– age migrcelts_in_iii_century_bcdacia-burebitacesare_prima_gallia_58_a.c._jpgRoman Pannonia 9BC-V century AD – 400 years of Roman stability.
The Iazyges 0-400AD take control (from Dacians) of  Panon basin East of Danube.
The Hun coalition 400-453AD has the center in Pannonia, the Gepid king sits at the right of Attila. After the death of Attila the Gepids are the first to brake free.
The Gepid Kingdon 454-522AD about same area as Iazyg territories before the Huns.
europe_and_the_near_east_at_476_adAvar Khaganate 567-665ADeurope_around_650Slav/Bulgars in 679 occupy the Eastern part of the Avar Kindgom.
The Franks between 791-892AD conquer the Western remains of the Avar Kingdom.
balkans850The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Prelude (892–c. 895), First phase (c. 895–899), Second phase (900–902), Consolidation (902–907).
The Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic OstrogothsLombards, and Gepids, and the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin.[54] During the Migrations Period parts of Pannonia was ceded to the Huns in 433 by Flavius Aetius. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Marcian in the province as foederati. The Eastern Roman Empire controlled it for a time in the 6th century, and a Byzantine province of Pannonia with its capital at Sirmium was temporarily restored, but it included only a small southeastern part of historical Pannonia. Afterwards, it was again invaded by the Avars in the 560s, the Slavs, who first settled c. 480s but became independent only from the 7th century, and the Franks, who named a frontier march the March of Pannonia in the late 8th century. The term Pannonia was also used for a Slavic duchy that was vassal to the Franks. Between the 5th and the 10th centuries, the romanized population of Pannonia developed the Romance Pannonian language, mainly around Lake Balaton in present-day western Hungary, where there was the keszthely culture. This language and the related culture became extinct with the arrival of the Magyars.
The Iazyges were an ancient Sarmatian tribe that traveled westward in c. 200 BC from Central Asia to the steppes of what is now Ukraine. In c. 44 BC, they moved into the area between the Danube and Tisza rivers, near the Dacian steppe, where they adopted a semi-sedentary lifestyle. In the two Dacian Wars the Iazyges fought against the Dacians, helping Rome to subjugate the Dacians. Is the Marcomannic War that occurred between 169 and 175, the Iazyges fought against Rome but were defeated by Marcus Aurelius, but Rome never conquered Panonia. The area of plains between the Danube and Tisza rivers that was controlled by the Iazyges was similar in size to Italy and about 1,600 km long.[65][66] The terrain was largely swampland dotted with a few small hills that was devoid of any mineable metals or minerals. This lack of resources and the problems the Romans would face trying to occupy it may explain why the Romans never annexed it as a province but left it as a client-kingdom.[46][47]Records of eight Iazygian towns have been documented; these are Uscenum, Bormanum, Abinta, Trissum, Parca, Candanum, Pessium and Partiscum.[58] There was also a settlement on Gellért Hill.[59] Their capital was at Partiscum, the site of which roughly corresponds with that of Kecskemét, a city in modern-day Hungary.[60][61] It is believed that a Roman road may have traversed the Iazyges’ territory for about 200 miles (320 km),[62] connecting Aquincum to Porolissum, and passing near the site of modern-day Albertirsa.[63] This road then went on to connect with the Black Sea city states.[64]
roman_provinces_in_a_1867_school_atlasTheir language was a dialect of Old Iranian, which was very different from most of the other Sarmatian dialects of Old Iranian.[11] When an Iazyx became too old to fight in battle, they were killed by their sons[12][13] or, according to Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, threw themselves from a rock.[14] The graves made by the Iazyges were often rectangular or circular,[24] although some were ovoid, hexagonal, or even octagonal.[23] They were flat and were grouped like burials in modern cemeteries.[25] Most of the graves’ access openings face south, southeast, or southwest. Their brooches and arm-rings were of the La Tène type, showing the Dacians had a distinct influence on the Iazyges.[25] After their migration to the Tisza plain, the Iazyges were in serious poverty.[26] Later tombs showed an increase in material wealth; tombs of the 2nd to early 4th century had weapons in them 86% of the time and armor in them 5% of the time.[27] Iazygian tombs along the Roman border show a strong Roman influence.[28]
The Iazyges were cattle breeders; they required salt to preserve their meat[30] but there were no salt mines within their territory.[31] According to Cassius Dio, the Iazyges received grain from the Romans.[32]
The Iazyges wore heavy armor, such as Sugarloaf helms and scale armor made of iron, bronze, horn, or horse hoof, which was sown onto a leather gown so the scales would partially overlap.[35][36][37][38] They used long, two-handed lances called Contus; they wielded these from horses, which they barded.[b][40] Their military was exclusively cavalry.[41] They are believed to have used saddle blankets on their horses.[42] Although it was originally Gaulic, it is believed the Iazyges used the Carnyx, a trumpet-like wind instrument.[43]
In the 3rd century BC the Iazyges lived in modern-day south-eastern Ukraine along the northern shores of the Sea of Azov,  sometime before 179 BC, the Iazyges began to migrate westward to the steppe near the Lower Dniester. In 44 BC King Burebista of Dacia died and his kingdom began to collapse. After this, the Iazyges began to take possession of the Pannonian Basin. In 20 AD the Iazyges moved westward along the Carpathians into the Pannonian Steppe, and settled in the steppes between the Danube and the Tisza river, taking absolute control of the territory from the Dacians.[73]
In 89 AD, however, Domitian invaded the Iazyges along with the Quadi and Marcomanni. Few details of this war are known but it is recorded that the Romans were defeated. In May 92 AD, the Iazyges annihilated the Roman Legio XXI Rapax in battle. In 106 AD, Trajan again invaded Dacia, with 11 legions, and, again with the assistance of the Iazyges – [111][6]who were the only barbarian tribe that aided the Romans in this war – [e][116] and the only barbarian tribe in the Danube region which did not ally with Dacia.[116]The Iazyges were the only tribe to aid Rome in both Dacian Wars,[6][117] pushed rapidly into Dacia. In 113 AD Trajan annexed Dacia as a new Roman province, the first Roman province to the east of the Danube. Trajan, however, did not incorporate the steppe between the Tisza river and the Transylvanian mountains into the province of Dacia but left it for the Iazyges.[118]
During and after the Marcomannic Wars, the Iazyges had many wars with the Romans, in 358, the Iazyges were againat war with Rome.[171] In 375, Emperor Valentinian had a stroke in Brigetio while meeting with envoys from the Iazyges.[k][173] After that historic accounts become much more diffuse and the Iazyges generally cease to be mentioned as a tribe.iazyges-enThe Huns. The Huns’ arrival is associated with the migration westward of a Scythian people, the Alans.[1] By 370 AD, the Huns had arrived on the Volga, and by 430 the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe, conquering the Goths and many other Germanic peoples living outside of Roman borders, and causing many others to flee into Roman territory. gutthiudaSince Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century, modern historians have associated the Huns who appeared on the borders of Europe in the 4th century AD with the Xiongnu who had invaded China from the territory of present-day Mongolia between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD.[2] Due to the devastating defeat by the Chinese Han dynasty, the northern branch of the Xiongnu had retreated north-westward; their descendants may have migrated through Eurasia and consequently they may have some degree of cultural and genetic continuity with the Huns.[18] Scholars also discussed the relationship between the Xungnu, the Huns, and a number of people in central Asia were also known as or came to be identified with the name “Hun” or “Iranian Huns“, the Chionites, the Kidarites, and the Hephthalites (or White Huns) being the most prominent.[19] Walter Pohl cautions that none of the great confederations of steppe warriors was ethnically homogenous. Archaeological finds have failed to prove that the Huns had any “Mongoloid” features at all,[53] and some scholars have argued that the Huns were predominantly Caucasian.[54] Kim notes that by the Battle of Chalons (451), “the vast majority” of Attila’s entourage and troops appears to have been European.[55]
ad_400westernhunempireThe Romans became aware of the Huns when the latter’s invasion of the Pontic steppes forced thousands of Goths to move to the Lower Danube to seek refuge in the Roman Empire in 376.[56] The Huns conquered the Alans, most of the Greuthungi or Western Goths, and then most of the Thervingi or Eastern Goths, with many fleeing into the Roman Empire.[57] In 395 the Huns began their first large-scale attack on the Eastern Roman Empire.[58] Huns attacked in Thrace, overran Armenia, and pillaged Cappadocia. They entered parts of Syria, threatened Antioch, and passed through through the province of Euphratesia.[59] At the same time, the Huns invaded the Sasanian Empire. This invasion was initially successful, coming close to the capital of the empire at Ctesiphon; however, they were defeated badly during the Persian counterattack.[59]
In 440, Attila and Bleda attacked Castra Constantias, a Roman fortress and marketplace on the banks of the Danube, in 447, Attila invaded the Balkans and Thrace, in 451, Attila’s forces entered Gaul. After Attila’s death in 453, the Hunnic Empire faced an internal power struggle between its vassalized Germanic peoples and the Hunnic ruling body.The Gepids were an East Germanic tribe. They were closely related to, or a subdivision of, the Goths. In the 4th century, they were incorporated into the Hunnic Empire. Under their leader Ardaric, the Gepids united with other Germanic tribes and defeated the Huns at the Battle of Nedao in 454. The Gepids then founded a kingdom centered on Sirmium, known as Gepidia,[2] which was defeated by the Lombards a century later. Remnants of the Gepids were conquered by the Avars later in the 6th century.
As the Gepid warriors fought along with the Huns Attila the Hun prized Ardaric, King of the Gepids, and Valamir, King of the Ostrogoths, “above all the other chieftains”,[39] who were subjected to the Huns, in the 440s, according to Jordanes.[37][40] There is no doubt that, in 451, Ardaric already stood ‘at the Lord’s right hand‘. The Gepids’ participation in the Huns’ campaigns against the Roman Empire brought them much booty, contributing to the development of a rich Gepid aristocracy.[37][41] According to Jordanes, the Gepid king, Ardaric, who “became enraged because so many nations were being treated like slaves of the basest condition”,[44] was the first to take up arms against the Huns.[43][45] The decisive battle was fought at the (unidentified) Nedao River in Pannonia in 454 or 455.[46] In the battle, the united army of Gepids, RugiiSarmatians and Suebi routed the Huns and their allies, including the Ostrogoths.[38][47]After the Battle of Nedao, the Hunnic Empire disintegrated and the Gepids became the dominant power in the eastern regions of the Carpathian Basin.[38][40]According to Jordanes, the Gepids “by their own might won for themselves the territory of the Huns and ruled as victors over the extent of all Dacia, demanding of the Roman Empire nothing more than peace and an annual gift”[48] after their victory.[38][49] Emperor Marcian confirmed their status as the allies of the empire and granted them an annual subsidy of 100 pounds of gold.[38][40] The late-5th-century treasures excavated at Apahida and Someșeni show that the Gepid rulers accumulated great wealth in the second half of the century.[45]The Gepids reached the zenith of their power after 537, settling in the rich area around Singidunum (today’s Belgrade). For a short time, the city of Sirmium (present-day Sremska Mitrovica) was the center of the Gepid State and the king Cunimund minted golden coins in it.[57] In 546 the Byzantine Empire allied themselves with the Lombards, and in 552 the Gepids suffered a disastrous defeat from Alboinking of the Lombards, in the Battle of Asfeld, after which Alboin had a drinking cup made from the skull of Cunimund.[58] List of Gepid kings: Fastida, fl. c. 250; Ardaric, fl. c. 454; Giesmus; Gunderit; Thraustila fl. 488; Thrasaric fl. 505; Mundus; Elemund ?-548; Thurisind 548-c. 560; Cunimund, c. 560-567.gepid_kingdom_6th_centuryThe Avars are probably best known for their invasions and destruction in the Avar–Byzantine wars from 568 to 626. According to some scholars the Pannonian Avars originated from a confederation formed in the Aral Sea region, by the Uar, also known as the Var or Warr (who were probably a Uralic people) and the Xūn or Xionites (also known as the Chionitae, Chunni, Hunni, Yun and similar names);[16][17] the Xionites were maybe Iranian or Turkic-speaking or both.[18] A third tribe affiliated previously to the Uar and Xionites, the Hephthalites, had remained in Central and South Asia.
