568, captured Sirmium. In 626, the sieged Constantinople  with SassanidsIn the 630s slavs broke away under Samo, the ruler of the first historically known Slavic Tribal Union. By 670, the Khazars had broken the unity of the Bulgar confederation, causing their relocatin to the west. The Onogur-Bulgars, led by Khan Asparukh settled permanently along the Danube (c. 679-681), expanding the First Bulgarian Empire. Although the Avar empire had diminished to half its original size, the new Avar-Slav alliance consolidated their rule west from the central parts of the mid-Danubian basin and extended their sphere of influence west to the Viennese Basin. The Avars’ power base remianed in Pannonia, most of the Balkans now lay in the hands of Slavic tribes since neither the Avars nor Byzantines were able to reassert control. The Khaganate in the Middle and Late periods was a product of cultural symbiosis between Slavic and original Turkic elements with a Slavic language as a lingua franca or the most common language. In the 7th century, the Avar Khaganate opened a door for Slavic demographic and linguistic expansion to Adriatic and Aegean regions. A series of Frankish campaigns in the 790s led by Charlemagne ended with the conquest of the Avar realm, taking most of Pannonia up to the Tisza River. Avar occupation was ended when a Slavic-Croatian force led by prince Vojnomir and supported by the Franks launched a counterattack in 791. Charlemagne won another major victory against the Avars in 796. The Franks baptized many Avars and integrated them into the Frankish Empire. In 804, the First Bulgarian Empire conquered the southeastern Avar lands of Transylvania and southeastern Pannonia up to the Middle Danube River, and many Avars became subjects of the Bulgarian Empire. The Avars mixing with the more numerous populations they used to rule, vanished in an arc of three generations.


In ~660, the Khazars, another federated people freed from the yoke of the Western Turkic Khaganate, attacked Bulgaria from the east and captured Phanagoria and its Black Sea holdings up to the Dnieper. The ”destruction” of Old Great Bulgaria and the scattering of the four brothers may in fact have been the Khazars merely conquering an important part of the country and severing the territorial links between its outlying provinces. So Asparukh inherited, rather than wandered into, the lands north of the Danube after the death of his father, and his brother Kotrag inherited, rather than reaching, what would later become Volga Bulgaria.

great bulgaria

Descendenţa din Asăneşti a Regelui Ferdinand I al României, Moscopole – oraș vlah – cel mai mare oras din Balcani in sec.18


Slavii /tracii in Balcani – dupa toponime si hidronime, N.BALCESCU: De la Bucuresti la Constantinopol numai vorba romaneasca!


681-1018 Primul imperiu ”bulgar”. 893-927 Simeon the Great.


1185-1396 al doilea Țarat Vlaho-Bulgar înființat de Petru și Asan.


940 – 1046 Voievodatul lui Iuliu, prima Catedrala Ortodoxă din ţara noastră la Alba Iulia  – Cronică Românească de Istorie Veche, autor Cornel Birsan. Ultrasilvana un regnum latissimum et opulentissimum

1330 Wallachiawas under the control of the First Bulgarian Empire from its establishment in 681, until approximately the Magyar conquest of Transylvania at the end of the 10th century. With the decline and subsequent fall of the first Bulgarian state to Byzantium (in the second half of the 10th century up to 1018), Wallachia came under the control of the Pechenegs who extended their rule west through the 10th and 11th century, until defeated around 1091, when the Cumans of southern Russia took control of the lands of Wallachia.
Beginning with the 10th century, Byzantine, Bulgarian, Hungarian, and later Western sources mention the existence of small entities led by knyazes and voivodes.
In 1241, during the Mongol invasion of Europe, Cuman domination was ended—a direct Mongol rule over Wallachia was not attested, but it remains probable. Part of Wallachia was probably briefly disputed by the Hungarian Kingdom and Bulgarians in the following period, but it appears that the severe weakening of Hungarian authority during the Mongol attacks contributed to the establishment of the new and stronger polities attested in Wallachia for the following decades.
One of the first written pieces of evidence of local voivodes is in connection with Litovoi (1272), who ruled over land each side of the Carpathians (including Hațeg Country in Transylvania), and refused to pay tribute to the Hungarian King Ladislaus IV of Hungary. His successor was his brother Bărbat (1285–1288). The continuing weakening of the Hungarian state by further Mongol invasions (1285–1319) and the fall of the Árpád dynasty opened the way for the unification of Wallachian polities, and to independence from Hungarian rule.
Wallachia’s creation, held by local traditions to have been the work of one Radu Negru (Black Radu), is historically connected with Basarab I (1310–1352), who rebelled against Charles I of Hungary and took up rule on either side of the Olt River, establishing his residence in Câmpulung as the first ruler in the House of Basarab. Basarab refused to grant Hungary the lands of Făgăraș, Almaş and the Banat of Severin, defeated Charles in the Battle of Posada (1330), and extended his lands to the east, to comprise lands as far as Kilia (in the Bujak), as the origin of Bessarabia);[11] rule over the latter was not preserved by the princes that followed, as Kilia fell to the Nogais ca.1334. Basarab was succeeded by Nicolae Alexandru, followed by Vladislav I. Vladislav attacked Transylvania after Louis I occupied lands south of the Danube, conceded to recognize him as overlord in 1368, but rebelled again in the same year; his rule also witnessed the first confrontation between Wallachia and the Ottoman Turks (a battle in which Vladislav was allied with Ivan Shishman of Bulgaria).[13] Under Radu I and his successor Dan I, the realms in Transylvania and Severin continued to be disputed with Hungary.

1359 Moldavia – The medieval Principality of Moldavia was established in 1359 and covered the so-called CarpathianDanubeDniester area, stretching from Transylvania in the west to the Dniester River in the east. The foundation of Moldavia is attributed to the Vlach noblemen Dragoş of Bedeu, from Maramureş, who had been ordered in 1343 (1285 after other sources [5]) by the Hungarian king to establish a defense for the historic Kingdom of Hungary against the Tatars, and Bogdan I of Cuhea, Maramureș, who became the first independent prince of Moldavia, when he rejected Hungarian authority in 1359. The greatest Moldavian personality was prince Stephen the Great, who ruled from 1457 to 1504.


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Marija Gimbutas – the Kurgan Saga – collision & amalgamation During the period A of the Tripolye culture (about 5450-4750 BC) the Tripolye influence was the most intensive. In caused the acquaintance of the Sredniy Stog and Azov-Dnieper population with the first metal. It is necessary to note, that the influence of the steppe traditions on the Tripolye culture was minimal during that period.

Taking into account data of the Early Eneolithic cemeteries of the steppe zone, where the first imported metal artifacts were found, I can suggest the existence of prestigious exchange, which played an important role in the relations of Tripolye and steppe population during that period. The Azov-Dnieper and Sredniy Stog population took part in it. The Tripolye population could provide its neighbors with metal (copper and gold) or metal artifacts (the Nikolskiy cemetery of the Azov-Dnieper culture and the Sredniy Stog burials of Mariupol cemetery), bracelets from Spondylus shell (the Lysogorskiy cemetery of the Azov-Dnieper culture) and sea shells with holes (Krivoy Rog). During the period of Tripolye B I the main influence of Tripolye population is fixed on the metalworking of steppe inhabitants and reflected only lightly in its ceramics.

Strange as it may seem, the Tripolye population was more interested in contacts, than the steppe inhabitants. They were newcomers, which gradually moved to the east through the forest-steppe area, occupying lands, which were settled by the Bug-Dniester and Kievo-Cherkassy Neolithic population. The Tripolye population needed allies and peaceful relations with the neighbors, especially with those, whose territories were unnecessary for them. Among such neighbors were the bearers of Azov-Dnieper and Sredniy Stog cultures, who occupied other natural-climatic zone, which was useless for the Tripolye population during the Early Eneolithic. Even during the Later Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age they occupied only the steppes in the South Bug basin and to the west of it, staying out of the territories of the Sredniy Stog descendants. Steppe inhabitants were interested in those contacts, first of all, because it received the copper and tools from them. That metal was obtained through the mediation of Tripolye population and as the result of immediate visits to centers of metallurgy and metalworking of the Balkan-Carpathian metallurgical province. The Dniester basin was the important region and the route of the exchange expeditions of steppe population, which went to the Lower Danube or Transylvania for the metal. In the period B I-II of the Tripolye culture the necessity of contacts with the Tripolye population of Dniester basin become stronger, because in that time metal began to arrive from the Transylvanian and Hungarian mines.

The growing of quantity of the ceramics with shell inclusions at the settlements of Dniester basin also testifies the strengthening of ties between the Sredniy Stog and Tripolye cultures. All features of steppe and Tripolye interaction, which were mentioned above, testify the peaceful co-existence and tight contacts of these groups. The coarse ceramics of Tripolye, which had the Sredniy Stog features, was made mainly at the Tripolye settlements, and steppe traditions were reproduced in the Tripolye style. It was impossible if there was any war situation.

There is a point of view about mutually beneficial cooperation It is possible, that the distribution of ceramics with the steppe traces in the Tripolye culture was related to the marriages with the Sredniy Stog women. Those women continued making their usual vessels, adapting them to the Tripolye economy (for example, making the flat bottom and stocky proportions). This suggestion explains the singleness of ceramics with shell inclusions in the period A and gradual increase of its quantity during period B I with the prevailing of typical Tripolye pottery on the settlements. Perhaps, the numbers of Sredniy Stog women and their descendants in the Tripolye communities during period A were very small and gradually increased during B I and B I-II periods. According to the prevailing of coarse pottery with shell inclusions in the southernmost Tripolye settlements, I can suggest, that the greatest number of the Sredniy Stog women lived there.

.. data testify the assumption about the existence of mixed Tripolye-Sredniy Stog marriages.. It is interesting to trace the dynamics of contacts of the steppe and Tripolye population. They began immediately after the appearance of Tripolye population in Dniester basin (the beginning of period A of the Tripolye culture), when the Late Azov-Dnieper and Early Sredniy Stog population began to interact with it.

KURGAN CULTURE Marija Gimbutas

EDITED BY JOAN MARLER Harper, San Francisco, 1994, ISBN 978-0062508041
Chapter 10 –The End of Old Europe: The Intrusion of Steppe Pastoralists from N.Pontic and the Transformation of Europe

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M. Gimbutas’ conceptual map of Kurgan westward waves (from R.R.Sokal et al. 1992), with superimposed migrations of the datable genetic markers

The First Wave of Kurgans Into East-Central Europe c. 4400-4300 BC and Its Repercussions.

After penetrating the Dnieper rapids region and the area north of the Sea of Azov, the Kurgans struck central Europe (see Fig. 10-6). Actual Kurgan graves (round kurgans with pit graves) found in Moldavia, southern Romania, and east Hungary are eloquent witnesses of these incursions. The earliest Kurgan graves in Moldavia date from Cucuteni A2-A3 phase, c. 4400-4300 BC.
The Coexistence of Kurgan Pastoralists and Cucuteni Agriculturalists. The Cucuteni civilization survived the first wave of Kurgan incursions intact. Its ceramic tradition continued undisturbed, although Kurgan elements within Cucuteni settlements (1 to 10 percent of Cucuteni A and AB pottery) indicate some sort of interaction between the two groups. This confirms the argument against Kurgan militancy, a main point in the Prof. M.Gimbutas theory; quite the opposite, the Kurganians and Cucutenians enjoyed mutually beneficial symbiotic coexistence. This intrusive shell-tempered pottery (referred to by some as Cucuteni C) is nearly identical in shape to that of the Sredniy Stog II (Kurgan I) level of the Lower Dnieper. Petrographic analysis has shown that all Cucuteni and Kurgan (Sredniy Stog II) samples were of similar mineralogical composition. This indicates that both peoples exploited similar clay types, but the respective technology was very different: the Cucuteni ware was well fired, completely oxidized, and without temper, whereas the Kurgan ceramics were low-fired and contained quantities of crushed shell, organic residues, and plant material.
At the time of Cucuteni B in the early 4th millennium BC, the local populace had relocated into areas more naturally defensible. In a few instances, an additional rampart was built across the river from a settlement. The villages and towns continued to grow, and boundaries of Cucuteni sites in the district of Uman, identified by aerial photography and magnetometry, show towns more than two kilometers long, laid out in a dozen or so concentric elipses radially cut by streets. The density of Cucuteni sites indicates no massive dislocations in the wake of the first wave of relatively small groups of Kurgan infiltrators; nor is there evidence of amalgamation of the two groups throughout these approximately 800 years of coexistence, at least not until the mid-4th millennium BC. 800 years of peaceful coexistence is not exactly image of warlike, patriarchal, and hierarchical people.


The Displacement and Amalgamation of the Varna, Karanovo, Vinca, and Lengyel Cultures. For the Karanovo-Gumelnita civilization, the Kurgan incursions proved catastrophic. The small farming villages and townships were easily overrun, and Karanovo groups must have fled from the Lower Danube basin westward.
The Salcuta group of southwestern Romania took refuge in Transylvanian caves or on Danubian islands. Layer after layer of habitation material similar to Salcuta IV indicates that the refugees maintained a semblance of cultural identity for yet another four or five hundred years. This must be one of the conflict episodes that came to light, not for its demographic dimension. Transylvanian caves or on Danubian islands could not harbor any significant population, the sources and sides of the conflict are not known.