The Avar Khaganate was established in the Pannonian Basin region, in 567. By the time they arrived in the Balkans, the Avars formed a heterogeneous group of about 20,000 horsemen.[11] After the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (reigned 527–565) bought them off, they pushed northwestwards into Germania. However, Frankish opposition halted the Avars’ expansion in that direction. Seeking rich pastoral lands, the Avars initially demanded land south of the Danube River in present-day Bulgaria, but the Byzantines refused, using their contacts with the Göktürks as a threat against Avar aggression.[12] The Avars turned their attention to the Carpathian Plain and to the natural defenses it afforded.[13] However, the Carpathian basin was then occupied by the Gepids. In 567 the Avars formed an alliance with the Lombards—enemies of the Gepids—and together they destroyed much of the Gepid Kingdom. The Avars then persuaded the Lombards to move into northern Italy, an invasion that marked the last Germanic mass-movement in the Migration Period.pontic_steppe_region_around_650_adBy about 580, the Avar Khagan Bayan I had established supremacy over most of the SlavicBulgar and Germanic tribes living in Pannonia and the Carpathian Basin.[14] When the Byzantine Empire was unable to pay subsidies or hire Avar mercenaries, the Avars raided their Balkan territories. According to Menander, Bayan commanded an army of 10,000 Kutrigur Bulgars and sacked Dalmatia in 568, effectively cutting the Byzantine terrestrial link with North Italy and Western Europe. By 582, the Avars had captured Sirmium, an important fort in Pannonia. When the Byzantines refused to increase the stipend amount as requested by Bayan’s son and successor Bayan II (from 584), the Avars proceeded to capture Singidunum and Viminacium. They suffered setbacks, however, during Maurice’s Balkan campaigns in the 590s. Nevertheless, by 600 the Avars had established a nomadic empire ruling over a multitude of peoples and stretching from modern-day Austria in the west to the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the east.historical_map_of_the_balkans_around_582-612_adIn 626, the siege of Constantinople by a joint Avar-Sassanid force failed. Following this defeat, the political and military power of the Avars declined. Byzantines and Frankish sources documented a war between the Avars and their western Slav clients, the Wends.europe_around_650Khan Kubrat died in 665, Following Khan Kubrat’s death or a few years later in the time of Bezmer, the empire was dissolved into 5 branches. Two of them (led by Batbayan and Kotrag) were subdued by the emerging Khazar Empire, while the fourth one led by Asparukh established the Danube Bulgar Empire and stabilized it by the victory at the battle of Ongal.bulgarians_and_slavs_vi-vii_centuryThe Onogur-Bulgars, led by Khan Asparukh—the father of Khan Tervel—settled permanently along the Danube (c. 679–681), expanding the First Bulgarian Empire from Onogur, Bulgaria. Although the Avar empire had diminished to half its original size, the new Avar-Slav alliance consolidated their rule west from the central parts of the mid-Danubian basin and extended their sphere of influence west to the Viennese BasinThe Khaganate in the Middle and Late periods was a product of cultural symbiosis between Slavic and original Avar elements with a Slavic language as a lingua franca or the most common language. In the 7th century, the Avar Khaganate opened a door for Slavic demographic and linguistic expansion to Adriatic and Aegean regions. In 804, the First Bulgarian Empire conquered the southeastern Avar lands of Transylvania and southeastern Pannonia up to the Middle Danube River, and many Avars became subjects of the Bulgarian Empire. structure_of_the_first_bulgarian_empire_during_the_ix-x_centuryAt the end of the 8th century, the Franks under Charlemagne overthrew the Avar Empire and invaded the Pannonian plains. A series of Frankish campaigns in the 790s, beginning in 791, ended with the conquest of the Avar realm after eight years. By 796, the Avar chieftains had surrendered and accepted Christianity.[26] Pannonia was conquered.[30] According to the Annales Regni Francorum, Avars began to submit to the Franks from 796 onwards. The Franks baptized many Avars and integrated them into the Frankish Empire.[31]
balkans850The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Prelude (892–c. 895), First phase (c. 895–899), Second phase (900–902), Consolidation (902–907). 
Before the arrival of the Hungarians, three early medieval powers, the First Bulgarian EmpireEast Francia and Moravia, had fought each other for control of the Carpathian Basin.   The earliest work is Emperor Leo the Wise‘s Tactics, finished around 904 recounts the Bulgarian-Byzantine war of 894–896, a military conflict directly preceding the Hungarians’ departure from the Pontic steppes. The Continuation of the Chronicle by George the Monk contains the earliest certain[42] reference to the Hungarians.[43] It states that Hungarian warriors intervened in a conflict between the Byzantine Empire and the Bulgarianson the latter’s behalf in the Lower Danube region in 836 or 837.[44] The first known Hungarian raid in Central Europe was recorded in the Annals of St. Bertin.[45] It writes of “enemies, called Hungarians, hitherto unknown”[46]who ravaged King Louis the German‘s realm in 862.[45]
The Hungarians were organized into seven tribes that formed a confederation.[56] The Hungarians adopted the ancient (CelticDacian or Germanic) names of the longest rivers in the Carpathian Basin. Moravia emerged in the 820s[123] under its first known ruler, Mojmir I.[115] His successor, Rastislav, developed Moravia’s military strength. He promoted the proselytizing activities of the Byzantine brothers, Constantine and Methodius in an attempt to seek independence from East Francia.[115][124] Moravia reached its “peak of importance” under Svatopluk I[125] (870–894) who expanded its frontiers in all directions.[126] In addition to East Francia and Moravia, the first Bulgarian Empire was the third power deeply involved in the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century.[134] A joint attack by the Pechenegs and the Bulgarians forced the Hungarians to find new territories.[156]honfoglalasThe Hungarians returned to the Carpathian Basin in 892,[59] to assist Arnulf of East Francia against Svatopluk I of Moravia. Kurszán (Cusala), “king of the Hungarians” stipulated that his people would only fight the Moravians if they received the lands they were to occupy.[161] Accordingly, Aventinus continues, the Hungarians took possession of “both Dacias on this side and beyond” the Tisza east of the rivers Danube and Garam already in 893.[161] The Hungarian chronicles unanimously state that the Székelys had already been present in the Carpathian Basin when the Hungarians moved in.[164] The Annals of Fulda narrates under the year 894 that the Hungarians crossed the Danube into Pannonia where they “killed men and old women outright and carried off the young women alone with them like cattle to satisfy their lusts and reduced the whole” province “to desert”.[165][166] The “Legend of the White Horse” in the Hungarian chronicles preserved the memory of a treaty the Hungarians concluded with Svatopluk I according to pagan customs.[170] The legend narrates that the Hungarians purchased their future homeland in the Carpathian Basin from Svatopluk for a white horse harnessed with gilded saddle and reins.[167]
First phase (c. 895–899)
In 894 the Byzantines approached the Hungarians to hire them to fight the Bulgarians.[179] Byzantine ships transferred Hungarian warriors across the Lower Danube.[179] The Hungarians invaded Bulgaria, forced Tzar Simeon to flee to the fortress of Dristra (now Silistra, Bulgaria) and plundered Preslav.[180] Tzar Simeon sent envoys to the Byzantine Empire to propose a truce and he sent an embassy to the Pechenegs to incite them against the Hungarians.[180] The Pechenegs destroyed the Hungarians’ dwelling places.[179] Those who survived the double attack from Pechenegs and Byzantines, left the Pontic steppes and crossed the Carpathians in search of a new homeland.[179]The route taken across the Carpathians is contested.[191][2] Contemporaneous sources suggest that the invasion followed the 894 Bulgarian-Byzantine war.[190] The next event recorded in connection with the Hungarians is their raid against Italy in 899 and 900.[199] the Doge of VenicePietro Tribuno defeated them at Venice on 29 June 900.[200] They returned from Italy when they learned of the death of Emperor Arnulf at the end of 899. According to Anonymous, the Hungarians fought with Menumorut before conquering Gelou’s Transylvania.[204][205] Subsequently, the Hungarians turned against Salan,[206] the ruler of the central territories, according to this narrative.[207] In contrast with Anonymous, Simon of Kéza writes of the Hungarians’ fight with Svatopluk following their arrival.[2] According to the Illuminated Chronicle, the Hungarians “remained quietly in Erdelw and rested their herds”[208]
Second phase (900–902) The emperor’s death released the Hungarians from their alliance with East Francia.[202] On their way back from Italy they expanded their rule over Pannonia.[214] The Annals of Grado relates that the Hungarians defeated the Moravians after their withdrawal from Italy.[217] Thereafter the Hungarians and the Moravians made an alliance and jointly invaded Bavaria, according to Aventinus.[218] However, the contemporary Annals of Fulda only refers to Hungarians reaching the river Enns.[219] The Hungarians became the masters of the Carpathian Basin by the occupation of Pannonia.[218] The Russian Primary Chronicle is relating how the Hungarians expelled the “Volokhi” or “Volkhi” (who had earlier subjugated the Slavs’ homeland in Pannonia), according to scholars who identify the Volokhi and Volkhi as Franks.[216][222] Other historians associate them either with the Vlachs (Romanians),[223] or with the ancient Romans.[224][222]
summarised_map_of_occurrences_of_hungarian_tribe_names_28according_to_the_settlement_names29Consolidation (902–907) The Life of Saint Naum relates that the Hungarians occupied Moravia, adding that the Moravians who “were not captured by the Hungarians, ran to the Bulgars”. Constantine Porphyrogenitus also connects the fall of Moravia to its occupation by the Hungarians.[20] The Hungarians settled in the lowlands of the Carpathian Basin along the rivers Danube, Tisza and their tributaries,[250] where they could continue their semi-nomadic lifestyle.[251] As an immediate consequence, their arrival “drove a non-Slavic wedge between the West Slavs and South Slavs” (Fine).[183] Fine argues that the Hungarians’ departure from the western regions of the Pontic steppes weakened their former allies, the Khazars, which contributed to the collapse of the Khazar Empire.[183] Hungarian society experienced fundamental changes in many fields (including animal husbandry, agriculture and religion) in the centuries following the “Land-taking”. These changes are reflected in the significant number of terms borrowed from local Slavs.[258][259] About 20% of the Hungarian vocabulary is of Slavic origin,[254] In this easternmost territory of the Carpathian Basin, the earliest graves attributed to Hungarian warriors—for instance, at Szék (Sic), Torda (Turda) and Vízakna (Ocna Sibiului)—are concentrated around the Transylvanian salt mines in the valley of the rivers Kis-Szamos (Someșul Mic) and Maros (Mureş).[262] All the same, warriors were also stationed in outposts east of the Carpathians, as suggested by 10th-century graves unearthed at KrylosPrzemyślSudova VyshniaGrozeştiProbota and at Tei.[263] The Hungarians’ fear of their eastern neighbors, the Pechenegs, is demonstrated by Porphyrogenitus’s report on the failure of a Byzantine envoy to persuade them to attack the Pechenegs.[264] The Hungarians clearly stated that they could not fight against the Pechenegs, because “their people are numerous and they are the devil’s brats”.[264][265] Instead of attacking the Pechenegs and the Bulgarians in the east, the Hungarians made several raids in Western Europe.[247] For instance, they plundered Thuringia and Saxony in 908, Bavaria and Swabia in 909 and 910 and Swabia, Lorraine and West Francia in 912.[248] Their defeat in the battle of Lechfeld in 955 “put an end to the raids in the West” (Kontler), while they stopped plundering the Byzantines following their defeat in the battle of Arkadiopolis in 970.[268]Kalandozasok.jpg
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If there is one thing to learn about Croatian islands, it’s that they are all different. Pag, for example, is all cheese and chalk, while Hvar is lavender and langoustines.  Cres is the biggest Croatian island. Island Cres is long and narrow mountainous island stretching 66 km in length and only from 2 to 12 km in width. The coast is indented with the total length of 248 km.  If you are looking for that last European unspoilt piece of paradise, then island Cres truly is Croatian eco-tourism at its best. Island Cres is also famous for its self-sufficient water supply: a huge freshwater lake Vrana has enough water to comfortably supply both islands, Cres and Losinj with potable water of excellent quality. Immediate access to the lake is not allowed. Island Cres is connected with a short narrow bridge to the smaller but much more populated island Losinj. On the way along these two islands, the scenery keeps changing dramatically, from steep shores and high peaks to low plains and lagoons. Vegetation is incredibly diverse: from scarce rocky pastures, scattered olive and fig trees, to dense shrubs, coastal forests and finally rich pine forests.
Sophie and Maddy canoe into a cove on Cres.Cres is relatively uninhabited, there are two seasons in Croatia: the quiet time and August. During the latter, any beach near a road is certain to be popular. With a canoe or kayak, places like Koromaćno near Belej are a good bet: a short paddle will soon reveal an empty beach. Watch out for the wind, though: the bura and the jugo are just two of the vicious local furies sent to torture mariners.  Sea temperatures >>


Vidovici – A village with an extraordinary view of the Istrian Peninsula and numerous islands including Zeča, Lošinj and Unije forming part of the archipelago.
Plaža Kovačine – video 25min with bike ride along Cres Beach, summer 2016
8 min video – offroad bike ride from Sv. Salvador to Cres Town
11min video – bike ride around the Streets of Cres Townlosinj4 trips on Losinj you absolutely shouldn’t miss out if you’re into active holidaysaerial5* aerial video of Cres & Lubenice. lubovicesv ivanBild listed Sveti Ivan beach as 15th in the top 40 of the most beautiful beaches in the world. cikatCikat pine forest on Losinj. Camping, Aquapark, Lidl, ..

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  • Ai o firma care face sau incaseaza plati la nivel international (import/export, plati pentru servicii, sau orice altceva) – mai mult, daca ai firma inregistrata vei beneficia de rate si mai avantajoase la schimbul valutar (detalii mai jos).
  • Pentru orice alt motiv, vrei sa faci un transfer bancar international rapid, online.

Revolut >> Cu cardul fizic, poți retrage și de la orice bancomant cash, dar suma limită este foarte mică, până în 800 lei/lunar. Peste această sumă se aplică un comision de retragere cash de 2%. Nu este așadar un card potrivit pentru retrageri de numerar, decât pentru sume mici, ocazional (aș spune bani de taxi).
Partea frumoasă este că ai parte de un curs valutar foarte bun, calculat la cursul interbancar, mult mai mic decât cel practicat de exemplu de către bănci. Astfel faci economii consistente, mai ales dacă alimentezi cu RON și cheltui în USD sau EUR. Sau vreo altă valută exotică.
Pe contul gratuit, practic ai tranzacții între monede echivalente de aproximativ 20.000 lei lunar/gratuit. Adică schimburi RON – EUR – USD, în orice variantă.
Singurul lucru de care trebuie să ții cont este să faci transferul în timpul săptămânii, pentru că în weekend există un mic comision de schimb valutar. Din experiență proprie, cu tot acest comision, cursul este net superior celor oferite de bănci pentru plăți online.
Nu ai cont IBAN în lei, dar poți face plăți către un cont IBAN. Și poți să ai IBAN în EUR.

BTR Visa Electron >> Comision utilizare ATM-uri si POS-uri de la ghiseele altor banci din strainatate pentru numerar 1% + 2,5, Comision utilizare ATM-uri si POS-uri de la ghiseele altor banci din tara pentru numerar 0,5% + 2,5 Lei
Limita maxima de retragere numerar /zi – de la ATM / POS banca 5.000 Lei, max. 10 tranzactii – limita tranzactii POS 9.000 Lei, max. 10 tranzactii – limita tranzactii Internet* 5.000 Lei, max. 10 tranzactii – limita agregata (POS+Internet) 9.000 Lei, max. 10 tranzactii – limita agregata totala (ATM, POS, Internet) 9.000 Lei, max. 10 tranzactii >>>You can use your TransferWise card like any other bank card to withdraw money at ATMs around the world. The first 200 GBP, or 250 USD, or your currency’s equivalent that you withdraw every 30 days is free. After that, there’s a 2% charge on withdrawals. >> logare Google, transfer conturi alte tari (SUA, CHINA, etc)trgo

WorldRemit >> ofera in total 4 tipuri de transfer, inclusiv Airtime top-up pentru reincarcarea cartelelor SIM.

  • Bank Deposit – banii vor fi depusi direct in contul bancar al destinatarului (serviciu similar cu TransferGo, destinatarul are nevoie de un cont bancar).
  • Cash Pickup – banii vor fi ridicati direct cash (la una dintre aceste locatii). Destinatarul poate ridica banii instant imediat dupa plata, fara cont bancar.
  • Mobile Money Transfer – banii vor fi depusi instant in contul Vodafone M-Pesa al destinatarului. Actualizare: din pacate serviciul M-Pesa nu mai este disponibil in Romania din 1 Decembrie 2017.

wrchAceste tipuri de transfer nu sunt disponibile mereu. Pentru destinatia dorita apasa pe Select service pentru a vedea ce metode de transfer sunt posibile. Ex pt ruta UK – Romania, sunt disponibile toate cele 3 metode. Pe alte rute de transfer ar putea fi disponibil doar Cash Pickup, de exemplu. Asadar vezi ce servicii sunt oferite pe ruta ta si alege tipul de transfer cel mai potrivit tie. >> cu monito puteti cauta cea mai buna modalitate de transfer:chinausauk

btr viaa

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Cimpoiul și căciula – Origin of Bagpipe

Tour Scotland Photograph Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Pipe Band City Square Dundee Scotland November 29th 03.jpg

wikipedia: It is generally accepted today, that the Roman army introduced their bagpipe, the Tibia Utricularis, to the British Isles. The original pipes in Scotland probably had, at the most, a single drone. The second drone was added to the pipes in the mid to late 1500s. The Oxford History of Music says that a sculpture of bagpipes has been found on a Hittite slab at Euyuk in the Middle East, dated to 1000 BC. Several authors identify the ancient Greek askaulos (ἀσκός askos – wine-skin, αὐλός aulos – reed pipe) with the bagpipe.[2] In the 2nd century AD, Suetonius described the Roman emperor Nero as a player of the tibia utricularis. The third, or the great drone, came into use sometime in the early 1700s. In the Bible book of Daniel, written more than 500 years before the birth of Jesus Christ, six Babylonian musical instruments are specifically mentioned. (Daniel 3:5, 10, 15) Included in this list is the Aramaic word sum·pon·yahʹ, rendered “bagpipe” in many Bible translations.
asktypA Highland regiment never marched without a piper. The bagpipe was the instrument of the Roman infantry while the trumpet was used by the cavalry. Most Roman musical instruments came originally from Greece, and it seems the tibia utricularis was no exception. In his 425 BC play The Archarnians, Aristophanes (apparently) references a bagpipe-like instrument. The first to march to the reed pipes were the Lacedaemonians or Spartans. They were the first to use a drum with the pipes and the first to have massed pipers playing the same tune and it seems the first to match their pipes to reduce Macedonian_Museums-90-Arxaiwv_Mousikvn_Organvn-405.jpgdiscordance. Thucydides advises that ‘they advance slowly to the music of many pipe players which were stationed at regular intervals throughout the ranks, marching together rhythmically, that their ranks might not be broken.’ Aristotle advises that ‘it was their custom of entering battle to the music of pipe players which was adopted in order to make the fearlessness and ardour of the soldiers more evident’. This achieved a strict rhythmical advance. Plutarch advises that the ‘Spartans marched when going into battle, the pipers playing the tune called ‘The Hymn of Castor”, marching on to the tune of their pipers without any disorder in their ranks, moving with the music‘.


This stone carving, from a throne room in the Assyrian palace in Nimrud (the British Museum) dates to about 800 B.C. The warrior is assisted by a “skin-float,” probably a goat-hide. The bag is equipped with a blow-pipe through which the swimmer can replace air that has leaked. Tie a simple reed-pipe into this device and Presto!, we have a bagpipe.

The status of the ancient world piper was held in great esteem as judged by the grave of the piper in the Royal Sumerian Cemetery at Ur and the ancient Greek statue erected to Phronomus, (the inventor of the ring stops.) Aside from his silver pipes, the Ur piper had the greatest number of offerings, more than any other burial in the cemetery. During the last thousand years B.C. double pipes were known and played all over the old world of the Near and Middle East. The divergent type was to prove more popular than the parallel type according to archeological finds which show them more numerous. From Ur in Sumeria, the divergent double pipes can be traced right up through Mesopotamia and Arabia, to the Eastern Mediterranean and the countries of Israel and Phoenicia, to Troy and the Hellespont, right to Greece and Rome. The divergent reed pipes were supreme in the ancient world. The literature of both Greece and Rome indicate that the pipes were one of the facets of everyday life in both countries. The chain of development seems to have been Sumeria, Egypt, Phrygia, Lydia, Phoenicia, Greece, Rome and Rome’s colonies. It is with the Emperor Nero, in the first century A.D. that we have the first definite mention of the bag applied to reed pipes.

wikiwand: List of bagpipes


  • Säkkipilli: The Finnish bagpipes died out but have been revived since the late 20th century by musicians such as Petri Prauda.
  • Pilai: a Finnish bagpipe, described in 18th century texts as similar to the Ukrainian volynka.



  • Dūdas: Latvian bagpipe, with single reed chanter and one drone.