In the first half of the 4th millennium BC, the Black Sea coastal Varna culture was replaced, in east Romania and Bulgaria, by a Kurganish complex designated as Cernavoda I. The fortified Cernavoda sites, in contrast to the Karanovo-Gumelnita and Varna settlements on the open plain, were strategically located on high river terraces and consisted of a few small surface or semi subterranean dwellings on sites generally covering no more than 100 by 200 m. These people bred stock (including the horse) and engaged in hunting, fishing, and primitive agriculture, and their antler and bone tools are identical to finds in the steppe north of the Black Sea. They produced gray, badly baked, crushed-shell tempered ceramics, unmistakably related to the Kurganoid wares in Moldavia and in the Ukraine, having the characteristic decor of stab-and-drag, knobs, and impressions of cord, fingernail, and shell. No painted pottery occurs at this time, although substratum influence may account for certain untempered, occasionally brown-slipped and burnished ceramics. Only a few stylized figurines were recovered from Cernavoda I, and Old European symbolic designs had disappeared. No cereal grains were found, despite the presence of antler and bone hoes, grinding stones, and sickle blades. Horse bones were ubiquitous among the remnant heaps of domesticated animals. Tools were predominantly of bone but included maceheads and perforated hammer axes of antler and stone, flint scrapers and knives, a few copper awls and chisels. These archeological results have parallels throughout the Kurgan expansions. The process came to us as series of exogamic marital unions, where Kurgan people, each tribe and subdivision separately, seeks and joins a permanent marital partner, we have examples from every place that had annalistic records. Among the known pairs are Hunnic-Tibetan, Hunnic-Mongolic, Hunnic-Tungusic, in the Caucasus it is a Koban Culture, in the Central Asia it is an As-Tokhar alliance; when in the 17th c. the Tele tribes found refuge in the Altai, they allied with local Altaian hunter-gatherers. In the area of Northern China, that process took place in 7th-4th cc. BC. In the Eastern Europe amalgamation between Proto-Slavs and Bulgarian Kurgans created a language called Old Church Slavonic, the Danube Slavs amalgamated with Avars, and with Becenyo/Bajanaks to become Bosnians.

The Kurgan disruption of Varna, Karanovo, and Vinca jolted a succession of dislocations in Yugoslavia, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and as far west as the Upper Danube, Upper Elbe, and Upper Oder basins. Cultural boundaries disintegrated as elements of Vinca populations moved into western Hungary (to eventually become the “Balaton” complex), and into Croatia, Bosnia, and Slovenia (to become the “Lasinja” group). 31 The Lengyel people migrated west and north along the Upper Danube into Germany and Poland. Furthermore, sites of the probable Vinca refugees are also found in regions where no human community had settled since Paleolithic times, such as the eastern Alps and the central part of Slovenia and Croatian Karst. In this hilly terrain, the location of settlements in the highest places, surrounded by cliffs or girded by rivers, suggest an extreme concern for defense. In a number of sites, traces of rectangular houses built of timber posts and thick clay walls testify to a certain retention of the Vinca architectural traditions. At the same time, caves were also occupied. The occupation of caves and of heretofore uninhabited lands suggests that the movement of the Vinca people to the northwest and west took place in times of stress.
There are no radiocarbon dates for the Balaton-Lasinja I complex. Its chronology is based on a typological relationship with the latest Vinca materials in Yugoslavia. The subsequent phase, labeled Balaton-Lasinja II-III, yielded two C-14 dates, the true age of which falls between 3900 and 3400 BC, placing the Balaton-Lasinja I complex before 4000 BC. By the end of the 5th millennium BC, the Vinca traditions with their temples, figurines and exquisite pottery are no longer found. There is no continuity of habitation on the Vinca mound after c. 4300 BC.

The Tiszapolgar complex, an offshoot of late Tisza, emerged in northeastern Hungary, eastern Slovakia, and western Transylvania. The continuity of their settlement to the mid-4th millennium BC indicates that these people survived and did not merge with the Kurgan culture. However, major social changes are observable and may reflect a Kurgan influence. In contrast to the Tisza and Lengyel pattern, where the majority of known sites are villages, the Tiszapolgar sites (about 100 reported) are cemeteries that suggest small communities of thirty to forty people. This situation does not reflect a normal growth of population as in Lengyel, Vinca, Karanovo, and other groups during the period before the first Kurgan wave. Also, the social role of the male had risen, indicated by several graves of males buried with more than usual care and equipped with status symbols such as maceheads. Significantly, the skeletons of these men were of proto-Europid type (proto-Europids=proto-Caucasians, i.e. the “robust” Cro-Magnon type), whereas the majority of the population was of Mediterranean type.
In the cemetery of Basatanya, of 75 graves (belonging to two phases), 33 a small group of male burials included maceheads, whereas the majority of the burials in this cemetery shows Old European features. 34 Is the Old European a Cro-Magnon or in Russian terminology Proto-European, or somethinf else? In the mountainous east Slovakia, the Tiszapolgar complex persisted through the mid-4th millennium BC. Several cemeteries of the Laznany group in the Carpathian foothills exemplify the last vestiges of this complex, which were finally submerged under the Kurganized Baden culture in the second half of the 4th millennium BC. North of Budapest and in western Slovakia, Lengyel disappears after c. 4400-4300 BC and reemerges in Bavaria, central Germany, and western Poland, where characteristic biconic and footed vessels with warts show up in graves and in settlements.

The Emergence of Kurgan Elements in the Milieu of the LBK Culture. The discontinuity of the Varna, Karanovo, Vinca, and Lengyel cultures in their main territories and the large scale population shifts to the north and northwest are indirect evidence of a catastrophe of such proportions that cannot be explained by possible climatic change, land exhaustion, or epidemics (for which there is no evidence in the second half of the 5th millennium BC.). Direct evidence of the incursion of horse-riding warriors is found, not only in single burials of males under barrows, but in the emergence of a whole complex of Kurgan cultural traits: hilltop settlements, the presence of horses, the predominance of a pastoral economy, signs of violence and patriarchy, and religious symbols that emphasize a sun cult. These elements are tightly knit within the social, economic, and religious structure of the Kurgan culture. The general absence of traces of violence suggest that amalgamation with Kurgans, or cultural influence of Kurgans, which enabled the population to be more mobile and active in locating and occupying better environmental niches, and made conflicts more acute.
A chain of hill forts that appeared on high riverbanks in the Middle and Upper Danube basin, in Hungary, Austria, western Slovakia, Moravia, Bohemia, and Bavaria 37 is a new phenomenon in European prehistory. The earliest hill forts are contemporary with late Lengyel and Rossen materials or immediately follow them. Radiocarbon dates place this period between 4400 and 3900 BC.

It is readily apparent that a portion of central Europe was Kurganized to varying degrees soon after the first Kurgan wave. While the civilization of Old Europe was agricultural, matricentric, and matrilineal, a transformation took place around 4000 BC to a mixed agricultural-pastoral economy and a classed patriarchal society which I interpret as a successful process of Indo-Europeanization. There was a considerable increase in husbandry over tillage. The change of social structure, religion, and economy was not a gradual indigenous development from Old Europe, but a collision and gradual hybridization of two societies and of two ideologies. Fortunately for us, we can trace these Kurgan people by the emergence of their genetical markers from the center of Asia to N.Pontic, and to Europe, with their Kurganization of Europe, which initiated eastward migration of somewhat Kurganized Europeans all the way to India.
Probably the best model is the expansion of the Slavs into the Eastern Europe, a creeping phased process that starts on a small scale into vacant niches and achieves accommodation with the local population, then a development into symbiotic syncretic phase along the old lines of command, and culminating with either a rise of the local rulers, or the pre-existing local or nomadic rulers claiming suzerainty over independent communities. Though conflicts are unavoidable, the process is generally bloodless, but the combat capacity is greatly enhanced with acquisition of cavalry and methods of mobile warfare. None of the premises constituting M.Gimbutas Kurgan theory appear to have solid grounds at the most critical time of switching from the Old Europe to Kurganization: mythological Sun cult is ethereal, pronounced militancy absent, patriarchy ethereal. The demographic ratio points to insignificant linguistic influence, mostly limited to new toponyms, horse husbandry terminology, and religious and societal terminology, i.e. the spheres that were affected the most.

Not all of central Europe was converted to the Kurgan way of life as an outcome of Wave No. 1, but it is clear that most of the Danube basin began to be ruled from hill forts. It took many successive generations for the Old European traditions to become gradually replaced. The indigenous populations either coexisted but remained separate from the Kurgan immigrants or were overrun and subjected to domination by a few Kurgan warriors.
A considerable number of Old European culture groups — the Cucuteni, TRB, and the western portion of the LBK — continued their existence throughout the first half of the 4th millennium BC or even longer. An increased Kurganization occurred during the second half of the 4th millennium BC, which is treated in the section below.

The Second Wave, c. 3500 BC, and the Transformation of Central Europe After the Middle of the 4th Millennium BC.

Culture groups c. 3500-3000 BC. New formations in central Europe influenced by North Pontic culture. 1. Cucuteni; 2. TRB; 3. Michelsberg.

This period of transformation coincides with changes in metal technology and the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in the circum-Pontic region. The new metallurgy is characterized by bronzes of copper and arsenic, copper and tin, and copper with arsenic-tin (As, Sn, As-Sn bronze) which replaced the pure copper metallurgy of the Old European Copper Age. Tests made on arsenical bronze prove it to have been reasonably hard and durable, but a side effect must have been the slow and sure poisoning of the smith. The complex of tools and weapons that emerged north and west of the Black Sea — daggers, knives, halberds, chisels, flat axes, shafthole axes — does not show a continuity from Old European local types. Rather, the shapes of bronze artifacts have analogies in the north Caucasus, in Transcaucasia, and the Near East.

The Source: The North Pontic Maikop Culture.
The North Pontic culture is typified by hill forts and hundreds of Kurgan tumuli (grave mounds) with mortuary houses built of stones or wood. Royal burials share a characteristic monumental style in which the tumuli are surrounded by orthostats (upright stone or slab) and stelae, then by an outermost ring of stones; within and below the kurgan is a stone- or wood-lined pit (mortuary house), covered with stone slabs and topped by a stone cupola. Models of wagons and daggers of hard metal accompany the males of the elite.

Hill forts with enormous fortifications and outstanding kurgans, including exceptionally well-built tombs of stone slabs, suggest a hierarchic society of consolidated tribal units ruled by leading families. The similarity of fortified settlements, burial rites, and ceramic, stone, and metal artifacts recovered northeast and northwest of the Black Sea suggests the unification of this region, not only by commercial contacts but also by political power. The North Pontic region had at this stage diverged from its Kurgan cousin of the Volga. The Kurgan elements that appear west of the Black Sea are clearly connected with the North Pontic, not with the Volga Steppe and have analogies in the Kuro-Araks valley of Transcaucasia.

Known from the end of the 19th century, the royal tomb at Maikop in the River Kuban basin, northwestern Caucasus, is the richest and most familiar of this culture. Although it dates from the early 3rd millennium BC, the place name has become eponymic of the whole North Pontic culture which began c. 3500 BC. The early phase of the Maikop culture in the Lower Dnieper area is best represented by the lowest layer of the Mikhailovka hill fort, surrounded by several walls of limestone boulders, which undoubtedly functioned as a strategic center. 48 The finds from Mikhailovka I show close affinities to those from Crimean and north Caucasian stone cists as well as to the Usatovo kurgans around Odessa. The chronology of this phase, the second half of the 4th millennium BC, is based on radiocarbon dates from Mikhailovka. (TABLE 25) There were two wattle-and-daub houses with apsidal ends at the Mikhailovka I hilltop.

Royal burials and hoards of the late Maikop culture in the River Kuban basin, northwestern Caucasus, express the fabulous riches of tribal leaders and their contacts with Mesopotamia in the early 3rd millennium BC. The most lavishly equipped are those of Maikop and Tsarskaya (now Novosvobodnaya) excavated by N.I. Veselovskii at the end of the 19th century (both are known from the publications by Rostovtzeff 1920; Tallgren 1934; Hancar 1937; Childe 1936; Lessen 1950; and myself 1956). 56 These outstanding kurgans and their treasures throw much light on the social structure, kingship, religion, and art of this period. The Maikop tomb, as well as the series of others in the northern Caucasus 57 and in the south Caspian area 58 speak of the campaigns and raids south of the Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian Sea.

An Amalgam of Kurgan and Cucuteni Traditions: The Usatovo Complex Northwest of the Black Sea. Outstanding sites are Usatovo near Odessa 59 and Tudorovo in Moldavia. 60 Characteristically, a kurgan of the Usatovo culture had a cist with uniform orthostats, an entrance corridor, a cupola-shaped cairn above the central grave, semicircles of stelae with engravings and reliefs, and inner and outer rings of stone. The richest graves were those of the leading member of the tribe and his suttee while graves of other adults and children were contrastingly poor. Near the settlement and kurgan at Usatovo there is a contemporaneous cemetery of the indigenous Cucuteni culture consisting of simple, unmarked (flat) pit graves, arranged in rows. Contrasting burial rites of the Cucuteni and Kurgan populations are paralleled by differences in their respective habitation sites. Cucuteni dwellings were on wide river terraces, while the Kurgans located their semisubterranean dwellings on spurs, dunes, and steep hills along rivers.

A Kurgan-Influenced Culture in East-Central Europe: The Baden-Vucedol and Ezero Groups. The second Kurgan infiltration headed south from the North Pontic region toward the Lower Danube area and beyond. At the fortified hill at Cernavoda, in Dobruja, radiocarbon dates from the second phase of the hill give the age as c. 3 400-3 200 BC.62 By that time, a chain of acropolises (citadels) along the Danube, in the Marica (Bulgaria) plain, and in the area north of the Aegean, reflected the spread of a ruling power. The finest recently excavated tells, converted to hill forts, are at Ezero in central Bulgaria, 63 and Sitagroi on the Drama Plain of Greek Macedonia. 64 Radiocarbon dates are given in tables 27 and 28.
In the Lower Danube, Marica, and Macedonian plains, many Karanovo tells indicate that the indigenous occupation of these sites was disrupted, and many were surmounted by fortifications (such are the Ezero, Sitagroi IV, Karanovo VII, Nova Zagora, Veselinovo, and Bikovo). In other areas, steep river banks and almost inaccessible promontories were selected as seats of the ruling class.
A cultural change of the same nature as in the Danubian basin is evident as far west as the Alpine valleys of Italy and Switzerland and the Po River basin (the Remedello group), where hill forts (such as Columare, north of Verona) 65 are known on steep hills. This change in social structure was accompanied by a change in religion. The beginning of a new era in religious concepts is manifested in the Alpine valleys by a series of stelae engraved with a set of symbols alien to the indigenous Cortaillod and Lagozza cultures. We shall return to these at the end of this chapter.