  • Dudmaisis, or murenka, kūlinė, Labanoro dūda. A bagpipe native to Lithuania, with single reed chanter and one drone.


Traditional Swedish bagpipes, säckpipa, made by Leif Eriksson
Traditional Swedish bagpipes, säckpipa, made by Leif Eriksson
  • Säckpipa: Also the Swedish word for “bagpipe” in general; the surviving säckpipa of the Dalarna region was on the brink of extinction in the first half of the 20th century. It has a cylindrical bore and a single reed, as well as a single drone at the same pitch as the bottom note of the chanter.
  • Walpipe, a type of bagpipe known to have been used alongside the säckpipa in Lapland during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Southern Europe

Spain and Portugal

Gaita is a generic term for “bagpipe” in Castilian (Spanish)PortugueseBasqueAsturian-LeoneseGalicianCatalan and Aragonese, for distinct bagpipes used across the northern regions of Spain and Portugal and in the Balearic Islands. In the south of Spain and Portugal, the term is applied to a number of other woodwind instruments. Just like the term “Northumbrian smallpipes” or “Great Highland bagpipes”, each region attributes its toponym to the respective gaita name. Most of them have a conical chanter with a partial second octave, obtained by overblowing. Folk groups playing these instruments have become popular in recent years, and pipe bands have been formed in some traditions.

A piper with his gaita sanabresa
A piper with his gaita sanabresa


  • Zampogna (also called ciaramellaciaramedda, or surdullinadepending on style and or region): A generic name for an Italian bagpipe, with different scale arrangements for doubled chanters (for different regions of Italy), and from zero to three drones (the drones usually sound a fifth, in relation to the chanter keynote, though in some cases a drone plays the tonic).
  • Piva: used in northern Italy (BergamoEmilia), Veneto and bordering regions of Switzerland such as Ticino. A single chantered, single drone instrument, with double reeds, often played in accompaniment to a shawm, or piffero.
  • Müsa: played in PaviaAlessandriaGenova and Piacenza.
  • Baghèt: similar to the piva, played in the region of BergamoBresciaand, probably, Veneto.
  • Surdelina: a double-chantered, bellows-blown pipe from Naples, with keys on both chanters and drones


  • Żaqq (with definite article: iż-żaqq): The most common form of Maltese bagpipes. A double-chantered, single-reed, droneless hornpipe.
  • Il-Qrajna: a smaller Maltese bagpipe[5]


The ancient name of bagpipes in Greece is Askavlos, literary meaning bagpipe (Askos Ασκός is the bag, Avlos Αυλός is the pipe)

  • Askomandoura (Greekασκομαντούρα): a double-chantered bagpipe used in Crete
  • Tsampouna (Greekτσαμπούνα): Greek Islands bagpipe with a double chanter. One chanter with five holes the second with 1,3 or 5 depending on the island. The tsambouna has no drone as the second chanter replaces the drone.
  • Gaida (Greekγκάιντα): a single-chantered bagpipe with a long separate drone, played in many parts of Mainland Greece. The main center is Thrace, especially around the town of Didymoteicho in the Northern Evros area. In the area of Drama (villages of Kali Vrisi and Volakas) a higher pitched gaida is played. Around Pieria and Olympus mountain (Rizomata and Elatochori) an other type of gaida is played. Each of these regions have their distinct sound, tunes and songs.[6]
  • Dankiyo or Tulum: traditional double-chantered bagpipes played by Pontic Greeks

All bags for these types a bagpipes are made usually from the entire skin of a goat or sheep. The use of donkeyskin has also been reported in the past..

Central and Eastern Europe

A Serbian bagpiper
Serbian bagpiper
  • Dudy (also known by the German name Bock): Czech bellows-blown bagpipe with a long, crooked drone and chanter (usually with wooden billy-goat head) that curves up at the end.
  • Dudy or kozoł (Lower Sorbian kózoł) are large types of bagpipes (in E flat) played among the (originally) Slavic-speaking Sorbs of Eastern Germany, near the borders with both Poland and the Czech Republic; smaller Sorbian types are called dudki or měchawa (in F). Yet smaller is the měchawka (in A, Am) known in German as Dreibrümmchen. The dudy/kozoł has a bent drone pipe that is hung across the player’s shoulder, and the chanter tends to be curved as well.
  • Cimpoi is the name for the Romanian bagpipes. Two main categories of bagpipes were used in Romania: with a double chanter and with a single chanter. Both have a single drone and straight bore chanter and is less strident than its Balkan relatives.
  • Magyar duda or Hungarian duda (also known as tömlősípbőrdudaand Croatian duda) has a double chanter (two parallel bores in a single stick of wood, Croatian versions have three or four) with single reeds and a bass drone. It is typical of a large group of pipes played in the Carpathian Basin.


Dudy wielkopolskie (man) and Kozioł czarny (woman)
Dudy wielkopolskie (man) and Kozioł czarny (woman)
  • Dudy is the generic term for Polish bagpipes,[7] though since the 19th century they are usually referred to as kobza due to the confusion with koza and the relative obscurity of kobza proper in Poland. They are used in folk music of Podhale (koza), Żywiec Beskids and Cieszyn Silesia (dudy and gajdy), and mostly in Greater Poland, where there are four types of bagpipes:
    • Dudy wielkopolskie, “Greater Polish bagpipes”, with two subtypes: RawiczGostyń and KościanBuk;
    • Kozioł biały (weselny), “white (wedding) buck (used during wesele, the lay part of the wedding)”;
    • Kozioł czarny ((do)ślubny), “black (wedding) buck (used during ślub, the religious part of the wedding)”;
    • Sierszeńki, “hornets”, a bladder pipe used as a goose (practice pipes).

The Balkans


  • Kaba gaida: Kaba Gaida – low pitched single-drone bagpipe from the Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria
  • Gaida: Southern Balkan (e.g. BulgarianGreek and Albanian) bagpipe with one drone and one chanter. Also found in Macedonia and Serbia.
  • Istarski mih (Piva d’Istria): a double chantered, droneless Croatianbagpipe whose side by side chanters are cut from a single rectangular piece of wood. They are typically single reed instruments, using the Istrian scale.
  • Gajdy or gajde: the name for various bagpipes of Eastern Europe, found in PolandSerbiaSlovakia, and Croatia.
  • Duda, used in some parts of Croatia
  • Cimpoi, used in Romania, consisting of a chanter and single drone



Finno-Ugric Russia

Turkic Russia


IMG_1503Folcloristul, meşterul constructor şi interpretul Traian Ciuculescu prezintă originea, vechimea şi evoluţia construirii şi interpretării la cimpoi, scrie un capitol interesant şi substanţial despre prezenţa cimpoiului în viaţa spirituală a satului tradiţional, în lumea pastorală, ca acompaniator al muncii, în obiceiurile de la naştere, nuntă şi înmormântare, în datinile şi obiceiurile  de peste an ( calendaristice), la hora satului, în Jocul Păpuşilor, cu cimpoierul – păpuşar. În alte capitole prezintă specificul cimpoiului românesc şi tipurile de cimpoi după atestarea lor la rapsozii din Pădureni-Hunedoara, Gorj, Bătrâni-Prahova, Buzău, Amara-Ialomiţa, pe care i-a intervievat,  înregistrându-le melodiile de doină, de cântec, cele ritulale ,,de seceră” şi de nuntă, melodiile de joc.  Cartea de 284 de pagini mai cuprinde fotografii cu cimpoierii înregistraţi, cu diferite cimpoaie şi cu componentele lor, caraba cu suportul ei, bâzoiul, burduful, suflătorul, ,,pipa”, nada bâzoiului, planşe cu dimensiunile tuturor părţilor fiecărui tip de cimpoi.


Delicatele reprezentări în aur ale blănii de miel ar putea avea legătură cu legenda lânii de aur. Legenda spune că, la începuturile istoriei, regii traci, despre care Homer a scris că erau stăpânitorii Lânii de aur, erau uniţi între ei printr-un jurământ tainic. Unii istorici admit existenţa unei Frăţii regale a tracilor. Cei aleşi erau iniţiaţi în „Taina Jurământului”, un jurământ care garanta tăcerea în faţa duşmanilor. Tăcerea era menită să protejeze tainele, comorile şi tezaurele ascunse ale tracilor. „Cei iniţiaţi în „Taina Jurământului“ purtau coifuri de aur sau de argint aurit cu însemne anume, care aveau o anumită semnificaţie. Între popoarele antice, primii care au fost atraşi ca un magnet de aurul dacilor nu au fost romanii, aşa cum se crede în mod obişnuit, ci primele triburi de greci, care, în migraţia lor spre teritoriul de astăzi al Greciei, au trecut prin Munţii Apuseni, unde au jefuit zăcămintele de aur local, din care şi-au făurit monede. Unele studii istorico-lingvistice au sugerat chiar că termenul vechi grecesc pentru aur – khrūsos – ar veni de la numele Crişurilor, râurile noastre care străbat ţinuturile aurifere. Alte cercetări susţin că primele monede de aur greceşti conţineau acelaşi tip de aur cu cel extras şi astăzi din Apuseni. Dacii au exploatat, în prima fază, aurul aluvionar, cu ajutorul blănurilor de oaie puse de-a curmezişul râurilor. Miţele de lână ale blănurilor aveau proprietatea de a reţine micile fragmente de aur, mai grele, lăsând să treacă majoritatea celorlalte impurităţi aduse de apă. Am fost o ţară foarte bogată în aur, iar aurul aluvionar, de râu, se găsea în cantităţi importante în aproape toate râurile, până în perioada medievală târzie. Credeţi sau nu, dar majoritatea râurilor noastre erau, în trecut, aurifere. Argeşul, Dâmboviţa, Oltul, Siretul, Buzăul şi toate râurile din Ardeal şi Moldova aduceau cantităţi mari de aur. (sursa: Povestea aurului românesc) Usor de recunoscut în orice reprezentare imagistică, căciulile dacilor, cu nota specifică – vârful aplecat în față, erau confecţionate din material ţesut în casă pentru timp de vară sau din blană de miel pentru iarnă. Chiar şi astăzi, în anotimpul friguros, în foarte multe zone din România țăranii poarta căciuli din blană de miel (nu bonete), cu vârful îndoit în față sau într-o parte, asemenea dacilor. Toate căciulile sunt făcute din blană tăbăcită de miel, ale căror culori consacrate sunt negru, cafeniu şi gri-brumăriu, niciodată alb sau tărcat. (sursa: DACII – Îmbrăcămintea, armele şi stindardul dacilor)

The bagpipe (and the woolen dacian hats) are clearly related to sheep breeding, so the Romans take the bagpipe from greeks than take this instrument to the British Islands.R1ABut both macedonians/thracians/R1A and dorians/R1b came to “Greece” over “dacian” territories. And Timoc are is a very conservative area, where very old “vlach” traditions are still alive.  From all european people the Vlach people are mostly associated with sheep breeding and transhumance. sheep

Posted in Archeology of symbols, ethnogenesis, Etnogeneza Rumânilor, Old Europe Art, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , | 2 Comments

Europe Waterways – Neolithic Highways

For thousands of years the rivers were the main highways. Neolithic migrations followed the main waterways. River basins were natural territories for populations, on the banks of rivers we find most cities, rivers were also main trading routes. Click on the picture to see the high resolution map.EuropeRivers