An Amalgamation of the Old European and the Kurgan Cultures. During the second half of the 4th millennium BC, the new regime seems to have successfully eliminated or changed whatever remained of the old social system. Hill forts were the centers of power and cultural life, while the surrounding area supported either pastoral or agricultural populations, depending on the environment and the numbers of indigenous people who remained. Villages were small, the houses usually semi subterranean. But in the economy, an amalgamation of the Old European and the Kurgan cultural systems is clearly evident. In some areas, such as in central Bulgaria, cultivation of emmer, barley, vetch, and pea continued intact, probably carried on by the remaining indigenous population. In other territories, seasonal camps of a pastoral economy prevailed.

The new metallurgy, with links to the circum-Pontic region, was now practiced all over east-central Europe, concentrating on the production of the dagger, the shaft-hole axe, and the flat axe of arsenic bronze; metal workshops (including clay bivalve molds) are found on hill forts. 66 The ceramic artifacts, however, continue to manifest certain Old European traditions: anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, and ornithomorphic vases of beautiful workmanship were apparently produced by surviving Old European craftsmen. Such exceptional creations are typically found in the hill forts and rich tombs under large kurgans (cf. vases from Tarnava, fig. 10-11), although they are no longer found in the ordinary villages or graves. This situation seems analogous to that of Mycenaean Greece where surviving Minoan craftsmen continued to produce masterpieces of ceramic, gold, and stone for their new lords. The Old European symbolism largely vanished from popular artifacts, giving way to the ubiquitous solar design. Comparison with Mycenae is good, but not on the right scale. Going backwards, the best comparison is with USA and Russia, where the common technology and artifacts cover a width of a continent; the next compatible in area and commonality of culture is Ottoman Turkey, then Chingiz-Khan’s Mongolia, then Turkic Kaganate, then Hunnic Empires, and then Ahaemenid  Empire. Between the time of Ahaemenids and European Kurgans no written history exists, we can only compare the spread of common archeology, and it is hard to miss the parallels between the Kurgan Europe, Kurgan Mongolia, Kurgan  Turkic Kaganate, and Kurgan  Hunnic Empires. The ethereal “solar ornament” is not even a miniscule detail in the globality of cultural attributes.

Toward the end of the 4th millennium BC, only isolated islands of the Old European tradition persisted. Such was the Cotofeni complex in the Danube valley in Oltenia, western Muntenia, southern Banat, and Transylvania. The Cotofeni  were sedentary agriculturalists, living in solidly built houses, using copper tools, and still producing burnished red and white painted ceramics. Large numbers of bird-shaped vases attest the continuing worship of the Bird Goddess.


The Baden-Vucedol Culture in the Middle Danube Basin. Hundreds of sites in the best explored area, the Middle Danube basin, particularly in Hungary and western Slovakia, afford a good opportunity to follow the cultural development at this critical period of European prehistory. Although treated as a separate culture, the Baden (also called Pecel or Radial-decorated Pottery) culture is actually a western branch of the overall culture complex between western Anatolia and Poland.
The Baden complex, composed of indigenous and alien elements, covered the Middle Danube basin, with northern limits in Bohemia and southern Poland. In the south, it is known in the Morava-Vardar valleys of Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and even Albania.68 The available  radiocarbon dates range between the 34th and 29th centuries BC.
The eponymous site of Baden-Konigshohle, near Vienna, was excavated more than sixty years ago. 69 According to presently available radiocarbon dates, Baden lasted some 500 years. This period is subdivided into three phases: early (Boleraz), middle (classical Baden), and late (Bosaca). Almost a thousand Baden sites (counting surface finds) are recorded. 70

Hilltop Sites with Apsidal Houses. The hill sites at Vucedol and Sarvas in GimbutasCivilizationOfTheGoddessFig10-17northwestern Yugoslavia, Nitrianski Hradok near Nitra and Levoca in western Slovakia, 71 a number near Vienna and Melk in Austria, and those in southern Poland, must have served as seats of chieftains. They each bear a strong resemblance to the difficult-to-access and heavily fortified hills at Mikhailovka in the Lower Dnieper, and Liventsovka at Rostov on the River Don in the Ukraine.
The typical Baden village was set on a river terrace or promontory. The houses were small (the largest were 3.5 by 4.5 m), rectangular, and semisubterranean with pitched roofs supported by timber posts. Their clay-plastered hearths were either round or rectangular. Stable settlements were more or less confined to the uplands and the northwestern portion of this culture, whereas small short-lived settlements are found in the lowlands of eastern Hungary and Yugoslavia. The pattern of permanent settlement is clearly linked to the tradition of the Old European populations. Baden cemeteries show the typical Kurgan social inequality and the practice of human and animal sacrifice, the latter by the presence of cattle, dog, and horse bones included in ritual burials. The physical type of Baden was predominantly Mediterranean, as was to be expected from the Vinca substratum. A steppe type was also identified, however, and a certain facial flatness in some individuals seems to reflect eastern relations. At Budakalasz, the steppe type predominated, while at Alsonemedi the Mediterranean was mixed with a European brachycranial type.
The Old European symbols recur in the Baden culture on bird vases, on winged anthropomorphic urns, and on other fine-quality ceramics decorated with a breast motif and panels of chevron, ladder, and net patterns. The finishing of ceramics by burnishing and channeling are the last flutter of the Old European way in conflict with the new Indo-European, ideology reflected in the rows of pits, zigzags, and solar patterns on beakers, braziers, tureens, and wagon models.

From the sparse analyses of the oldest kurgan burials we can anticipate that the males in the Baden kurgan burials had a mixture of predominant R1a and lesser R1b haplogroups, brought over from the Central Asia, and vanishingly small traces of the Q and K haplogroups. In the later kurgan burials, such as Scythian, the proportion of the R1b, Q and K may be higher, and possibly appear C and N haplogroups. The Old Europe males are anticipated to belong to the I and J haplogroups.


Above – Skull of a male with a copper crown. – Multiple sacrificial burial of the Baden culture. Seventeen human skeletons (four adult and thirteen child) found in a pit. The oldest male (approximately 25 years old) lies in the center of the pit while the women and children are at the edge.

The Vucedol Culture. In the early 3rd millennium BC, the Vucedol culture followed the Baden in the northwestern Balkans and the east Alpine area. This culture is named after the Vucedol hill fort at Vukovar on the Danube, northwestern Yugoslavia, excavated by R. R. Schmidt. 82 In Hungary it is called the “Zok culture” with several subgroups: “Zok” proper in southwestern Hungary, “Mako” in the Koros and Maros basins of southeastern Hungary, and “Nyirseg” in northeastern Hungary. 83 In the eastern Alpine area, it is better known as “Laibach-Ljubljana culture,” after the peat-bog site excavated at Ljubljana in 1878-79 by K. Deschmann. 84
About 500 Vucedol sites have been reported, all clustered in essentially the same territory as the Baden sites. A number of hill forts contain both Baden and Vucedol deposits, and in the hill fort of Vucedol, two successive Vucedol strata overlie the late Baden (Kostolac) phase. A similar sequence was indicated in the stratified settlements of Sarvas, Gomolava, and Belegis in Syrmia and Slovenia, Brno-Lisen in Moravia, Zok-Varhegy at Pecs in southwestern Hungary, and elsewhere. Vucedol materials are found diffused as far as the Adriatic islands in the south and Bohemia and central Germany in the northwest.

An Intensive Defense System of Hill Forts. An intensive defense system is seen in the chain of impressive fortresses and fortified hilltop villages. Particular concentrations of settlements occur around Vukovar and Osijek in northwestern Yugoslavia; near Pecs in southwestern Hungary; around Ljubljana in Slovenia, south of Vienna, and in western Slovakia. These hill forts functioned as administrative centers, as in the Baden period, and were located on very steep river banks, usually at the confluence with a smaller river, and were heavily defended by ramparts, palisades, and ditches on the inland side. Other settlements are also found on river banks and elevations, or on lake shores, where people lived in pile dwellings (Stilt houses ) (Ljubljana and Ig, at Ljubljana).

Metallurgy. Most of the metallurgical activities took place in these fortified locations. The Vucedol hill fort yielded several smelting ovens, copper slags, and clay and sandstone molds. The metal-tool kit consisted of awls, tanged or riveted daggers, spiral tubes used for necklaces, weapons, and ornaments, in addition to shaft-hole axes, celts, and chisels. The ruling families had their own smiths who produced the best tools and weapons of the time. Metal, however, was still rare and most of the inventory was of bone and wood.

Pottery. The Vucedol ceramics are mostly memorable for the well-polished vases in dark brown or gray, excised and encrusted with white chalk (of crushed shell), which were stamped and impressed with geometric designs, typically in zones and metopes(spaces).  Much of the ceramic art reflects, as in Baden, the lingering of Old European traditions. This is strikingly evident in the presence of ornithomorphic vases. The Bird Goddess of the Vinca tradition and her symbols continued to be represented, but most of the symbolic signs and decorative motifs, especially those on the interior of dishes and braziers, are not in the Old European tradition. The dominant designs, instead, are sun and star motifs alien to Old Europe. Clearly, both traditions contributed to Vucedol art and symbolism.

Burial. A variety of grave types is reported — cremation, urn graves, inhumation, pits under round earthen kurgans, stone cists, and oven-shaped tombs favored for members of leading families.

The Ezero Culture in Bulgaria, the Northern Aegean, and Western Anatolia. Ezero is a tell in central Bulgaria located three kilometers southeast of Nova Zagora. 85 The excavations of a Bulgarian-Soviet team in this location during 1961-71 revealed an unusually complete picture of the Early Bronze Age life and chronology of the Ezero culture. Although there are a number of important settlements in central Bulgaria (Michalic, Veselinovo, Bikovo, Karanovo) as well as in the north Aegean and western Anatolia that have yielded material related to Ezero [Sitagroi IV and V, Troy I-II, Yortan, Alishar), none can compare with its scope and completeness of information. For this reason, the name Ezero is applied as a label for the entire culture in Bulgaria, northern Aegean, and western Anatolia. This is not a separate culture, however, but is part of one widely spread Baden-Ezero culture united by a standard repertoire of finds, and similar administrative system and settlement pattern.
Originally, the tell of Ezero, as also Karanovo, Veselinovo, Sitagroi, and others, was occupied by the Karanovo people. The continuity of this remarkable civilization, as we have seen in chapters 2 and 3, is well attested for almost two thousand years, c. 6000-4200 BC. Then, as a result of Kurgan Wave No. 1, the continuity of the Karanovo life was truncated. After a hiatus, a hybrid culture emerged which was an amalgamation of Old European traditions overlayed with new Kurgan influences.
The tell was converted into an acropolis. The Early Bronze Age layer of Ezero above the Karanovo tell had a thickness of 3.80 m. From nearly fifty houses uncovered, twenty had apsidal ends which appeared in the earliest horizon (Horizon XIII) and continued through the duration of this culture. Larger houses consisted of two rooms, living quarters and a working area, having ovens, hearths, platforms, and silo pits for drying and storing grain. The buildings stood in groups, about twenty houses in each horizon, around an open center. This central area had direct access to a corridor-like gate, 1 to 2.5 m wide and 8 m long, which was connected with the settlement’s fortification. The hill was surrounded by two stone walls. The inner wall was 80 m in diameter, 1.5 to 1 m thick, built of large undressed stones, 60 to 80 cm in size, while the outer was double in size. Such Cyclopean walls of larger boulders were strengthened with smaller stones at the bottom and glued with clay. This acropolis, which could have held up to two hundred people, must have served as a fortress for the small, unprotected villages around it. Who lived on this hill ? The chieftain with his council of war leaders, the craftsmen and their families? Unfortunately we do not know, although the pattern appears to be proto-typical of the later Bronze Age Mycenaean acropolises.
The acropolis was the center of many activities including the manufacture of tools and weapons of stone, bone, antler, copper, and bronze, typical throughout the Baden-Ezero culture. Flint was obtained from the Rhodope Mountains while other stones were gathered from south and north of Ezero. Metal artifacts were not abundant, in the earliest horizons, awls were made of pure copper or arsenical copper, while in later horizons the percentage of arsenic was much higher suggesting progress in metal work. From the onset of this culture, there was an overall decline in the quality of pottery which, in shape, make, and decoration, cannot be compared with the exquisite Karanovo VI pottery. Although the Baden-Ezero ceramics absorbed certain elements of the local cultures, this in no way represents a continuity of the Vinca or Karanovo.

The Globular Amphora Culture in the Northern European Plain Between Central Germany and East Romania. The Globular Amphora culture emerged on the northern European plain and north of the Carpathians — the present territories of globcentral Germany, Poland, Volynia, Podolia, and Moldavia — in the middle of the 4th millennium BC.86 (Table 31) It is known from hundreds of graves and from a few seasonal camps on sand dunes, small villages, and hilltop sites. The Globular Amphora culture was preceded by the Funnel-necked Beaker culture (TRB) and by the Cucuteni in the western Ukraine and Romania. In spite of a different substratum, the Globular Amphora culture was remarkably uniform. The typical vessel for which the culture is named is an amphora with a flat or rounded base.
There is similarity between the burial rites of the Globular Amphora people and those of the Kurgans of the Maikop culture in the North Pontic region. Both used mortuary houses built of stone slabs and practiced the ritual burial of horses, cattle, and dogs, as well as masshuman sacrifice in connection with funeral rites honoring high-ranking males.  A classed social structure and the dominant position of men is demonstrated by richly equipped graves that contained astounding numbers of sacrificed human beings and animals. The chief adult male occupied the central position in the stone cist and was accompanied into the afterlife by family members, servants, oxen, horses, and dogs as well as boars and other game animals. These extraordinary burials contained from three to ten human skeletons buried at the same time. The sex, age, and the position of the skeletons suggest that one or more young children, an adult female, and one or two attendants were put to death to accompany their father, husband, or master to the other world. Generally, rich male graves contain only one female skeleton and one or two of children. One exceptional instance is the cist grave at Voytsekhivka in Volynia, containing a male skeleton flanked by two women and four children, with a young man and a woman at his feet (see above picture). The sacrificed human beings are often headless or without legs, or are represented by heads alone.