An Australian Ph.D. student from the University of New South Wales named Robbi Bishop-Taylor is the one who has redrawn Europe by mapping out its waterways. Bishop-Taylor was able to do this using open source geographic informational software called QGIS to research the 1.35 million streams throughout Europe. The result is a map of European with various blue colors and lines to dictate the different waterways. The thickness of the lines represents the number of each river’s tributaries.tisa



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Marmarosa – Maramureș

marmarosa.JPG104584_original.jpgThe third movie from the “Incredible Carpathians” series, about the most marvelous and mysterious mountain range of Marmarosas. >> Youtube <<

Marmara Massif (Marmaros MountainsMarmaros) (Room  Munţii Maramureşului) is a mountain range in the Eastern Carpathians. Most of the massif lies in the territory of Romania. Within Ukraine (in Ivano-Frankivsk and Transcarpathian oblasts), its northern and northwestern outskirts are located, in particular Chyvchyn and Rakhiv mountains (Hutsul Alps). serbianThe Marble Mountains The name Marmora appears for the first time in documents in 1199, when these lands are in close contact with the Hungarian state. In 1386, the land of Marmarosh was included in Hungary as a Maramaros, and in 1526 fell under the authority of the Habsburgs; In 1553, the emperor Ferdinand I attached the lands to Transylvania province. After the First World War in 1918-20, Marmarosh was divided between Czechoslovakia and Romania. In the new country, Marmaros became part of Subcarpathian Rus of Czechoslovakia. In 1939 this same part entered the young state of Carpathian Ukraine with its capital in Khust. In 1939-44 it was included in Hungary.
The Black Mountains range is located on the administrative border between Ivano-Frankivsk and Zakarpattia oblasts. It is adjacent to the Gorgany range. The highest peak of Chornohora is Hoverla (2,062 m) with other high peaks including Pip Ivan (2,022 m) and Petros (2,020 m). The mountains are made of flysch rock. The major part of the range forms the watershed between the Prut and Tysa River. The lower parts of Chornohora are inhabited by Hutsuls, whose primary occupation is herding. Major tourist centres of Chornohora are Bystrets, Rakhiv, Verkhovyna, Vorokhta and Yasinia. In the interwar period (1918–1939) the Pip Ivan peak marked the Polish – Czechoslovak, from March 1939 Polish – Hungarian border. >>

Farcau_and_Michaylec.jpgVârful Farcău, Munții Maramureșului, este cel mai înalt vârf montan din partea românească a Munților Maramureșului, având altitudinea de 1.957 metri. Din întreg lanțul Munților Maramureșului, cel mai înalt punct este piscul Hovârla, situat pe teritoriul Ucrainei, cu 2.061 m. Cele mai înalte puncte de pe teritoriul Ucrainei, în mare parte au rămas să poarte toponimia românească, după cum se poate vedea: Brebenescul, 2.038 m, Muntele Negru, 2.022 m, Pietrosul, 2.020 m, Gutin Tomnatic, 2.016 m, Muncel, 1.998 m, Turcul, 1.933 m, Brescul, 1.911 m.

varfuri1280px-Rebra_ukr For most tourists, Marmaros is a good target for the first week of May. Attn there is no Crimean climate, so do not wait for warm nights and dry paths under your feet. In Marmaros will be cold, wet and even snowy.1443005660-528518__pip-ivan2

Yalinsky Waterfall – the Highest Waterfall in the Ukrainian Carpathians. The mountains of Marmaris lie on the border of Ukraine and Romania, so you will not be able to get on the route without the permission of the border guard service. There is not much need to obtain permission: send a request in advance to the commander of the Mukachevo border guard unit (preferably two weeks before the indicative date of departure) with a complete list of people traveling with you in the campaign. In the request, submit all info: P.I.B., passport no/series, where and when the passport was issued, official registration, date of birth, mobile phone number.Мармароси параплан.jpg

Another great reason to climb mountains is the  shepherds’ waves to the valley. The grazing of sheep in Hutsulshchyna has more than 300 years of history. Shepherds go to the mountain for several months, they are being watched ceremoniously. Exit to the valley is accompanied by various celebrations and even concerts. To get on such an action with old traditions and ceremonies you can go in the beginning of summer, search for villages engaged in sheep breeding. In Mezhygirshchina the festival “Wake the Otar to the Polonynu” is held. The main action unfolds on the Synevyr pass.