Sun Symbolism and the Quest for Amber. The extension of Globular Amphora sites into the area of the Nemunas and Narva cultures is explained by their quest for amber to which they attached great ideological importance. Its golden hue was symbolically significant to these sun-worshiping people, and amber discs, plain or with carved solar designs (star or cross patterns), are found in important male graves. The Globular Amphora people were seminomadic herders living in small groups who practiced a limited seasonal movement documented by seasonal settlements of two or three rectangular semisubterranean huts, or a singular above-ground timber house. Hill forts and permanent settlements constituted the cultural focus for a tribe or clan. Agricultural tools, generally quern (grinder) stones, stone hoes, and wooden plowshares, indicate farming. These stone tools are replicates of a pair of metal tools, which in the west were very scarce. Flint, therefore, was universally cherished and the industry was intensive. For the Globular Amphora people, this was the primary choice for the axes and chisels. The fact that the Globular Amphora culture is more homogeneous than the Baden suggests that if these people were indeed Indo-European speakers, they completely succeeded in subverting the indigenous population or in converting them to their own creeds, customs, and language.

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Soarele – simbol arhetipal

Soare. Căldură. Viaţă. Începutul şi sfârşitul. Soarele este simbolul arhetipal care se regăseşte în toate culturile lumii. Încă din timpurile primitive, oamenii şi-au dat seama că fără Soare nu poate exista nimic. Ei s-au închinat la Soare considerându-l  izvor al vieţii şi al morţii. Cultul astrului zilei este în centrul miturilor solare, a religiilor uranice şi a fost divinizat şi pe teritoriul ţării noastre încă din vechime.
Soarele este nemuritor, el moare la asfinţit dar învie întotdeauna dimineaţa. De aceea este întruchiparea veşniciei şi a renaşterii reprezentat cel mai des prin simboluri ce denota perpetuarea, continuitatea, infinitatea. De altfel, astrul zilei este prezentat prin simboluri specifice cum ar fi discul, discul înaripat, roata, carul, ochiul, crucea în cerc, svastica etc. şi cel mai des este asociat laturii masculine. Soarele mai este reprezentat printr-un leu, un spic de grâu, iar aurul este corespondentul acestuia intre metale şi roşu printre culori. Iar acestea sunt doar câteva dintre simbolurile atribuite de om Soarelui. Nu de puţine ori, simbolistica Soarelui a născut mistere şi a pus imaginaţia contemporanilor noştri la lucru. Din cele mai vechi timpuri, Soarele a devenit simbolul regalităţii, al dinastiilor conducătoare care la noi s-a păstrat până în zilele noastre.

Sarmizegetusa_Regia_(Grigore_Roibu)În perioada civilizaţiei pelasge, a hiperboreenilor, zeul Apollo avea închinate temple multe şi foarte mari în care marmura şi aurul erau elementele de bază ale construcţiilor. Dacii considerau Soarele ca fiind primordial, binefăcător şi dătător de viaţă, iar simbolul astrului zilei se regăsea la ei pe multe obiecte: scuturi, harnaşamente, bijuterii, coifuri etc. ”Dacii cunoşteau şi foloseau un calendar solar considerat cel mai precis din antichitate. Anul dacic avea 365,242197 zile, faţă de 365,242198 la care a ajuns astronomia modernă. Calendarul dacic de la Sarmisegetuza permitea numararea zilelor unui an cu ajutorul unor stâlpi dispuşi în formă de cerc.” Şi pentru daci totul începea de la Soare. Ei considerau că Anul Nou începe la data echinocţiului de primăvară, în luna martie, dată la care Soarele începea să recapete puteri şi ajuta natura să renască. În luna martie, odată cu revigorarea Soarelui, totul era luat de la început: anul nou, muncile agricole, tunsul oilor şi urcatul turmelor la munte, mineritul, pregătirea armatei. Practic, viaţa renăştea odată cu Soarele. În semn de respect pentru binefacerile aduse, dacii închinau Soarelui sanctuare circulare. În timp, majoritatea domnitorilor români, din toate regiunile ţării, au adoptat în blazoanele, sigiliile sau stemele lor şi simboluri ale Soarelui, acesta regăsindu-se chiar şi azi în stema României.

Soarele are o însemnătate deosebită şi în cultura populară românească. Bătrânii vorbesc şi în zilele noastre despre „Sfântul Soare”. De altfel, religia creştină abundă în simboluri şi credinţe Solare adoptate din perioada păgână. Acestea s-au suprapus şi s-au amestecat cu crezurile crucea dacicacreştine. Cel mai la-ndemână exemplu este legat de construcţia bisericilor care au altarele orientate spre Est, adică spre răsăritul Soarelui. Un alt exemplu este Crucea care, în ancestral, simboliza Soarele. Romulus Vulcănescu a scris în “Mitologie română” despre cultului solar practicat de geto-daci. El a arătat că simbolul solar era format în păgânism dintr-un cerc având o cruce înscrisă sau dintr-un cerc cu o cruce excrisă. Ultimul însemn, în care crucea depăşeşte perimetrul cercului, mai este denumită azi şi “crucea dacică” şi o putem regăsi foarte des pe sculpturile maramureşene, mai ales pe troiţe.

De asemenea, simbolurile solare sunt prezente şi în arhitectura caselor ţărăneşti. În Bucovina, Soarele este sculptat pe stâlpii, uşile şi grinzile caselor considerându-se că aduce noroc şi fereşte casa de rele. Cele mai des întâlnite simboluri sunt rozeta, cercul, punctul, roata cu crucea în ea, morişca sau rombul. Aceleaşi simboluri, dar mai des morişca, se regăsesc şi pe casele olteneşti sau transilvănene.
genereaza-img (2)Obiceiul de a sculpta simboluri solare s-a păstrat până în zilele noastre şi se regăseşte pe diverse obiecte: lazi de zestre, furci de tors, pietre funerare, unelte, tacâmuri etc. Şi, bineînţeles, strailele populare conţin broderii, iar vesela din lut picturi cu diverse simboluri ale Soarelui. Toate acestea nefiind o modă ci o moştenire străveche.

Soarele s-a păstrat prezent şi în cultura populară mai ales prin balade (balada „Soarele şi Luna”) şi legende (Legenda Ciocârliei, Legenda Florii Soarelui, Legenda Cicoarei etc). Dar foarte des se regăseşte Soarele şi în colindele populare care, majoritatea îşi au originea în perioada păgână. Cel mai răspândit obicei tradiţional de la noi legat de Soare, mărţişorul, este după cum spunea şi poetul George Coşbuc, “simbolul soarelui primaverii”. În credinţa populară, banul de argint ce se atârna de şnurul mărţişorului semnifica Soarele prin rotunjimea lui. George Coşbuc mai spunea că: “mărţişorul este un genereaza-img (3)simbol al focului şi al luminii, deci şi al soarelui. Poporul nostru îl cunoaşte şi îl ţine în mare cinste, şi îl poartă copiii, fetele şi mai rar nevestele şi flăcăii, fiindcă el e crezut ca aducător de frumuseţe şi de iubire”. Si tot in acelasi studiu mai spunea George Cosbuc : “Ţaranii pun copiilor martisoare ca sa fie curati ca argintul si sa nu-i scuture frigurile, iar fetele zic ca-l poarta ca sa nu le arda soarele si cine nu le poarta are sa se ofileasca. Poporul mai stie ca martisorul trebuie purtat ca lucru sfânt, nu asa ca podoabă ori ca jucărie.” Tot George Coşbuc ne explică de ce se poartă mărţişorul : “scopul purtării lui este să-ţi apropii soarele, purtându-i cu tine chipul cam cu acelaşi rost cum purtăm noi o cruce ori un chip al lui Hristos în sân. Printr-asta te faci prieten cu soarele, şi-l faci binevoitor să-ţi dea ce-i stă în putere, mai întâi frumuseţe ca a lui, apoi veselie şi sănătate, cinste, iubire şi curaţie de suflet.“

HORA-MAREAdorarea Soarelui se întâlneşte şi în unele dansuri populare. Cel mai bun exemplu este hora care prin dispunerea ei în cerc imită rotunjimea genereaza-img (4)Soarelui. Deşi este un dans simplu şi destul de monoton, hora este considerată sacră pentru că în ea nu sunt primiţi decât cei mai curaţi oameni. Pe vremuri, cea mai sacră horă era cea a căluşarilor, iar în ea jucau doar feciorii care nu puteau părăsi căluşul timp de 3, 5 sau 9 ani. Originile horei se trag tot din perioada când pe teritoriul ţării noastre domina cultul Soarelui. La Bodeşti-Frumuşica a fost descoperit un obiect de cult ceramic reprezentând o horă formată din şase femei, aparţinând Culturii Cucuteni (3700-2500 î.H.). Această dovadă indică faptul ca hora a apărut cu mai mult de 5000 de ani în urmă. Sursa –

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”Primul Imreh”, cunoscut ca Sfântul Emerich a fost fiul lui  Istvan/Ștefan Cel Sfânt – considerat întemeietorul Regatului Ungariei. A fost strănepot de voievod ardelean – Iuliu cel Bătrân prin bunica sa Șarolta și nepot de împărat german prin mama sa Ghizela de Bavaria. Prenumele masculin Imre este un derivat al numelui nemțesc Emmerich, care înseamnă “putere, cârmuitor”. Mai rar este folosit ca nume de familie, cu litera h la urmă.


Imreh ca nume de familie are o  frecventa de 0.0027%.
Numarul aproximativ de oameni cu acest nume de familie ce traiesc in Romania: 513

Alexandru ca prenume are o frecventa de 0.9554%. Numarul aproximativ de oameni cu acest prenume ce traiesc in Romania: 181526

Imre ca  prenume are o frecventa de 0.0146%.
Numarul aproximativ de oameni cu acest prenume ce traiesc in Romania: 2774

Imre ca nume de familie are o frecventa de 0.0095%.
Numarul aproximativ de oameni cu acest nume de familie ce traiesc in Romania: 1805


Ștefan I al Ungariei (în maghiară Szent István király „sfântul rege Ștefan”, n. 969, Strigoniu – d. 15 august 1038, Alba Regia) a fost primul rege creștin al maghiarilor, membru al Casei Arpadiene. Este venerat ca sfânt în Biserica Catolică și în Biserica Ortodoxă. Pe linie maternă Stefan era nepotul voievodului ardelean Gyula care a trecut la creștinism în 953, primind botezul la Constantinopol, de unde îl va aduce pe grecul Ierotei (Hieroteus) pe scaunul unui episcopat ortodox/bizantin de Alba Iulia. Mama lui Stefan a fost Sarolta, numele initial al lui Ștefan a fost Vajk. Învățătorul tânărului Vajk a fost Adalbert, episcopul de Praga. El i-a influențat pe Géza (încă păgân) și pe mama sa Sarolt (ardeleancă creștină de rit ortodox/bizantin) să treacă la catolicism, împreună cu copiii lor. Vajk a fost botezat în 994 (sau cândva între 994 și 996[8]) de acest episcop la Esztergom, și a primit numele primului martir, Sfântul Ștefan. Între anii 9971006 Ștefan a reușit să unească în jurul său întregul popor din Ungaria, nu înainte de consumarea unui violent conflict armat care a opus proaspăt unsul rege (25 decembrie 1001) Ștefan cel Sfânt și pe Gyula cel tânar (în maghiară Gyula; latinizat Iulus, nu Iulius), Voievodul Transilvaniei, cu sediul la Alba Iulia.
Despre Sarolta, despre Voievodatul lui Iuliu (cca. 940 – 1046), despre îngroparea intenţionată a ruinelor primei Biserici Ortodoxe din ţara noastră la Alba Iulia – un fragment din lucrarea Istorie Furată – Cronică Românească de Istorie Veche, autor Cornel Birsan.

imre sfant

Ștefan s-a căsătorit în 995 cu Ghizela de Bavaria, sora împăratului Henric al II-lea cu care a avut trei copii: doi fii, Imre (adaptat de la „Heinrich”) și Otto, precum și o fiică. Sfântul Emeric, în maghiară Szent Imre, în germană Heiliger Emmerich, în portugheză Santo Américo, (n. ca. 1007 – d. 2 septembrie 1031, Alba Regală), a fost deci fiul regelui Ștefan I al Ungariei și al soției acestuia, regina Ghizela de Bavaria, sora împăratului Heinrich al II-lea. A murit într-un accident de vânătoare. A fost canonizat în anul 1083 împreună cu tatăl său, de papa Grigore al VII-lea.
Este sărbătorit în spațiul de limbă maghiară pe 4 noiembrie și în calendarul roman universal pe 5 noiembrie. Numele Imre (Emeric) este unul din cele mai răspândite prenume maghiare. Numeroase localități își au numele de la sfântul Emeric, precum Sântimbru, Alba, Sântimbru, Harghita etc. Prin faptul că patronul onomastic al geograful Amerigo Vespucci a fost prințul Emeric, numele acestuia a fost transmis noului continent, America.