66861_800x600_train_karpaty-768x384Another original and interesting variant of excursions to the Carpathians is the Carpathian Trains. The vehicle itself is small: a locomotive that can accommodate only 12 people and 2 separate wagons. Different in type and comfort: closed with soft seats car-cabriolet, and open, that in principle is more convenient for photographing landscapes. “Carpathian tram”  takes place on an extremely picturesque route with the  hottest and most environmentally friendly places in the Carpathians.Igor-Melika-56Arheologii au descoperit la Arad o cetate care ar fi de trei ori mai mare decât Troia și se întinde pe aproape 90 hectare. Cetatea ar fi fost ridicată în urmă cu aproximativ 3.400 de ani, în epoca bronzului, avea un palat uriaș.Cetatea Veche, cum a fost denumită de arheologi, a fost descoperită pe raza teritorială a oraşului Sântana. În satul Malaja Kopanja – Ucraina, la doar 15 km de frontiera cu Satu Mare, la vest de Carpaţi, se află una dintre cele mai impresionante cetăţi dacice. Aşezarea, cu o suprafaţă de 3,5 ha, se află pe un deal cu pante abrupte de pe malul drept al Tisei. Sistemul de apărare al cetăţii este deosebit de complex, demn de un mare centru politic, comercial şi religios, aflat la fruntariile nordice ale Daciei. Dealul, care are pe trei laturi pante abrupte cu înălţimi de 80 metri, a fost înconjurat de un zid imens construit din pămant, piatră şi barne de lemn. În locurile în care este mai bine păstrat, acesta are şi acum o înălţime de 2,5 m şi o lăţime de 12 m. Comerţul intens ce se desfăşura în acest centru tribal din nord-vestul Daciei este atestat de provenienţa diversă a monedelor găsite în timpul săpăturilor din dava de la Malaja Kopanja.igor-melika-14-20-08-11-153.jpgDr. Ion M. Botoş, preşedintele Uniunii Regionale „Dacia ” a Românilor din Transcarpatia, gazduieste in casa sa din Apşa de Jos, Muzeul de Istorie şi Etnografie al Românilor din Transcarpatia. 70 de ani de la deportarea românilor din APȘA DE JOS. Nu mulți cunosc faptul că sintagma „Maramureșul istoric” face trimitere la un teritoriu din care doar o treime se află în prezent în componența statului român, celelalte două, situate la nord de Tisa, făcând parte din Ucraina. Pe acele meleaguri, de-a lungul regiunii Transcarpatia, se întinde un șirag de sate și comune românești deosebite, cu specific maramureșean. Printre cele mai frumoase și bogate localități din imediata apropiere a României, incluse în raionul Teaciv, corespondentul satului Teceu din România, se numără Apșa de Jos, Slatina, Strâmtura, Topcino, Bouțu Mare, Bouțu Mic, Podișor, Cărbunești. Localități tot atât de frumoase sunt incluse și în raionul Rahiv (Rahău): Apșa de Mijloc, Biserica Albă, Plăiuț, Dobric etc.Igor-Melika-57Cu aproximativ două mii de ani î.Hr. au pătruns și în acestă regiune triburi de indo-europeni, încât epoca bronzului este bine reprezentată prin depozite mai importante din Săpânța, SarasăuSighetTisaCălineștiȘieu, Rozavlea, IeudCuheaSăliște și Moisei. Din perioada dacică sunt atestate cetăți la Sighet (dealul Solovan), Oncești (dealul cetății), Slatina și Călinești. Au fost găsite monede, vase și obiecte de proveniență grecească și romană, ceea ce dovedește legăturile comerciale și culturale cu civilizațiile mediteraneene, dar mai ales cu provincia romană Dacia. Deși regiunea a rămas în afara teritoriului cucerit de Imperiul Roman, dacii locali au primit influențele civilizației romane. Datorită poziției mai ferite a Maramureșului, în perioada marilor migrații, dintre triburile de goți, huni, gepizi, vandali și slavi, numai slavii au avut un impact asupra populației locale.
Veche regiune românească, Țara Maramureșului este atestată documentar pentru prima oară cu acest nume în 1199, în perioada expansiunii ungare în Transilvania. În acea epocă, exista populație românească în întreg Maramureșul, precum și în regiunile vecine, la vest, UngBereg și Ugocea. Pentru acestea din urmă, regii Ungariei garantau românilor dreptul de a-și alege singuri voievodul și de a fi judecați după “dreptul valah” (ius valachicum) până după anul 1383, de când datează ultima atestare documentară în această privință.
În primele secole ale mileniului II, Voievodatul Maramureșului a fost condus de voievozi locali și organizat în cnezate de vale. Din secolul al XIV-lea, presiunea regilor Ungariei s-a intensificat prin înnobilarea conducătorilor locali, care a dus la pierderea autonomiei și integrarea în Regatul Ungar. În timp ce unii au acceptat schimbarea, integrându-se în nobilimea Ungariei, alții au opus rezistență și, în final, au trecut munții spre regatul Poloniei, unde, remarcându-se prin fapte de arme, au primit ranguri nobiliare și latifundii, o parte s-au oprit în Țara Lăpușului, înființând pe noile domenii sate care au rezistat până astăzi (Cupșeni, Măgoaja) iar alții au trecut Carpații răsăriteni și au întemeiat voievodatul Moldova.Igor-Melika-56The name “Carpates” is highly associated with the old Dacian tribes called “Carpes” or “Carpi” who lived in a large area from the east, north-east of the Black Sea to Transylvanian plains on the present day Romania and Moldova. In late Roman documents, the Eastern Carpathian Mountains were referred to as Montes Sarmatici (meaning Sarmatian Mountains).[18] The Western Carpathians were called Carpates, a name that is first recorded in Ptolemy‘s Geographia (second century AD). 11th to 15th centuries.
In the Bronze Age (ca 1800 BC) Transcarpathia maintained continuity in its painted pottery style of the Stanove culture than gained metalworking skills (swords, knives, sickles, axes) through the Thracian tribes. Subsequently Transcarpathia came under the control of the Celts, who arrived from the west and brought with them iron-smelting (ca 400–200 bc); the first local coins were minted in the 3rd century BC.
Igor-Melika-14- the eastern nomadic peoples the earliest to influence Transcarpathia were the Iranian-speaking Scythians (expressed locally from the 6th century BC in the Kushtanovytsia culture) and then the Iazyges, a Sarmatian tribe confronting the Romans in Dacia (50 AD); their influence was followed by the invasions of the Turkic-speaking Huns (380 AD), the Avars (558 AD), and finally the Magyars (896 AD). In the 2nd century AD neighboring Dacia (Transylvania) became a Roman province, and Roman merchants visited Transcarpathia. In the early Middle Ages Transcarpathia was traversed by Germanic tribes. Remnants of the Ostrogoths (the Gepidae) remained in neighboring Transylvania until the 10th century.
The Slavic colonization of Transcarpathia began in the 2nd century, with migration from the north across the mountain passes. By the 8th and 9th centuries the lowlands of Transcarpathia were fairly densely peopled by White Croatians (at the time inhabiting both the north and the south side of the Carpathians). The Slavs in the upper Tysa River and in Transylvania were subject to the Avars (6th–8th centuries) and later to the Bulgarian kingdom (9th–10th centuries). 1443010164-322270__marmaros2King Stephen I joined Transcarpathia to Hungary while his son, Imre (Emeric), was titled Prince of the Ruthenians. From that time until the beginning of the 20th century Transcarpathia remained within the Hungarian state as its border province in the northeast.  Carpathian RutheniaCarpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia[A 1] (RusynКарпатьска РусьUkrainianКарпатська РусьKarpats’ka Rus’ or ЗакарпаттяZakarpattjaSlovak and CzechPodkarpatská RusHungarianKárpátaljaRomanianTranscarpatiaPolishZakarpacieRussianКарпатская РусьKarpatskaya Rus’GermanKarpatenukraine) is a historic region mostly located in western Ukraine‘s Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland’s Lemkovyna. The Romanian name of the region is Maramureș which geographically located in eastern and south-eastern portion of the region.uninhabitedMáramaros (RomanianMaramureș; Rusyn: Мараморош / Maramorosh, Мараморыш / Maramorŷsh; UkrainianМармарощина – MarmaroshchynaLatinMarmatia) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now in north-western Romania and western Ukraine. The capital of the county was Máramarossziget (present-day Sighetu Marmației).
Maramures_Josephinische_Landesaufnahme_1782-1785_Background-500x488.jpgIn ancient times, this area was settled by CeltsDaciansSarmatians and Germanic peoples. In the first century BC, it was part of the Dacian Kingdom under Burebista, while in the early Middle Ages, it was ruled by the Hunnic Empire, the Kingdom of the Gepids, the Kingdom of the Avars, the White Croatia and the Kievan Rus’.
The territory was part of the Kingdom of Hungary from the 11th century and was nominally divided between the Gyepű border region, comitatus of Szatmár and comitatus of Borsova. Later, the whole region was included into the comitatus of Máramaros. Initially, the inhabitants of the region were allowed to preserve their native political organization, the Voevodates, which formed many small autonomous areas. The King long struggled to convince the Voivodes to accept the title of Count, with the implied losing independence in political and financial matters. During the Middle Ages, the people in many mountain villages, where each family by definition had a considerable domain, were called nameşi, meaning free peasants taking pride in their family (the origin of the word is disputed, in the Kingdom of Hungary, free people possessing land were called “nemes” in Hungarian, in Romanian neam means extended family).
In the 16th century, when the Kingdom of Hungary was invaded and destroyed by the Ottoman Empire the area came under administration of the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania and later (in the end of the 17th century) under administration of the Habsburg Monarchy (later known as the Austrian Empire). During Habsburg administration, region was firstly part of the Habsburg Principality of Transylvania, but was later (in 1732) included into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1867, the Austrian Empire was transformed into the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary and the region was included into the Transleithania or Hungarian part of the Monarchy. After the First World War, the region was divided between Romania and Czechoslovakia at the territory of Hutsul Republic. maristVoievozii si Cnejii maramu­re­şeni au stăpânit spre apus şi nord un te­ritoriu de zece ori mai mare decât Mara­mureşul de azi. Pe această hartă, înconjurată de o ghirlandă de însemne he­ral­dice (steme nobiliare maramure­şe­neşti), sunt trecute localităţile în care s-au aflat şi se află familii nobile româneşti. Numai la nord de Tisa au fost identificate, pe baza acestor diplome, 104 (una sută patru) fa­mi­lii nobile româ­neşti, şi încă dintre cele mai vechi, unele al căror nume vine direct din preistorie. 
Harta Voievodatelor Maramuresului
Maramureşul, Ţara Dacilor Mari. Istoria Maramureşului coboara până în timpurile îndepărtate ale epocii mijlocii a bronzului, 1600 – 1300 i.e.n. Descoperirea făcută între anii 2009 – 2011 în localitatea Lăpuş avea să pună la grea încercare dogmele istoricilor privitor la confirmarea existenţei unei populaţii şi comunităţi bine organizate,cu evoluţii îndelungate, adevărate epicentre economice, politice şi religioase. Săpăturile făcute la Lăpuş au adus la lumină una dintre cele mai mari clădiri preistorice din Europa de Est. Fundaţiile executate din piatra au forma dreptunghiulară cu laturile de 25 x 11 m. Suprastructura clădirii se pare a fost executată din lemn de stejar. Destinaţia clădirii era cea de sanctuar, destinat efectuarii ceremoniilor de înmormântare dar şi a comemorărilor ritualice ale strămoşilor. Dimensiunile fundaţiilor şi existenţa unui drum pavat cu piatra de râu îi va face pe arheologi să boteze situl cu numele de Troia Maramureşului.
Descendenţa dacilor din această populaţie pre-dacică este dovedită şi de asemănarea ritului înmormântării , prin înhumare sau încinerare, între „ preistoricii lăpuşeni” şi Dacii Mari, trib daco-getic numit de greci „Megaloi dahai”. Comunităţile umane sunt atestate din preistorie, în Paleoliticul Superior si Neolitic, precum cele de la Sighet, Câmpulung la Tisa şi pe malul stâng al râului Iza, între localităţile Rozavlea şi Strâmtura. Vestigii ale epocii bronzului sau descoperit la Săpânţa, Sărăsău, Sighet, Tisa, Călineşti, Şieu, Rozavlea, Ieud, Cuhea, Sălişte şi Moisei. Perioada dacică este şi ea bine reprezentată prin cetaţile dacice de la Sighet, Onceşti, Slatina şi Călineşti. Urme ale dacilor au reieşit cu ocazia săpăturilor efectuate între anii 1964 – 1965 la Onceşti lângă Sighet, pe dealul Cetăţuia, săpături care atestă existenţa unei aşezări de crescători de animale. Anterior în anul 1938 la Mireşul Mare, sa descoperit un vas mare de lut care conţinea aproape 1000 de monede de argint din timpul lui Filip al II-lea (359-336 î.Chr) şi Alexandru Macedon (336-323 î.Chr. ).800px-siebenbc3bcrgen_1300-1867Înainte de venirea maghiarilor, românii din Maramureş se conduceau prin forme de organizare proprii, preluate de la strămoşii lor geto-daci. Cnezii maramureşeni erau o clasă de nobili ridicaţi din rândurile obştilor săteşti, care preluau stăpânirea satelor (moşiilor) şi aveau drept ereditar asupra lor. Voievozii erau conducătorii aleşi dintre cnezi care administrau o grupare mai mare de comunităţi, respectiv cnezate, organizate în voievodate independente şi autonome. Funcția de voievod era electivă, şi alegerea lui se făcea dintre cei mai vrednici și mai puternici cnezi. În Maramureş regii maghiari aveau să-i recunoască oficial pe aceşti cnezi şi voievozi, acordându-le autonomie, în schimbul unor favoruri şi servicii.
Prima menţiune despre existenţa structurilor formaţiunilor politice din Maramureş şi a conducătorilor acestora este făcută în timpul regelui maghiar Stefan al V-lea (1270 – 1272) când sunt pomeniţi cneazul Negrilă care stăpânea regiunea Vişeului, şi cneazul Radomir care stăpânea Valea Izei. În anul 1299 se pomeneşte în cronici despre existenţa unui conducător al Maramureşului nord – estic, Nicolaus Voievod, fiul lui Mauriciu. Nicolaus era voievod de Ugocea şi Beregh, teritorii aflate în prezent în componenţa Ucrainei şi a Ungariei. Tot la începutul secolului XIII este pomenit, Tatomir, voievodul de Ung şi de Beregh. Tatomir îi are ca fii pe Seneslau de Dolha, Voievod de Ung, Crăciun de Bilca, voievod de Beregh si Maxim, cneaz de Iloşva, înobilaţi de regele Ludovic I (1342 – 1382) în anul 1343, în urma serviciilor făcute de către acestia coroanei maghiare. Interesant este de specificat faptul că familiile maramureşene făceau între ele alianţe matrimoniale, încuscriri. Astfel Seneslau de Dolha se va căsători cu sora lui Dragoş Vodă , iar Craciun cu sora lui Bogdan Vodă. Urmaşii lui Tatomir vor fi implicaţi într-o adevarată sagă maramureşeană în timpul conflictelor dintre familiile Bogdăneştilor şi Drăgoşeştilor.
889px-Transylvanian_Principality.svgInformaţiile despre aceşti voievozi şi cnezi o găsim în mod detaliat, în lucrarea “Diplome Maramureşene din sec. XIV si XV”, apărută la editura Dragoş Vodă din Cluj Napoca în anul 2009, prin grija lui Vasile Iuga de Sălişte. Lucrarea “Diplome Maramureşene din sec. XIV si XV” a fost scrisă de către Dr.Ioan Mihaly de Apşa (1844-1914), membru corespondent al Academiei Române, născut în Maramureşul istoric în comuna Ieud, localitate de pe Valea Izei. În decursul a zeci de ani a adunat şi tradus un numar de 366 de documente emise de cancelaria coroanei maghiare, începand din anii 1300, în care sunt pomeniţi conducători români: cnezi şi voievozi, toponime şi hidronime din Transilvania, fapte si acţiuni istorice care au influentat viaţa comunităţii existente la acea vreme în Ardeal şi împrejurimi. Ce este mai important de menţionat că multe dintre aceste documente sunt adevărate “extrase CF” care dovedesc dreptul de proprietate a românilor asupra moşiilor, cnezatelor şi voievodatelor existente la acea vreme în Ardeal şi Ungaria. În aceste documente vom întâlni menţionate nume cunoscute precum a lui Dragoş Vodă şi Bogan Vodă, dar vom descoperi şi numele cnezilor şi voievozilor români despre care nu am auzit, până acum, sau, a altor conducători de obşte maramureşeni, care au stăpânit ţinuturi atât în Transilvania, cât şi în actuala Ungarie şi Ucraină (comitatele Ung, Ugocea şi Beregh).
tumblr_inline_nnq54sb2ya1rb4342_640Numele acestor înainte mergători sunt cele tradiţionale poporului roman indiferent de zona geografică, putandu-le evidenţia ca prezente în secolul al XIV – XV – lea: Alexandru, Andrei, Andreica, Bârsan, Baila, Balc, Bogdan, Bud,Codrea, Corui, Clement, Cosma, Costea, Crăciun, Drag, Drăguş, Dragoş, Dragomir, Dragoslav, Dumitru, Feier (Albu), Francisc, Gheorghe, Ghergheş, Giula, Gilian (Iulian), Gurzo (Burzo), Ioan, Iuga, Ivancu, Ladislau, Laţcu, Locovoi, Luca, Lucaciu, Mariş, Maxim, Miclea, Micu, Micula, Mihail, Mihalca, Miroslav, Nicolae, Opriş, Petru, Rad, Radu, Săracin, Sas, Stan, Stanislău, Ştefan, Şteţco, Tatomir, Tătar, Uglea, Valentin, Vancea, Vasile, Vlad, Zouard, Zolon s.a. Povestea transmisă prin documentele culese de către Ioan Mihaly de Apsa este impresionanta, fiind necesară o carte de dimensiunile lucrarii autorului maramureşan, pentru a cuprinde evenimentele şi actiunile în care au fost implicaţi maramureşenii acelor vremuri. Lucrarea ne transmite o lume vie în care stramoşii maramureşenilor sunt implicaţi în lupte împotriva autorităţii coroanei maghiare, în conflicte cu clasa nobiliară maghiara în creştere dar şi conflicte armate sau judecătoreşti între români.
Naşterea Ţarii Moldovei a început încă din Maramureş pe fondul conflictului dintre familiile Dragoşeştilor şi a Bogdăneştilor, conflict care a degenerat în confruntări armate, distrugeri şi arderi de moşii şi pierderi de vieţi omeneşti de ambele părţi. Multe din familiile maramureşene vor fi implicate în acest conflict de o parte sau alta, unele continuandu-si existenţa în Maramureş iar altele “emigrand” în Moldova, sau alte ţinuturi ale Ardealului. Până în anul 1386, românii îşi vor putea păstra obiceiurile şi rangurile cneziale şi voievodale, prin grija reginelor Ungariei, dar după acest an, drepturile lor se vor restrânge până la aproape totala dispariţie. Cei care vor incerca să supravieţuiască altfel vor alege calea catolicizării şi maghiarizarii, ajungându-se ca multe din marile familii nobiliare maghiare din Transilvania, din secolele urmatoare, să fie din spiţa românească.