The earliest surnames in Western Europe grew out of existing methods of distinguishing people and were not hereditary. Surnames became hereditary only when families decided they were going to stick to a ‘pseudo-surname”. This change occurred at different periods in different regions. For example, surnames were largely adopted between the 11th and 16th centuries in England, between the 16th and 19th centuries in Wales and between the 11th and 19th centuries in Scotland. Each family has to be taken on a case by case basis. A surname’s origin is influenced by the progenitor’s social class and the culture they lived in. Those of higher social status often took surnames that are uncommon today; whereas people of lower social status often took what are today common surnames. It is also clear that people of lower social status had less control over their surnames, no doubt handed to them by aldermen, lords and other authorities. The majority of surnames are derived from the name of a male ancestor. These evolved from pre-existing non-permanent naming customs whereby an individual was identified by reference to a male ancestor or ancestors.


Saint Emeric of Hungary (Hungarian: Szent Imre herceg) also Henricus, Emery, Emerick, Emmerich, Emericus or Americus (c. 1007 – 2 September 1031) was the son of King St. Stephen I of Hungary and Giselle of Bavaria. He is assumed[1] to be the second son of Stephen, he was named after his uncle, St. Henry II, and was the only one of Stephen’s sons who reached adulthood.
Emeric was educated in a strict and ascetic spirit by
the bishop SaintEmericof Csanád, St. Gerhard (St. Gellért) from the age of 15 to 23. He was intended to be the next monarch of Hungary, and his father wrote admonitions to prepare him for this task. His father tried to make Emeric co-heir still in his lifetime. He married in the year 1022.[2] The identity of his wife is disputed. Some say it was Irene Monomachina, a relative of Byzantine emperor Constantine IX Monomachos, or a female member of the Argyros family to which Byzantine emperor Romanos III Argyros belonged. Other say it was Patricissa of Croatia, the daughter of Krešimir III of Croatia. Another possible person may have been Adelaide/Rixa of Poland or one of her unnamed sisters.
But his father’s plans could never be fulfilled: on 2 September 1031, at age 24, Emeric was killed by a
boar while hunting. It is assumed[1] that this happened in Hegyközszentimre (presently Sântimreu, Romania). He was buried in the church of Székesfehérvár. Several wondrous healings and conversions happened at his grave, so on 5 November 1083 King Ladislaus I unearthed Emeric’s bones in a large ceremony, and Emeric was canonised for his pious life and purity along with his father and Bishop Gerhard by Pope Gregory VII. St. Emeric is most often pictured in knight’s armour with crown and lily.

Emeric, also known as Henry or Imre (Hungarian: Imre, Croatian: Emerik, Slovak: Imrich; 1174 – 30 November 1204), was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1196 and 1204. In 1184, his father, Béla III of Hungary, ordered that he be crowned king, and appointed him as ruler of Croatia and Dalmatia around 1195. Emeric ascended the throne after the death of his father. Emeric became the first Hungarian monarch to adopt the title of King of Serbia in 1202.[16][19] He was also the first king to use a royal seal depicting the so-ImrichEmeric_of_Hungarycalled “Árpád stripes“, which eventually became part of the coat of arms of Hungary. Taking advantage of the civil war in Hungary, Kaloyan invaded and captured Belgrade, Barancs (now Braničevo in Serbia), and other fortresses.[28] Emeric made preparations for a campaign against Bulgaria, but he disbanded his army upon Pope Innocent’s demand.[29] The Pope, who had been negotiating a church union with Kaloyan, sent a royal crown to him, but Emeric imprisoned the papal legate who was delivering the crown to Bulgaria when the legate was passing through Hungary. Emeric’s wife, Constance, was the daughter of King Alfonso II of Aragon.[37] Their marriage took place between 1196 and 1200.[37][13] Their only known child, Ladislaus, was born around 1200 and died on 7 May 1205.[38] Queen Constance, who outlived both her husband and their son, was later married to Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.[39]

In German, the name Imre means – great king. The second element is ric meaning “power”. The first element may be ermen “whole, universal” (making it a relative of Ermenrich). From Germanic Amalrich or Emmerich, Proto-Germanic *amal ‎(“vigor, bravery”) + rīhhi ‎(“ruler”) The old Hungarian variants of the Latin names Emericus, Emmeric are: Emrik, Emrih, Imreh. There are written data in Hungarian documents since the end of the 12th century for the Emericus, Eimericus variants. According to another explanation the Hungarian Imre is a borrowing of the German Heinrich (Henrik).[1]
Imre is a Hungarian masculine first name, which is also in Estonian use. The origin of the name is not clear. Some argue that it derived from the Gothic Amalareiks, or from the High German Emmerich which its Latinized version is Emericus. While others claim that it derived from the Turkish emir (leader).
Imre is Hungarian form of Emmerich. Possible etymology of Emmerich is ancient German Haimirich (or Haimerich) or Gothic Amalaric.
In other languagesEmery, Amery, Emory (English), Émeric (French), Emmerich (German), Amerigo (Italian),Américo (Portuguese), Imrich (Slovak), Américo (Spanish).

Imre Nagy,  un bolșevic devenit simbol al anticomunismului

lfe-257_burned-out-tanks-in-budapest_1956Pe 23 octombrie 1956, la Budapesta izbucnea prima revoltă anticomunistă din spatele Cortinei de Fier.  În aceeași zi, trupele sovietice au invadat Ungaria și au trecut cu tancurile peste tinerii studenți ieșiți să protesteze în centrul capitalei ungare împotriva bolșevismului. Luptele au durat circa 10 zile, la finalul cărora mii de civili, în marea lor majoritate tineri, au fost uciși de militarii ruși, care au mobilizat pentru această înăbușire a mișcării pentru libertate a populației 6000 de tancuri – mai mult decât folosise Germania pentru invazia URSS în 1941. Aproximativ un milion de unguri (mai mult de 10% din populația țării) au abandonat țara natală și au plecat în exil pentru a scăpa din fața șenilelor blindatelor sovietice, care au transformat în ruină unul dintre cele mai frumoase orașe europene.
În fruntea acestei mișcări anticomuniste s-a aflat Imre Nagy, cel desemnat de revoluționari ca prim-ministru al guvernului format după alungarea bolșevicilor de la putere. Nagy, un fost luptător al Armatei Roșii în timpul războiului civil din Rusia – a făcut parte din detașamentul de soldați care asigurau paza fostului țar Nicolae al II-lea și a familiei sale și foarte probabil a fost unul dintre cei șapte membri ai plutonului de execuție – era respectat pentru profesionalismul său, însă avea un trecut care îl recomanda drept un comunist notoriu.
Pe data de 28 octombrie a luat o poziție fermă în susținerea revoluției și introducerii nagypluripartitismului. La începutul lunii noiembrie, Guvernul lui a anunțat ieșirea Ungariei din Pactul de la Varșovia, declarând Ungaria țară neutră. În dimineața de 4 noiembrie a ținut un discurs dramatic la radio, anunțând a doua intrare a trupelor sovietice, mai târziu cerând azil la Ambasada Iugoslaviei. Pe 21 noiembrie este răpit în drum spre casa lui – nefiind respectată înțelegerea cu iugoslavii – și este deportat în România, la Snagov, împreună cu mai mulți reformiști.  A fost readus acasă în aprilie 1957. Între 9 iunie și 15 iunie 1958 a fost judecat într-un proces cu ușile închise, fiind în cele din urmă condamnat la moarte. Sentința a fost executată chiar în ziua următoare. Între anii 1961-1989 cadavrul lui a fost ascuns în parcela 301 din Cimitirul Nou din Budapesta. Imre Nagy a fost reabilitat în 1989 și a fost reînmormântat solemn în același an la data de 16 iunie, în chiar lunile premergătoare căderii Cortinei de Fier.

Editura Kriterion, 1982 – Transylvania (Romania) – 470 pages – Download free : IMREH ISTVÁN – VIAŢA COTIDIANĂ LA SECUI – Spirit analitic, de largă formaţie ştiinţifică, Imreh István îşi concentrează cercetarea asupra unei perioade istorice extrem de imreh-istvan-viata-cotidiana-la-secui-1750-kriterioncomplexe, marcată de spargerea „ordinii” sociale feudale şi de naşterea unei noi „ordini”, determinată de noul mod de producţie capitalist.
Din cuprins:
SECUII ÎN CURGEREA TIMPULUI Devălmăşia în scaunul Arieş 17 Pămîntul și omul 17 Marea pădure devălmaşă a scaunului 19 Pămîntul liber de la Bogáth 24 Societatea de la Hurkajuk, deschizătoare de drum 26 Strămoşi şi moravuri în scaunul filial Cristur 29 Gospodăria seniorială în Secuime
OAMENI AI ÎNNOIRILOR Gábor Áron pe drumul revoluţiei 332 Mediul, familia 334 Studiile 342 Cariera militară 348 Încercări în industrie şi tehnică 355 Legăturile dintre Breţcu şi Moldova în prima jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea 365 Rajka Péter — constructorul de maşini 380 Începuturi la Tîrgu Mureş, instruire la Viena 381 „Vrednicul mecanic” de la Cluj în epoca reformistă 385 Succes şi declin

Alexandru – Numele de baiat Alexandru este de origine greaca si are semnificatia de a apara, a proteja. Numele de Alexandru provine de la grecescul Alexandros care inseamna protector al barbatilor sau al oamenilor si este format din cuvintele “alexo” care inseamna a apara, a proteja si “andros” care inseamna barbat, om. Numele Alexandru este foarte vechi in onomastica greceasca, fiind atestat inca din a doua jumatate a secolului 7 i.Hr, in “Iliada” ca un alt nume al lui Paris, fiul lui Priam, regele Troiei, in timpul razboiulului toian si mai tarziu apare in “Descrierea Eladei” Alexandra, forma feminina anumelui, ca supranume pentru Cassandra, sora lui Paris.
In vechile limbi din Asia Mica, folosite de populatiile preelenice, apare numele Alekshabdru, nume preluat se pare de la greci si apoi a fost modificat in Aleksandros.
Numele a fost foarte popularizat in special de Alexandru Macedon sau Alexandru Cel Mare, educat de catre Aristotel, care a ramas in istorie ca un comandant de osti alexander-greatexceptional, un mare cuceritor si cel care a unificat sub dominatia greaca o mare parte a lumii antice, raspandind astfel in lumea mediteraneeana si orientala cultura si civilizatia greaca. In vechile izvoare grecesti sunt mentionate 17 orase care au fost numite dupa Alexandru Macedon, cel mai cunoscut fiind Alexandria fondata in 332-331 i.e.n chiar de Alexandru Macedon si care a ramas in istorie datorita Farului considerat una din cele 7 minuni ale lumii si a Bibilotecii, important centru cultural si religios al elenismului renumita prin scolile filozofice numite “alexandrine”.
Forma Alexandru a numelui isi capata populariatate in cadrul civilizatiei apusene medievale, prin literatura, in special prin celebrul roman popular cunoscut la noi sub numele de “Alexandria” care este opera cu cea mai mare raspandire si audienta. “Romanul Alexandru” este atribuit istoricului Calistene din Olint, participant la razboaiele puratate de Alexandru Macedon. Romanul a fost tradus in foarte multe limbi din intrega lume si a servit drept carte de istorie in scolile occidentale.
In folclorul nostru numele Alexandru apare ca un termen de comparatie ideal in materie de vitejie, iar influenta celebrei carti se resimte puternic si in onomastica populara. In plus, la noi numele Alexandru a intrat in onomastica si datorita mai multor martiri si sfiniti din primele secole ale erei noastre. In istoria noastra, numele Alexandru a fost purat de 22 de domni ai celor doua tari romanesti primul fiind Nicolae Alexandru, domn al Tarii Romanesti din 1352.
Familia numelui Alexandru este foarte mare si include variante ale numelui precum Alecu, Aleca, Lecu, Leca (nume atestat inca din 1235), Lexi, Lixandru, Lixandra, Druta, Lisandra, Lisandru, Sandru, Sandra, Sandu, Alexandin, Alexandrina, Sanda, Sandel, Ducu, Alexander, Alessandro, Alessandra, Alexa si prescurtarea Alex. Alexandru este un nume frecvent intalnit in onomastica romaneasca. Copiii botezati cu acest nume sunt strigati adesea Alex, insa prenumele se preteaza si la alte apelative sau diminutive: Alexutu, Andru, Andu etc.

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Getes – the story to be told – Quotes

Source – A story never told – DECEMBER 19, 2015 / PRIMUS GETARUM


1. Sumerian researcher A. Kisifim: “The ancestors of Rumanians had a powerful influence upon the whole ancient world, respectively upon old Ellada, old Egypt, Sumer and even China.”

2. Pythagoras (580 B.C. – 495 B.C.), Law 1143: “Travel to the Getes, not to give them laws, but to learn from them. There the fields are boundless, all lands are common.”

3. Homer about the Getes: “Out of all the peoples, they are the wisest.”

4. Plato (427 B.C. – 347 B.C.), student of Socrates and professor to Aristotle, in the dialogue CARMIDES reveals a discussion between Socrates and Carmides, where the professor explains to Carmides what he had learned from a ‘Thracian’ doctor when he was in the army: “Zamolxis, our king, which is a god, tells us that the same we ought not try to take care of our eyes, without acknowledging the head, not even the head can be taken care of, without acknowledging the body. So, we have to take care of the body, as well as the soul, altogether. Here is why the Greek doctors are not experienced in many diseases, because they do not know the whole they have to take care of. If this whole is ill, the part cannot be healthy, because all things good and bad, for the body and for the man in his wholeness, come from the soul and out of it, they flow like out of a spring, from the head to the eyes. Therefore, firstly, let us heal the spring of harmfulness, so that the head can enjoy health, so like the rest of the body. Friend, the soul can be healed through incantations. These incantations are the beautiful words which give birth to the wisdom within the souls.”

5. Dionysius Periegetes (138 A.D.): “The following will be about the biggest land, that spreads from Asia Minor to Iberia and from Northern Africa to Scandia, the great land of Dacians.”

6. Marco Merlini, Italian archaeologist, about the Tărtăria tablets and the bones found along with them: “The bones, as well as the tablets, are very old. It is a certainty. It is our turn to think that writing began in Europe, 2.000 years before the Sumerian writing. In Romania we have a great treasure, but it does not belong only to Romania, but to the whole of Europe.”

7. Friedrich Hayer (1899) – Austrian philosopher: “Rumanians are the people of Europe which were born Christians.” (A few years ago the ambassador of Vatican at Bucharest, in the Academy theatre, said the same).

8. Alfred Hofmann (Paris, 1820, p. 3075) – The History of Earth: “Indeed, nowhere will you find a power of faster understanding, a mind more open, a spirit more alert, accompanied by the gracefulness of being, like one finds with the Rumanian people. This nation, risen through instruction, should stand in front of the spiritual culture of humanity. And as an addition, its language is so rich and harmonious, it should fit the most cultivated nation on Earth. Rumania is not the center of the Earth, but the Axis of the Universe.”

9. Marija Gimbutas – professor of U.C.L.A. – Civilization and Culture: “Romania is the hearth of what I named, Old Europe, a cultural entity of 6.500 – 3.500 B.C., based on a matriarchal society, theocratic, peaceful, loving and creators of art, that preceded the patriarchal indo-european societies of warriors from the bronze and iron age. It became evident that this ancient European civilization, precedes the Sumerian by millennia. It was a period of real harmony, in full agreement with the creator energies of nature.”

10. Louis de La Vallée-Poussin: “The inhabitants of northern lower Danube can be regarded as the ancestors of humanity.”

11. Gordon W. Childe: “The primary places of Dacians must be searched on the territory of Romania. Indeed, the placing of the main center of formation and expansion of indo-europeans must be made at the north and south of the lower Danube.”

12. Eugène Pittard: “The ethnic ancestors of Rumanians, climb undoubtedly up to the first ages of humanity, the Neolithic civilization represents only a recent chapter of the country’s history.”

13. Daniel Ruzo (1968) – Peruan archaeologist, anthropologist and writer: “The Carpathians are in a region of the world, where the european center of the oldest culture known today, was situated.”

14. William Schiller – American archaeologist: “Civilization was born where the Romanian people live today, spreading to the east and the west.”

15. John Mandis: “The oldest discoveries of some writing symbols were made at Turdaș and Tărtăria.”

16. Ekström Par Olof: “The Rumanian language is a key-language that influenced, for the most part, all European languages.”

17. University of Cambridge: “In the 4th millennium B.C., the Getic Carpathian space was the only space inhabited in Europe; The Carpathian, Getic or Wallachian space has represented the OFFICINA GENTIUM in antiquity, it has fueled with people and civilization, India, Persia, Greece, Italy, Germany, France and the so called Slavic space; The vedas, the oldest literary monuments of humanity were created in the center of Europe.”

18. Jawaharlal Nehru, ex-Prime Minister of India: “The vedas are the operas of Aryans that invaded the rich land of India.”

19. Bonfini: “The language of Rumanians could not be exterminated, although they are settled in the middle of so many barbarian peoples and they fight not to leave it, no matter what, as they wouldn’t fight for a life, as they do for a language.”

20. Ludwig Schlözer (Russian Annals, 18th century): “These Volohs are not Romans, not Bulgars, not Wolsche, but Vlachs, descendants of a great and ancient bloodline of nations, of Thracians, Dacians, Getes, that even now have their own language and despite all oppressions, they live in Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania and Hungary in their millions.”

21. Michelet, Paris (1859), to Cuza’s emissary: “Do not envy the old nations, but look at yours. The deeper you will search, the more you will see life springing.”

22. André Armad: “Indeed this is one of the oldest peoples of Europe…be them Thracians, Dacians. The peoples have remained the same since the Neolithic era – polished stone era – until today, so sustaining the continuity of a nation by example, maybe unique in the history of the world.”

23. D’Hauterive (Memoir on the old and actual present of Moldavia, 1902): “Indeed Latin comes out of this tongue and the other languages, especially Rumanian, represent this tongue. Latin is far from being the trunk of the languages spoken today, I would say that Latin is the newest of all.”

24. Huszti András: “The descendants of Geto-Dacians live today, where their parents lived, they speak the language that their parents used to speak long ago.”

25. Bocignoli (1524): “Rumunians, about which I said that are Dacians.”

26. L.A. Gebhardi: “The Getes spoke the same language as the Dacians and had the same customs. The Greeks use to give the same name for the Getes of Bulgaria, Dacians of Moldavia, Wallachia, Transylvania and Hungary and believed that both Getes and Dacians come from Thracians.”

27. Abdolonyme Ubicini (The Origins of Rumanian History, Paris, 1866): “Dacians are the first ancestors of nowadays Rumanians. Ethnographically speaking, Dacians are confused with the Getes, of the same origin, same language. About this view, all testimonies from the past agree.”

28. University of Cambridge (The Cambridge History of India, 1922): “The primary phase of the Vedic culture began in the Carpathians, most likely in Haar-Deal (Ardeal).”

29. Jakob Grimm (The History of the German Language, 1785-1863): “The Dacian nomenclature for plants, kept by Dioscoride (Greek medic from the period of emperors Claudius and Nero) can be found in the background of the German language.”

30. The Spanish Chronicles (25 – p. 179): “The Daco-Getes are considered to be the founders of the Spaniards.”

31. Carol Lundius (The Chronicle of the Dukes of Normandy): “The Daco-Getes are considered to be the founders of the nordic nations.”

32. Leibnitz (Collectanea Etymologica): “The Daco-Getes are considered to be the founders of the Teutons and Frisians, of the Dutch and Anglians.”

33. Miceal Ledwith (Ex-Counselor for Pope John Paul the 2nd): “The Rumanian language is grouped in the category of Latin languages as well, but during my lifetime, through my work, I came to understand that it is not that Rumanian is a Latin language, but rather that Old Rumanian is the language out of which Latin came. All european languages came from the Old Rumanian. No culture of the world has spoken the real history of the world, ever. Rumanian is wrongly considered a Latin language. It should be the other way around, Latin, Italian, Spanish are Rumanian languages. I am sure this fact will be acknowledged very soon.”

34. Carlo Troya (1784 – 1858), Italian historian: “No nation of the ones mentioned by the Greeks as barbarian, has a more certain and more older history like the one of the Getes/Goths. The purpose of my work, Getic or Gothic History, is divided in two parts and one of them shows that the Getes of Zamolxis and of Decebal had been the ancestors of the Goths of Theodoric of the Amals.”

35. Harald Haarman, German savant: “The oldest writing in the world is that of Tărtăria – Romania. The Danubian Civilization is the first great civilization in history, preceding by thousands of years the Sumerian civilization.”

36. Paul Mac Kendrick (Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals): “Burebista and Decebal created in Dacia a culture that only the narrow minded could qualify it as barbarian. Rumanians are the members of one of the most remarkable creator states of antiquity. Up in Maramureş there is a place marked as the center of the old continent.”

37. William Ryan and Walter Pitman, geologists (1995): “The place described in the Old Testament as being flooded is the one of the Black Sea.”

38. Robert Ballard, explorer (1999), confirms what William Ryan and Walter Pitman said.

39. Cavasius (The Administration of the Kingdom of Transylvania): “In Italy, Spain and Galia, the peoples used to spoke an idiom of an older formation under the name of Rumanian language, as in the time of Cicero. The Rumanian language has more latinity than Italian.”

40. G. Devoto, G. Wilkie, W. Schiller: “The barbarians weren’t only the discoverers of philosophy, but of technology, science and art. Most of the peoples had their apprenticeship between the barbarians. Plato praises the barbarians and reminds, as Pythagoras did, that they learned the most numerous and beautiful teachings by living between the barbarians.”

41. Clement of Alexandria (The Stromata): “At last, another burden of interpretation using this method of the teachings of the Scripture, stand in the fact that we don’t have them also in the language in which they were written the first time… Then the language is kept by the peoples, not only by the initiates, whereas the meaning and texts are kept only by the initiates and that is why we can easily conceive that they could falsify the meaning of the texts of one of the rarest books they had in their custody.”

42. Mark Pagel, professor on Evolutionary Biology, Reading University of London: “Over 10.000 years ago, in the Carpathian region there lived a nation that spoke an unique language, precursor to Latin and Sanskrit.”

43. Clémence Royer (The Bulletin of the Anthropological Society, Paris, 1879): “The Celts, Germans and Latins come from Eastern Europe and the traditions of the historic Aryans of Asia shows them as coming from the Occident. We have to search for the common cradle at the lower Danube, in this Pelasgian Thrace, that its language we ignore.”

44. Jean Laumonier (The French Nationality, Paris, 1892): “The Rumanian or modern Dacian is the true Celt of Eastern Europe.”

45. André Lefèvre (The Races and Languages, Paris, 1893): “The ‘brown’ Celts that ethnography revealed their traces from Dacia to Bretonia and Ireland, the blond Gals, peoples that spoke indo-european dialects.”

46. Prof. Fabio Scialpi: “I am intrigued by the presence on the territory of Rumania, of a number of many toponyms of Sanskrit resonance.”

47. Bonaventura Vulcannius of Bruges, 1597: “The Getes had their own alphabet long before the Latin one was born. The Getes sang, using the flute, the deeds of their heroes, composing songs even before the foundation of Rome, that of which Cato says – the Romans started to do much later.”

48. V. Titov, Russian archaeologist: “At Tărtăria emerged the oldest writing of humanity.”

49. Pope Nicholas the 1st to Michael the 2nd of Byzantium: “The Greeks name the Latin language, the language spoken by the Scythians.”

50. Otrokocius: “That Priscus din not neglect to mention what were the languages spoken around Attila. He presumes by this, that some of the Huns, because of their links with the Romans, tried diligently to learn the Gothic language that is kindred with the Alanic and Ausonic. Whereas by Ausonic, they understand Wallachian, the corrupt Latin (vulgar).

51. Trogus Pompeius: “Even Dacians are a branch of the Getes.”

52. Courtenay Baoudin: “In Slavonic can be found many Rumanian words, especially in the language used by the Church.”

53. Fontes II, p. 19: “The Belagines (The Divine Laws) are the foundation of human civilization.”

54. Carolus Lundius (Zamolxis, Primus Getarum Legislator): “It has to be clear for everyone, the ones who antiquity named them with a distinguished admiration Getes, the writers named them afterwards, through a unanimous agreement, Goths. The Greeks and other nations took letters from the Getes. We find with Herodotus and Diodorus, direct opinions about the spreading of these letters.”

55. Isidore of Seville: “Rome itself, the vanquisher of all nations, had to serve subdued and to receive the barring of the Getic triumph.”

56. Bonaventura Vulcanius, The letters and Getic or Gothic Language, 1597: “I cannot be silent about the fact that I have always been the admirer, more than all of the others, of this name, noble by excellence, of a nation that believes in the bottom of its heart, in the immortality of souls, where by my judgement, strongly condemning death, they gain an unbounded courage to achieve anything. As we can see, the Getic peoples, have been like this always from nature. This nation was and still is, a nation unique and eternal.”

57. After he mentioned in his speech, the troubles that Romania had gone through the communist regime, Pope John Paul the 2nd encouraged the Romanian people saying: “Romania bridge-country between the Orient and the Occident, crossroad point between Central Europe and Oriental Europe, Romania, the land that tradition names it with the beautiful title of “Saint Mary’s Garden”, I come to you in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of God and in the name of Saint Mary. In the midst of a new millennium, build your future further on the hard rock of the Holy Gospel. With the help of God you will be the protagonist of a new period of enthusiasm and courage. You will be a prosperous nation, land of good making, peaceful and sympathetic nation. May God protect you and bless you always.”


GET (pronounced ‘Jet’) = Earth-born. In Rumanian, the word ‘gețuitor’ (viețuitor) means ‘living man’. Earth = Geea/Gaia (Geb/Gebeleizis), the same way the word ‘peasant’ in Rumanian is ‘țăran’ which also means ‘man of earth’, where earth = ţărână (in Rumanian).

Sarmatia/Sa(r)mo-Getia/Dio Getia = The Holy Land/Land of God/Land of the Sun – meaning the heart or the hearth of Old Pelasgian Europe. Here we have the Getic Sea (Black Sea), Sarmizegetusa Regia that was the capital and the most important military, religious and political center of Dacians. In translation Sarmizegetusa = The Getes of Sarmis/Armis, where Sarmis is the protector of this sanctuary. Named by the Greeks, Hermes. We also find here the Getic Pole (Polus Geticus) around which the skies rotate. Also there is a saying in Rumanian, ‘get-beget’ which means ‘from ancestor to ancestor’. About the language, following the same logical reasoning, we can speak of the Getic or Sermo-Getic language, although Pelasgo-Getic would also be a correct term.

Djed = The forefathers of the first pharaohs of Egypt. Egyptians use this word Djed (pronounced ‘Jet’) when they speak of the ‘old ones’ that lived before them. Therefore this term has to do, not only with the Greeks. In Croatian the word ‘đed’ (pronounced ‘Jed’) means ‘grandfather’, which is another proof that the word ‘Get’ bears the meaning of ‘Old/Ancient’.

Here are the main ethnonyms the Getic tribes had, depending on the territories they used to inhabit: Getulians, Ilergetes, Indigetes, Mysogetes, Tissagetes, Sargetes, Tyragetes, Samogetes, Massagetes, Geats, Getae, Jats (Northern India), Djed (Egypt), Tocharians – a branch of the Massagetes (Western China). As you can see, the Getes where everywhere.