apsaApșa de Jos, un sat românesc din regiunea Zakarpatie (Maramureșul Istoric – este cea mai bogată localitate rurală din Ucraina. Locuitorii își construiesc adevărate castele, în loc de case, iar arhitectura acestora impresionează pe toată lumea. 

Aici, în dreapta Tisei sunt cele mai vechi aşezări româneşti, populate cu demnitate de urmaşii adevăraţi ai dacilor liberi, urmaşi ai lui Bogdan şi Dragoş. Şi astăzi dacă stai la sfat cu moroşenii poţi observa graiul lor parcă luat din cronici. Nu este întâmplător că de acolo de unde porneşte inima limbii noastre, din Maramureşul istoric, de la Peri, rebotezată de ucraineni Gruşevo, acolo unde s-a aflat Mănăstirea „Sfântul Arhanghel Mihail”, au fost tipărite primele traduceri ale cărţilor sfinte în româneşte.
Într-un document scris în limba română şi publicat de Iona Mihalyi de Apşa în „Diplome maramureşene din sec. XIV şi XV” este menţionat că localitatea Apşa de Jos este atestată documentar la 25 noiembrie 1387, când regele Sigismund recunoaşte şi pune în stăpânire pe Ioan Românul, fiul lui Dragomir şi nepotul lui Balc şi Drag în moşia acestei localităţi. Mai bine de cinci veacuri Apşa de Jos a purtat acest nume, dar după 1946 localitatea este rebotezată de sovietici Dibrova. Şi chiar dacă din anul 2000 s-a solicitat revenirea la toponimul vechi, iar după aceea a fost organizat şi un referendum, abia în 2004 autorităţile au permis ca Dibrova să se numească Apşa de Jos. Apşa de Jos e o localitate deosebită în care oamenii au apărat şi-n vremuri de grele încercări bisericile neamului. În mijlocul localităţii sunt două coline şi pe ambele se află câte o biserică de lemn. Prima a fost ridicată la 1561 şi are hramul „Sfântul Nicolae”, iar a doua la 1776 şi are hramul „Adormirea Maicii Domnului”. Biserica veche de lemn este catolică, însă iniţial a fost ortodoxă. FormatiuniPoliticeRomanestiSecolele_IX_XIIIPe ridicarea topografică iozefină se vede ca Maramuresul istoric se suprapune cu bazinul hidrografic al raului Tisa. harta josef


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Bashan Motorcycle Manufacturing Co.Ltd is a motorcycle manufacturer by  in Chongqing, a major city in southwestern mainland China. Chongqing is the third largest centre of motor vehicle production and the largest for motorcycles.  The Company has grown rapidly in the past decade to become one of the most large-scale motorcycle manufacturers in China. Devoted to research, production and sales of two-wheelers, tricycles, ATVs, engines, E-bikes, General machineries and farming machines, now the company has more than 2,300 employees in total,  with annual exporting value of more than 100 million US Dollars for the last several years. In Chonqing, Bashan Industrial park occupies a land of 230,000 square meters, with a workshop floor of 65,000 square meters, auxiliary production facility area of 15,000 square meters, and with over 10 modernized production lines, packing lines and a whole set of complete testing and inspection equipment. Some models use ”Honda frames” having interchangeable parts with its Honda counterparts.
Capture : Chongqing two-wheeler factory produces such motorcycles as Cubs, off-road bikes, cruisers, racing bikes and liberty-style motorcycles. With 4 advanced unit assembly lines and 2 parts assembly lines, the factory produces different products in different lines. And different products are managed with technical details as per different models, to classify domestic or foreign markets, and to differentiate the customer’s orders and requirements. Accordingly, product consistency and lead time are all in good control. Thus, the capacity reaches 600,000 units or sets of motorcycles.
Chongqing Bashan Engine factory focuses on the development and production of motorcycle engines. With 3 synchronous assembly lines, the Factory can reach the annual output of more than one million units or sets of engines. The engines, either vertical or horizontal, are classified into more than 30 categories, ranging from 50cc to 500cc, with air-cooled, water-cooled or oil cooled systems, to meet and satisfy various clients’ needs.
Chongqing Bashan tricycle factory specializes in the development and manufacturing of tricycles and their key parts, such as carriages and frames. The models include tricycles for open-up cargo or passenger, cabinet cargo or passenger, Electric, tip, steering wheel, touring, reverse, cleaning vehicle, which form a complete set of well-accepted vehicle types. The annual capacity reaches 100,000 units or sets of tricycles.
Chongqing Bashan ATV factory is one of the earliest All-Terrain Vehicle manufacturers in China. Its high performance and reliable quality could be found in its top sales among the leading Chinese ATV producers. The products include sports mini-ATVs for kids, utility or sports ATVs for adults, which displacement are from 50cc to 500cc. Air-cooled or water-cooled engine, CVT engine, differential rear wheel transmission, 4 wheels driving, independent suspensions are applied to meet various needs in different environments. The annual capacity reaches 200,000 units or sets of ATVs.
In Zhengcheng city, Guangdong Province, the company built a modernized motorcycle industrial park, which area is over one million square meters. The products include liberty-style motorcycles, cruisers, scooters and dirt bikes, which cover more than 20 different models in different displacements. The annual capacity is 500,000 units or sets of motorcycles.
In Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, Wuxi Bashan Vehicle Co is a professional R&D and production base, which involves in electric motorcycles, electric bicycles and electric touring bikes. Now the company has developed over 50 models of e-bikes, among which those light weight bikes are well accepted in Europe and America. : Our office is located in Krefeld, Germany. With a 1,000 square meters warehouse for quady, motorcycle, mini-quad and scooter stocks, 100 square meters for spare parts, and 2 engineers who is available for fix problems for customers.


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Digital Banking & Cryptocurrencies

“It is the business of the very few to be independent; it is a privilege of the strong. And whoever attempts it, even with the best right, but without being OBLIGED to do so, proves that he is probably not only strong, but also daring beyond measure. He enters into a labyrinth, he multiplies a thousandfold the dangers which life in itself already brings with it; not the least of which is that no one can see how and where he loses his way, becomes isolated, and is torn piecemeal by some minotaur of conscience. Supposing such a one comes to grief, it is so far from the comprehension of men that they neither feel it, nor sympathize with it. And he cannot any longer go back! He cannot even go back again to the sympathy of men!”
― Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil

January 2018 – A description of each of the top 100 cryptocurrencies by market capitalization down to just a few words.cryptoRevolut

Revolut a fost înființat în iulie 2015, iar în 3 ani de existență a avut o evoluție fulminantă, primind investiții totale de peste 340 de milioane de dolari și reușind să ajungă la peste 1,7 milioane de utilizatori doar în Europa. Totul cu puține investiții în marketing, în mare parte prin word of mouth. Revolut oferă servicii precum debit direct, depozite de economii inteligente “Vaults”, asigurare de călătorie bazată pe geolocalizare și expunere exclusivă la criptomonede, utilizatorii Revolut se bucură de tehnologie de ultimă generație. Aceștia pot până și să cumpere și să tranzacționeze Bitcoin, Litecoin și Ethereum prin simpla apăsare a unui buton, direct din aplicație.

rv2wiki: Revolut Ltd is a digital banking alternative that includes a pre-paid debit card (MasterCard or VISA), currency exchange, cryptocurrency exchange (Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Litecoin (LTC)) and peer-to-peer payments. Revolut currently charges no fees for the majority of its services (but for a capped usage), and uses interbank exchange rates for its currency exchange on weekdays, and charge a markup from 0.5% to 1.5% on weekends. The Revolut App gives customers instant access to Bitcoin, Litecoin and Ether by exchanging to/from 25 fiat currencies. However, they remain in the app and cannot be moved to another cryptocurrency wallet. The London-based startup was founded by Nikolay Storonsky and Vlad Yatsenko and currently supports spending and ATM withdrawals in 120 currencies and sending in 26 currencies directly from the mobile app. The company is based in Level39, a financial technology incubator in Canary Wharf, London.
Revolut launched to the public in July 2015 with the aim of “building a fair and frictionless platform to use and manage money around the world”[9] by removing hidden fees and offering interbank currency rates. Nikolay Storonsky, a former trader at Credit Suisse and Lehman Brothers,[10] said in an interview with Forbes that:
I thought of the business three years ago. I was travelling a lot and wasting hundreds of pounds on foreign transaction fees and exchange rate commissions which just didn’t feel right. As someone with a financial background I knew exactly the rates I should be getting. As a solution, I tried to find a multi-currency card and was later told it wasn’t possible. But I was determined to make it work. Alongside Vladyslav Yatsenko, former Credit Suisse and Deutsche Bank developer, Storonsky set up Revolut and raised around $3.5 million. On 8 February 2017, Revolut launched UK current accounts, enabling its customers to get a personal IBAN.[12] In July 2017, Revolut started doing the same for personal EUR IBANs.
On 26 April 2018, Revolut announced that it had raised a further $250 million in a funding round led by Hong Kong-based DST Global, reaching a total valuation of $1.7 billion and thus becoming a unicorn.