Dio Cassius speaks of Dacians only after 300 years when the Romans named the partially conquered territory, Dacia. But the people call themselves depending on the name of the region they live in. For example the people from Oltenia call themselves ‘olteni’, the ones from Ardeal ‘ardeleni’, the ones from Banat ‘bănăţeni’ and so on, but they are all Rumanians, just as the enslaved Getes from the Roman province of Dacia, which were named by the Romans ‘Dacians’, from the name of the province, not from the people’s own identity. To clarify this matter, we have a map by Pomponius Mela, made 63 years before Decebal’s death, in which he names the region from the north of Danube, how else? Sarmatia which is really Getia (Goethia).

When we speak about Dacia and Dacians, we can only do it as a reference point in history, but we cannot identify them with these terms, as they only reflect a history that is not older than ca. 2.000 years. Dacia was only a part of Getia, only a Roman province, a late appearance in history, where the Dacians or Davo-Getes lived. We also find in other historical documents, terms almost lost in history, such as Gitia, Du Gitii (Dio Getia) or Arima, where the enigmatic Hyperboreans lived. But they had many names such as, Arimins, Ars, Rohmans, Aryans, Rumunians and later Rumanians (today Romanians), some of them being exonyms and some ethnonyms. About the term ‘Gitia’ we have as a reconfirmation of the sacrality of its name, the Vedic opera Bhagavad Gītā (pronounced ‘Geeta’) which means ‘Song of the Lord’ or ‘Divine Song’ that speaks about the noble Aryans (‘Deva’ or ‘Devi’ meaning ‘The Divine’) which invaded the rich land of India. Also we have the terms Deva/Davo/Dava/Daoi/Dioi/Dai/Daos/Danaoi/Dahae | ΔABO ΨETO – DAB(V)O GETO = ‘The Brilliant’ or ‘The Divine’ or ‘The Wolves’, but they also have the meaning of ‘inhabitants of Davas’, where ‘Dava’ = ‘Fortress’. All these terms are in fact epithets that describe the Getes. When we talk about wolves we can give as an example Apollon Lykeios the Hyperborean (the Lycan) which in translation means ‘The Light of the Wolf’ or ‘The Enlightened Wolf’.

The exonyms ‘Dac’/’Daki’ were used by the Romans to describe the Getes. The same goes for the exonym ‘Thracian’ where the word ‘trake’ in Greek, really means ‘north’. ‘Thracia’ = The sum of all regions inhabited by the Thracian Getes or Thraco-Getes, meaning the Getes of the North (north of Greece). The word ‘Get’ is central to all native tribes. It is a shame the real history is so little known by the masses, because everybody is promoting great cultures by identifying them with exonyms given by the Greeks or the Romans.

To demonstrate the Sanskrit resonance of the Rumanian language we shall use just a quick example: Rumân (Rumanian), mână (hand), a mâna (to lead/to take action), rămâne or rămână (to stay). Where we observe a similar form which suggests that ‘Rumanian’ also means ‘to stay’, meaning something that persists – continuity. Ramana – indian name. Ram(a) – Deity from the Hindu pantheon, in Rumanian ‘ramură’ or ‘ram’, means ‘branch’.

In a village situated near the banks of the Danube, from Mehedinți County, Romania, the peasants use the following words to call for ducks or piglets: For ducks: MANI MANI (with repetition). Where ‘Mani’ resembles ‘Manu’, another deity from the Hindu pantheon, but also a Rumanian name, where Manu = Emanuel (E-Manu-El), in translation ‘He is Manu’. In Hindi the word ‘Mani’ also means ‘pearl’ or ‘jewel’. But the root ‘MA’, by repetition becomes MAMA, meaning mother.

For piglets: GANI GANI (with repetition). Where ‘Gani’ resembles ‘Ganesh’, another deity from the Hindu pantheon. The root ‘GA’ is another primordial syllable which means ‘earth’ (Gaia). But in the Rumanian folklore ‘Gaia’ is a goddess representing death as a bird of prey, which takes the souls of people after they die.

We have another Rumanian saying: “A dat iama în găini.” Meaning “Iama killed the hens.”, where Yama is another deity from the Hindu pantheon (the God of Death).

These repetitions MANI MANI and GANI GANI resemble the Hindu mantras.

So it is fair enough to say that in the history of our ancestors, the precedence and honor go to the Getes, respectively to the Pelasgo-Getic peoples.

Posted in Aryans, Etnogeneza Rumânilor, Getae,Getes,Geti, Linguistics, PIE, Quotes, Transylvania | Tagged , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

The Hittites – R1b, chariots, iron & the first indo-euro writing

baden ezero

>> Marija Gimbutas – Old Europe and the Intrusion of Kurgan people <<

EUPEDIA : The northern part of the Yamna horizon was forest-steppe occupied by R1a people, also joined by a small minority of R1b (judging from modern Russians and Belarussians, the frequency of R1b was from seven to nine times less lower than R1a). The western branch would migrate to the Balkans and Greece, then to central and Western Europe, and back to their ancestral Anatolia in successive waves (Hittites, Phrygians, Armenians, etc.). The eastern branch would migrate to Central Asia, Xinjiang, Siberia, and South Asia (Iran, Pakistan, India). The northern branch would evolve into the Corded Ware culture and disperse around the Baltic, Poland, Germany and Scandinavia.

hittite-archer-on-a-chariotHittite Ritual Axe

The rise of the IE-speaking Hittites in Central Anatolia happened a few centuries after the disappearance of the Maykop and Yamna cultures. Considering that most Indo-European forms of R1b found in Anatolia today belong to the R1b-Z2103 subclade, it makes little doubt that the Hittites came to Anatolia via the Balkans, after Yamna/Maykop people invaded Southeast Europe. The Maykop and Yamna cultures were succeeded by the Srubna culture (1600-1200 BCE), possibly representing an advance of R1a1a people from the northern steppes towards the Black Sea shores, filling the vacuum left by the R1b tribes who migrated to Southeast Europe and Anatolia.

Hittite 2Hittite Swatstika

The Hittites (c. 2000-1178 BCE) were the first Indo-Europeans to defy (and defeat) the mighty Mesopotamian and Egyptian empires. There are two hypotheses regarding the origins of the Hittites. The first is that they came from the eastern Balkans and invaded Anatolia by crossing the Bosphorus. That would mean that they belonged either to the L23* or the Z2103 subclade. The other plausible scenario is that they were an offshoot of the late Maykop culture, and that they crossed the Caucasus to conquer the Hattian kingdom (perhaps after being displaced from the North Caucasus by the R1a people of the griffinCatacomb culture). In that case the Hittites might have belonged to the R1b-M269* or the R1b-M73 subclade. The first hypothesis has the advantage of having a single nucleus, the Balkans, as the post-Yamna expansion of all Indo-European R1b. The Maykop hypothesis, on the other hand, would explain why the Anatolian branch of IE languages (Hittite, Luwian, Lydian, Palaic) is so archaic compared to other Indo-European languages, which would have originated in Yamna rather than Maykop.
There is substantial archaeological and linguistic evidence that Troy was an Indo-European city associated with the steppe culture and haplogroup R1b. The Trojans were Luwian speakers related to the Hittites (hence Indo-European), with attested cultural ties to the culture of the Pontic-Caspian steppe. The first city of Troy dates back to 3000 BCE, right in the middle of the Maykop period. Troy might have been founded by Maykop people as a colony securing the trade routes between the Black Sea and the Aegean. The founding of Troy happens to coincide exactly with the time the first galleys were made. Considering the early foundation of Troy, the most likely of the two Indo-European paternal haplogroups would be R1b-M269 or L23.


1200 BCE was a turning point in European and Near-Eastern history. In Central Europe, the Urnfield culture evolved into the Hallstatt culture, traditionally associated with the classical Celtic civilization, which was to have a crucial influence on the development of ancient Rome. In Italy, the Terramare culture comes to and end with the Italo-Celtic invasions. In the Pontic steppes, the Srubna culture let place to the Cimmerians, a nomadic people speaking an Iranian or Thracian language. The Iron-age Colchian culture (1200-600 BCE) starts in the North Caucasus region. Its further expansion to the south of the Caucasus correspond to the first historical mentions of the Proto-Armenian branch of Indo-European languages (circa 1200 BCE). In the central Levant the Phoenicians start establishing themselves as significant maritime powers and building their commercial empire around the southern Mediterranean.

But the most important event of the period was incontestably the destruction of the Near-Eastern civilizations, possibly by the Sea Peoples. The great catastrophe that ravaged the whole Eastern Mediterranean from Greece to Egypt circa 1200 BCE is a subject that remains controversial. The identity of the Sea Peoples has been the object of numerous speculations. What is certain is that all the palace-based societies in the Near-East were abruptly brought to an end by tremendous acts of destruction, pillage and razing of cities. 1280px-AlterOrient2The most common explanation is that the region was invaded by technologically advanced warriors from the north, probably Indo-Europeans descended from the steppes via the Balkans.
The Hittite capital Hattusa was destroyed in 1200 BCE, and by 1160 BCE the empire had collapsed, probably under the pressure of the Phrygians and the Armenians coming from the Balkans.
The Mycenaean cities were ravaged and abandoned throughout the 12th century BCE, leading to the eventual collapse of Mycenaean civilization by 1100 BCE. The kingdom of Ugarit in Syria was annihilated and its capital never resettled. Other cities in the Levant, Cyprus and Crete were burned and left abandoned for many generations. The Egyptians had to repel assaults from the Philistines from the East and the Libyans from the West – two tribes of supposed Indo-European origin. The Lybians were accompanied by mercenaries from northern lands (the Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden and Shekelesh), whose origin is uncertain, but has been placed in Anatolia, Greece and/or southern Italy.

The devastation of Greece followed the legendary Trojan War (1194-1187 BCE). It has been postulated that the Dorians, an Indo-European people from the Balkans (probably coming from modern Bulgaria or Macedonia), invaded a weakened Mycenaean Greece after the Trojan War, and finally settled in Greece as one of the three major ethnic groups. The Dorian regions of classical Greece, where Doric dialects were spoken, were essentially the southern and eastern Peloponnese, Crete and Rhodes, which is also the part of Greece with the highest percentage of R1b-L23. Another hypothesis is that the migration of the Illyrians from north-east Europe to the Balkans displaced previous Indo-European tribes, namely the Dorians to Greece, the Phrygians to north-western Anatolia and the Libu to Libya (after a failed attempt to conquer the Nile Delta in Egypt). The Philistines, perhaps displaced from Anatolia, finally settled in Palestine around 1200 BCE, unable to enter Egypt.


>> Griffons on Dacian artefact – 100BC <<

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Banat & Vojvodina – Timiș, Mureș, Tisa, Drava, Sava (Bosna,Drina), W/S/Great Morava, Vardar, Danube – Starcevo, Vinca, Vucedol, Scordisci/Celts, Dacians/Thracians, Scythians

The Vinča Culture – is the is the oldest Neolithic culture in South-eastern Europe – the First European Metallurgists, the First European Writing. The ‘Old European’ Vinca pottery, artefacts and writing all show an immediately noticeable similarity to what was originally thought to be an earlier Ubaid Sumerian influence from the middle east. In addition, the Cycladian/Cretan cultures are suspected of having close close artistic and possibly religious connections with the Vinca. Both of these cultures appeared following the demise of the Old European Heartland, perhaps not so coincidentally, at the same time as several other important civilisations (Egyptian, Indus Valley, Western European, Maltese Etc) appeared in the prehistoric record.
Several eminent archaeologists of the time (such as Childe, Hood, Vlassa, Maccay), were convinced that the Vinca had somehow been influenced or ‘cradled into being’ by the mistaken belief at the time that the Sumerians were the ‘Mother race’. However, much to everyone surprise, more recent discoveries of earlier Vinca settlements have shown quite clearly that events must have occurred the other way round as the Old European settlements, along with writing, pottery, metallurgy and ‘Ubaid‘ style art, date to a thousand years before the first Sumerian fingerprint, suggesting remarkably that it was actually a Western European culture that influenced Sumerian development.


The First Temperate Neolithic (FTN) is an archaeological horizon consisting of the earliest archaeological cultures of Neolithic Southeastern Europe, dated to c. 6400–5100BCE.[1] The cultures of the FTN were the first to practice agriculture in temperate Europe, which required significant innovations in farming technology previously adapted to amediterranean climate.[2] The constituent cultures of the FTN are:[1]


The Starčevo culture, sometimes included within a larger grouping known as the Starčevo–Kőrös–Criş culture,[1] is anarchaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, dating to the Neolithic period between c. 5500 and 4500 BCE[2] (according to other source, between 6200 and 5200 BCE). The village of Starčevo, the type site, is located on the north bank of the Danube in Serbia (Vojvodina province), opposite Belgrade. It represents the earliest settled farming society in the area, although hunting and gathering still provided a significant portion of the inhabitants’ diet. The culture was preceded by Mesolithic Romania, Körös culture, Sesklo culture, Dimini culture, Neolithic Greece, and followed by Vinča culture, Gumelnița–Karanovo culture.