Revolut’s CEO told Forbes that his stake is being diluted to 30%, which would give him a paper fortune worth $510m. “We’re going to launch Platinum cards — it’s a metallic card that allows you to get 1% cash back in cryptocurrencies and also provides you a concierge service.” The debit card will carry a fee like Revolut’s Premium card, which costs £6.99 a month and offers services such as travel insurance.

revolut china

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Polskie Runy

Marcin Rudnicki 2016 : “Acum 10 ani, discuţiile despre daci nici nu exis­tau în lumea ştiinţifică din Polonia, iar acum, găseşti urme dacice pe tot locul. Să te aştepţi să afli şi alte noi şi spectaculoase urme dacice în zona aceasta a Europei, cât de curând. Acesta este doar începutul!” Pe harta lui Marcin Rudnicki, în nordul Poloniei, pe lân­gă Gdansk, erau cunoscute până acum trei exem­plare. Din start, acum avem cinci brăţări la Gdansk, plus cele 11 din Româ­nia! Dacă le pu­nem la socoteală şi pe cele două din nordul Ger­maniei, avem la Bal­tica aproape la fel de multe bră­ţări “tip Şimleu Silvaniei”, câte au fost găsite la noi în ţară! Şi, la cât de cu spor şi de serios se face arheologie în Polonia, n-ar fi exclus ca în doi ani să avem mai multe brăţări dacice la Ma­rea Baltică decât în Ardeal! Mar­cin Rudnicki avea mare dreptate: “Acesta este abia înce­pu­tul!”

Winicjusz Kossakowski – “Polskie runy przemówiły” – 2011
polskie runyprpkw018

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Szekely Script & Murfatlar Script

Szekely Script & Murfatlar Script = litterae blackorum ?
The official position of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has been to ignore or deny the existence of the Magyar runic script. Instead, imposed theories of its Phoenician, Türk, Kazár, Aramaic, Ancient Semitic, or Ancient Slavic origin have been promoted and attempts made to validate them as such, even though the ethnogenesis and literacy of these people occurred thousands of years later than those of the Magyar ancestors. The cultural genocide began forcefully in the 10th and 11th centuries and has since continued. The Codices with runic writing and the carved runic sticks were burned; the Táltos (person with supernatural power similar to a shamans) were killed or incarcerated. Beginning with King St. István, all the kings – with the exception of King Mátyás in the 15th century !! – accepted the orders of the Roman Pope to destroy the so called pagan culture.

Cronicarul ungur Símon de Kéza arăta în cronica Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, scrisă în jurul anului 1283: „De aceea (secuii) amestecându-se cu blackii se zice că se foloseau de literele lor”, „cum Blackis in montibus confinii sortem habuerunt”. De asemenea, „Cronica lui Marcus” menționează că secuii ar fi un rest de populație hună, care s-a retras în munți, stabilindu-se alături de valahi. De la aceștia secuii au împrumutat alfabetul. Aceste informații se reîntâlnesc și în „Chronicon pictum vindobonense” (Cronica pictată de la Viena). „Au rămas însă din huni trei mii de bărbați care, scăpați din bătălia Crumheldină printr-o pătrundere plină de groază, s-au îngrijit a se aduna în câmpia Chiglamezey. Care bărbați, deoarece se temeau de națiunile occidentale, ca nu cumva să-i atace pe neașteptate, au intrat în Erdeelw și s-au numit pe sine nu unguri, ci Zecul… totuși, după cum au vrut ungurii, nu și-au hotărât soarta în câmpia Pannoniei, ci cu valahii în munții din vecinătate” – Cronica lui Marcus.
Același eveniment la Kézai Símon: „remanserant quoque de Hunis virorum tria milia… in campo Csiglae usque Arpad permanserunt, qui se ibi non Hunos sed Zaculos vocaverunt… Postquam autem filii Ethele in pr[o]elio Crunhelt cum gente Scitica fere quasi deperissent, Pannonia extitit Xannis sine rege, Sclavis tantummodo, Grecis, Teutonicis, Messianis et Vlahis advenis remanentibus in eadem, qui vivente Ethela populari servicio sibi serviebant” – Simon de Keza, Gesta Hungarorum.

Istoricul cercetărilor. Potrivit opiniei unanime a cercetătorilor, textele produse după secolul al XVI-lea sunt vestigii ale unui sistem de scriere care deja nu mai era utilizat. Aceste însemnări runice (propoziţii scurte şi nume) provin deja de la intelectuali. Acesta este de exemplu şi cazul notelor scrise cu caractere runice în 1587 şi 1604 de Szamosközi István. Cartea (manualul) lui Telegdi Jánosdespre runele secuieşti (1598) publică un alfabet runic, iar printr-un efort de a salva şi a propaga această scriere, descrie regulile pe care le cunoştea şi prezintă câteva mostre. Lucrarea sa, din care nu avem niciun exemplar tipărit, ne-a parvenit în mai multe exemplare manuscrise. Ea a exercitat o mare influenţă asupra vieţii ulterioare a scrierii secuieşti. Majoritatea notelor manuscrise, a alfabetelor din secolul al XVII-lea şi de mai târziu recurg la prezentarea sa. De exemplu, alfabetul din 1673 al călugărului franciscan Kájoni János provine dintr-un alfabet vechi, necunoscut, dar al doilea alfabet pe care îl notează provine deja din lucrarea lui Telegdi. Prima copie a unui text scris cu litere runice secuieşti (Inscripţia de la Mihăileni – Csíkszentmihályi Felirat) şi încercarea de a o descifra a apărut la sfârşitul secolului al XVIII-lea şi începutul secolului al XIX-lea. Literatura dedicată scrierii runice conţine mai multe încercări de a prezenta istoricul cercetărilor. Sinteza lui Cornides Dániel datează din jurul anului 1780 (ne-a parvenit într-o scrisoare adresată lui Hájos István Gáspár), a lui Szabó Károly este din 1866, a lui Fischer Károly Antal din 1898, iar a lui Sebestyén Gyula, din 1915. Acestea sunt urmate de opera lui Németh Gyula, dedicată originii scrierii (1917-20, 1934). El s-a bazat pe teoria lui Nagy Géza (1895), pe care a perfecţionat-o. În ciuda faptului că după 1915 numărul vestigiilor scoase la lumină s-a dublat, iar în privinţa originii scrierii secuieşti au apărut teorii noi, nu s-au mai scris sinteze despre scrierile publicate pe această tematică. Necesitatea unei asemenea lucrări este exprimată şi de un articol al lui Vásáry Istvándin 1974. Pe lângă lucrarea excelentă a lui Róna-Tas András (1985-86), trebuie menţionate şi eforturile, din păcate frecvent contestate, ale lui Csallány Dezső (1960) şi ale lui Forrai Sándor (1985). Printre cercetătorii scrierii secuieşti se numără şi istorici ai limbii maghiare, precum Jakubovich EmilKorompay KláraKósa LászlóMelich János şi Pais Dezső. În vara anului 1992, lingvista Sándor Klára a cutreierat toate bisericile din Secuime în care, potrivit bibliografiei de specialitate, au fost sau se mai găsesc vestigii paleografice crestate. Ceilalţi cercetători s-au bazat pe rezultatele folcloristicii, ale arheologiei sau ale turcologiei. Acestea sunt cunoştinţele de bază ale cercetătorilor şi ele definesc şi punctele lor de vedere. În Transilvania, personalităţile majore ale cercetării alfabetului secuiesc sunt: clujenii Benkő Elek, respectiv arheologul (şi etnograful) Ferenczi Géza, care, pe urmele tatălui său, (Ferenczi Sándor), s-a ocupat îndeaproape (şi) de problema runelor secuieşti (sunt cunoscute mai ales publicaţiile referitoare la descifrarea inscripţiilor de la Inlăceni şi Dârjiu); folcloristul şi cercetătorul scrierii pe răboj Ráduly János, care s-a născut la Corund, dar locuieşte la Chibed. Din 1990, cercetarea ştiinţifică a scrierii runice a luat un nou avânt. Publicaţiile locale, precum Hazanéző (Corund), sau cotidianul Népújság din Târgu Mureş publică relativ frecvent articole referitoare la runele secuieşti, unele chiar anunţând descoperirea unor noi texte. Pentru a facilita accesul la ele, Ráduly János şi-a cules articolele din Hazanéző şi Népújság într-un volum separat (Ráduly 1995. 146).
Clasificarea textelor. În literatura dedicată runelor secuieşti, sensul expresiei vestigiu runic a trecut prin schimbări continue. Szabó Károly a împărţit textele cunoscute de el în două grupe: una conţinea vestigiile considerate „autentice”, cealaltă „invenţiile din timpurile noi” (Szabó 1866). Prin urmare, textele pot fi veritabile şi autentice, veritabile şi secundare, contrafăcute şi secundare (de exemplu falsurile lui Tar Mihály) şi teoretic pot exista şi vestigii false şi autentice (dacă, de exemplu, un text runic cunoscut din tradiţie e datat fals de către autor). De multe ori, clasificarea textelor opune inscripţiilor runice (epigráfiai (‘felirattani’) emlékvestigiile paleografice (paleográfiai (‘írástörténeti’) emlék). Prin aceasta, se diferenţiază textele epigrafice de cele scrise cu pana pe hârtie. În acest sens, o parte a inscripţiilor runice secuieşti (maghiare) sunt epigrafice, iar altele paleografice (Ráduly 1998. 3). Datorită faptului că în afara textelor scrise pe hârtie, la multe inscripţii s-au folosit alte tehnici (dăltuire, vopsire, încrustare), pare normală folosirea şi diferenţierea expresiilor manuscris (kézirat), respectiv inscripţie, (felirat). Un al treilea grup poate fi alcătuit de transcrieri (átirat). În acest caz, este vorba despre textele care la origine au fost inscripţii, dar ne-au parvenit numai în copie manuscrisă şi din această cauză prezintă caracteristici diferite de celelalte două tipuri de texte. (Sándor 1996).

Vestigiile runice secuieşti. În general sunt scurte, alcătuite din câteva cuvinte. În prezent nu se ştie nici câte texte s-au păstrat, fiindcă nu s-a ajuns la un consens în privinţa definirii vestigiului paleografic crestat. Singura ediţie conformă standardelor ştiinţifice actuale este cea a Vestigiului runic de la Bologna (Bolognai Rovásemlék) (Sándor 1991). Ráduly János consideră că fac parte dintre vestigiile runice secuieşti următoarele: inscripţia în piatră a două caractere runice de pe muntele Firtos de lângă Corund (sfârşitul secolului al XII-lea – începutul secolului al XIII-lea); pietrele „scrise” şi desenate de pe culmea Tászok de lângă Ditrău, care conţin şi semne runice (aproximativ din secolele X-XIII); inscripţia gravată în piatră de la biserica reformată de la Mihai Viteazu (Alsószentmihály, lângă Turda), datând de la sfârşitul secolului al XIII-lea – începutul secolului al XIV-lea; inscripţia de pe o parte a baptisteriului descoperit la temelia bisericii „vechi” din Vârghiş (sfârşitul secolului al XIII-lea – începutul secolului al XIV-lea); inscripţia de la Crăciunel, datând din secolul al XIV-lea (după unii, din vremea dinastiei Árpádienilor); inscripţia de pe biserica reformată din Bahnea (începutul secolului al XIV-lea); inscripţia runică de pe o piatră cioplită din biserica reformată de la Bâra (sfârşitul secolului al XIV-lea); inscripţia lungă, dar fragmentară gravată în tencuiala exterioară a naosului bisericii reformate de la Daia (sfârşitul secolului al XIV-lea – începutul secolului al XV-lea); alfabetul runic de la Mikulov (Nikolsburg), care s-a păstrat pe o foaie de pergament legată într-un incunabul în 1483 (probabil de la mijlocul secolului al XV-lea); vestigiul de la Bologna, un băţ din a doua jumătate a secolului al XV