The Vinča culture occupied a region of Southeastern Europe (i.e. the Balkans) corresponding mainly to modern-day Serbia andKosovo, but also parts of Romania, Bulgaria, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia, and Greece.[2] This region had already been settled by farming societies of the First Temperate Neolithic, but during the Vinča period sustained population growth led to an unprecedented level of settlement size and density along with the population of areas that were bypassed by earlier settlers. Vinča settlements were considerably larger than any other contemporary European culture, in some instances surpassing the cities of the Aegean and early Near Eastern Bronze Age a millennium later. One of the largest sites was Vinča-Belo Brdo, it covered 29 hectare and had up to 2,500 people.[3] Early Vinča settlement population density was 50-200 people per hectare, in later phases an average of 50-100 people per hectare was common.[1] The Divostin site 4900-4650 B.C. had up to 1028 houses and a maximum population size of 8200 and could perhaps be the largest Vinča settlement. Another large site was Stubline from 4700 B.C. it may contained a maximum population of 4000. The settlement of Parţa maybe had 1575 people living there at the same time.[4][5][6][7][8][9]


Les Pélasges Vinciens sont venus d’Anatolie pour s’installer en Grèce en même temps que les Pélasges Diminiens (4400 av.jc). Comme eux ils utilisaient des poteries noires lustrées et incisées. Leurs maisons sont ovales et semi-enterrées ou carrées en argile, torchis ou bois. Leur civilisation se subdivise ainsi dans le temps :
-Vinca-Tördös (4400 av.jc / 5500 BC) : Poteries noires polies, lustrées, incisées,gravées, incrustées et cannelées.vinciens
-Vinca-Gradac (4300 av.jc / 5300 BC) : Poteries noires lissées, incisées, incrustées et cannelées. Début de l’utilisation du cuivre.
-Vinca-Plocnik (4150 av.jc / 5150 BC) : Poteries noires lissées, cannelées, à spirales incrustées ou à peinture pateuse de l’ouest (Butmir), poteries graphitées à spirales incrustées ou à peinture pateuse de l’est (Karanovo 5 / Marica). Les maisons sont en poteaux de bois ou en torchis sur clayonnage.
-Vinca-D (3800-2800 av.jc / 4700-3500 BC) : Devant les 1ères invasions Indo-Européennes dans les Balkans (vers -3800 av Jc / 4700 BC), les Vinciens occidentaux (avec poteries noires lustrées, incisées, incrustées et cannelées) se replient vers la cote dalmate pour créer la culture de Nakovanj et les Vinciens orientaux (avec poteries graphitées de Marica) se replient vers l’ouest des Balkans (cultures de Shuplevec-Gradeshnica-Krivodol en Macédoine-Yougoslavie orientale). Mais ces deux groupes finiront quand même par succomber dans la 2ème phase des invasions.Vucedol_culture_map

The Vucedol culture developed from two older eneolithic cultures: the Baden culture mainly in the pannonian plain and the Kostolac (Cotofeni) culture in northern Serbia and western Romania. The Vučedol civilization was contemporary with the Sumer period in Mesopotamia, the Early Dynastic period in Egypt and the early Troy (I and II).
Following the Baden culture, another wave of Indo-European people came to the banks of the Danube. One of the major places they occupied is present-day Vučedol (“Wolf’s Valley”), named after Vučedol, a location six kilometers downstream from the center of the town of Vukovar, Croatia.
The early stages of the culture tenanted locations not far from mountain ranges, where copper deposits were located, because of their main invention: making tools from arsenical copper in series employing reusable, double, two-part moulds. The center of the culture was Vučedol in modern day Croatia. It is estimated that the site had once been home to about 3000 inhabitants, making it one of the largest and most important centers of its time.


Around 1500 BC when the Acheans of Phthia decided to name themselves Ellines (remember we read like in Spanish) after their King (Ellin) the area looked like this. Before the Illyrians the area is inhabited by the Vucedol culture (not pelasgians). Illyrians are known to have migrated together with Italics and Celts.


c. 5000 bc. Indo-Arian homeland:  The Danube River valley (Wallachia and Hungary). There are many reasons for choosing the Danube River valley:  Farming is possible, learned from the people of Asia Minor. The flora and fauna, as well as for other natural features such as hills and rivers, are represented by the oldest words we can reconstruct; it includes the natural ranges of wild horses which, when later domesticated, would become the Indo-European’s “ace card”;  the area is central to the eventual expanse of the Indo-Europeans, with due allowance for the more rapid expanse commonplace over steppe-lands;  the area is also in close proximity to some of the most conservative recent representatives of the family.
The most compelling reason is the presence of the Danubian culture, with its linear incised pottery, at this same time.  The culture spreads soon after in exactly the directions that would account for the spread of PIE.
There are, of course, many other possibilities.  The most common suggestion is the steppes north of the Black Sea, for many similar reasons.  I believe that the strong tribal social structure suggests that the Indo-Europeans were farmers before they were pastoralists.  It is highly unlikely that they went straight from steppe hunter-gatherers to sophisticated pastoralists in one step.
c. 4000 bc. Proto-Anatolians – into the northern Caucasus. Proto-Tokharians  – into the Ukraine. There is plenty of evidence of ox-drawn wagons with disk wheels in the western steppes. A western dialect emerges on the upper Danube and beyond.
c. 3000 bc. Copper working, learned from the people of Asia Minor, begins in Thrace and the Danube valley and reaches Germany by 3000 bc. Domestication of the horse spreads from the Ukraine.  Within a thousand years, horsemanship spreads from the Ukraine throughout the Indo-European area, even into Scandinavia.  It is the steppe inhabitants who change most dramatically into true pastoral societies.  In the more wooded areas of Europe, horse ownership begins to differentiate a warrior nobility from commoners.  Of course, use of the horse spreads to the non-IE societies of the Middle East as well. The disk-wheel wagon has spread from Russia across Europe to Holland.
The Proto-Anatolians move from the Caucasus to Asia Minor. The Proto-Tokharians continue east to the steppes, towards the Tarim Basin in northwestern China.  They may be the people known to the Chinese as the Yüeh-chi, and may have been the core of the Kushan Empire of the first century AD.
The Proto-Celts separate from the rest of the western dialect and expand west into southern Germany and France. The remaining western dialect tribes edge into the modern Slovenia-Croatia area as well as northern Germany. The main body of Indo-Europeans expands into Thrace, the Ukraine, Bohemia, and Poland, and begins to differentiate into a northern dialect (Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary, represented by the Funnel Beaker culture) and a southern dialect (Wallachia, Thrace, and Ukraine, continuing the Danubian culture). The original inhabitants north and west of the Carpathians, likely speakers of Uralic languages, are pushed further north and east.


c. 2000 bc. The main body of the southern Satem dialect expands into the Ukraine to become the Cimmerians, leaving the Dacians in the original homeland.  The people of Thrace probably also had a southern Satem dialect.  These people develop the steppe version of the Battle Ax culture. The main body of the northern Satem dialect – Proto-Balto-Slavic – expands north from Poland into Belarus and the Baltic coast.  With the Germans, they constitute the northern version of the Battle Ax culture.
The Celts expand further into western Europe and, in a retrograde move, back into Hungary.  A powerful society, they pressure the original peoples of western Europe, as well as their own relations to the east.  They develop the Bell-beaker culture and, later, the Urnfield culture. A second wave of Hellenics (Doric Greeks) moves into Greece from Macedonia.
c. 1500 bc. Proto-Phrygians – possibly a branch of the Cimmerians – move from Thrace across the Bosporus to northwestern Asia Minor.  The Phrygians would move into the power gap left by the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1200 bc. The western Celts expand into western Iberia and the British Isles, where they absorb most of the prior inhabitants. The Balto-Slavics differentiate into Baltic and Slavic.  Both begin to expand east- and northward, at the expense of the hunter-gatherer Finno-Ugric people. The Indo-Iranians differentiate into Indic and Iranian. The Indic group rapidly expands across northern India as far as Magatha.  The ”Iranians” split into powerful tribes, notably the Persians and the Medes, by the 800’s bc.  The Iranians remaining in the steppes would come to be known as the Scyths and Sakas.  The powerful Scyths expand westward at the expense of the remaining Cimmerians.
c. 1000 bc. Iron working begins in the Balkans by 1000 bc.  The “Age of Empires” begins in earnest.


At its peak of power, the empire of Burebista streched from Slovakian Carpathians to the Balkans and from the Middle Danube to the Black Sea. Strabo claims that the Getae could raise up to 200,000 soldiers in wartime[1], a rather improbable number,[7] but which could represent the total number of able males, not the number of any army.[1] Burebista was a worthy adversary for the Romans, as his army would cross the Danube and plunder the Roman towns as far as in Thrace, Macedonia and Illyria. The development of a La Tène-based economy in 3rd-2nd century BC allowed the consolidation of political power through tribal unions. Such regional unions were found both among the Transylvanian Dacians (under the rule ofRubobostes) and the Moldavian and Wallachian Getae (with a center of power in Argedava). Burebista was the first to create a union of tribes of both Dacians and the Getae. This tribe alliance was probably a weakly-centralized state, with a military organization, similar to the one of the Hellenistic Kingdoms.[1]
The heart of Burebista’s empire, in the Orăştie Mountains, close to the iron and gold mines where they built a system of stone fortifications on higher ground.

Burebista led a policy of conquest of new territories: in 60/59 BC, he attacked and vanquished the Celtic tribes of Boii and Taurisci, who dwelt along the Middle Danube and in what is now Slovakia.


Celtic peoples – R1b, ”Iranian”/Scytian/Sarmatian people – R1a, Thracian – I2/J2 substratum mixed with R1a and R1b. An example of the ”yugoslav” mix is Vojvodina – there are more than 26 ethnic groups in the province, which has six official languages.
In the Neolithic period, two important archaeological cultures flourished in this area: the Starčevo culture and the Vinča culture. Indo-European peoples first settled in the territory of present-day Vojvodina in 4200 BC. During the Eneolithic period, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, several Indo-European archaeological cultures were centered in or around Vojvodina: the Vučedol culture, the Vinkovci culture, the Vatin culture, the Belegiš culture, the Bosut culture, etc. Before the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC, Indo-European peoples of Illyrian, Thracian and Celtic origin inhabited this area. The first states organized in this area were the Celtic State of the Scordisci (3rd century BC-1st century AD) with capital in Singidunum (Belgrade), and the Dacian Kingdom of Burebista (1st century BC).


The Scordisci was a Celtic tribe formed after the Gallic invasion of the Balkans,[2] or rather a “Celtic political creation”[3] having mixed with the local Thracians and Illyrians.[4] The Scordisci (Greek: Σκορδίσκοι, Serbian: Скордисци) were a Gallic Iron Age tribe centered in the territory of present-day Serbia, at the confluence of the Savus (Sava), Dravus (Drava) and Danube rivers. They were historically notable from the beginning of the third century BC until the turn of the common era.
In 279 BC, after their clash with the Greeks, Scordisci started progressing towards Pannonia, settling at the point where Moesia and Balkans end, at the confluence of two rivers, Sava and Danube, where they erected fortresses in Singidunum and Taurunum, founding today’s city of Belgrade!!
Celtic expansion reached the Carpathians in the beginning of the 4th century BC.[16] According to a Celtic legend, the Celts that migrated to Italy and Illyria numbered 300,000.[16] The Celts established themselves in Pannonia, subjugating the Pannonians, and in the end of the 4th century they renewed raids into the Balkans.[16] By the early 3rd century BC, Pannonia had been Celtiziced.[17] !!
The Celts, retreating from Delphi (280–278 BC), settled on the mouth of the Sava and called themselves Scordisci.[17] The Scordisci established control to the north of the Dardani.[18] There is no mention of the Scordisci until the reign of Philip V of Macedon (r. 221–179 BC), when they emerge as Macedon allies against the Dardani and Rome.[18]
The Scordisci, having conquered the important Sava valley, the only route to Italy, in the second half of the 3rd century BC, “gradually became the most important power in the northern Balkans”.[19]


The Banat is geographically referred to as a part of the Pannonian Basin bordered by the River Danube to the south, the River Tisa to the west, the River Mureș to the north, and the Southern Carpathian Mountains to the east. Its historical capital was Timișoara, now in Timiș County in Romania. The first known inhabitants of present-day Banat were the various Thracian tribes: Agathyrsi, Getae, Dacians and Singi. In the 3rd century BC, Celtic tribes settled in this area. The region was part of the Dacian kingdom under Burebista in the first century BC, but the balance of power in the area partially changed during the campaigns of Augustus. At the beginning of the 2nd century A.D., Trajan led two wars against the Dacians: the campaigns of 101-102, and 105-106. Eventually, the territory of Banat fell under Roman rule. It became an important link between Dacia province and the other parts of the Empire.


Glad (Bulgarian: Глад, Hungarian: Galád, Romanian: Glad, Serbian: Глад) was the ruler of Banat (in present-day Romania and Serbia) at the time of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin around 900, according to the Gesta Hungarorum. Anonymus wrote that Cumans, Bulgarians, and Vlachs, or Romanians, supported Glad against the invading Magyars. The Gesta presents Ahtum, who ruled the Banat at the beginning of the 11th century, according to the longer version of the Life of St Gerard, as Glad’s descendant.


Ajtony was a powerful prince who had his seat in a stronghold on the Mureș (urbs Morisena), according to the Life of St Gerard.[43][30][44] His realm stretched from the Criș in the north to the Danube in the south, and from the Tisza in the west to Transylvania in the east.[44][45] He was a wealthy ruler who owned horses, cattle and sheep.[45][46] He commanded so many warriors that he did not fear of setting up custom offices and guards along the Mureș and levying tax on the salt carried to Stephen I of Hungary on the river.[45][47] Although originally a pagan, Ajtony was baptised according to the “Greek rite” in Vidin.[48][49] Ajtony established a monastery for Greek monks in his seat and dedicated it to St John the Baptist shortly after his baptism.[49] However, he remained polygamic and had seven wives even after his baptism.[50][46] St Gerard’s legend also stated that Ajtony “had taken his power from the Greeks”,[49] suggesting that he accepted the Byzantine Emperor’s suzerainty.


The Austrians united Vojvodina and Banat in one province.  The Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar or Serbian Voivodeship and Banat of Temeschwar was a province (duchy) of the Austrian Empire that existed between 1849 and 1860. An Austrian governor seated in Temeschwar ruled the area, and the title of Voivode belonged to the emperor himself. The full title of the emperor was “Grand Voivod of the Voivodeship of Serbia” (German: Großwoiwode der Woiwodschaft Serbien). Even after the Voivodeship was abolished, the emperor kept this title until the end of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918.



Posted in *****, AIS, ethnogenesis, Etnogeneza Rumânilor, Getae,Getes,Geti, PIE | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment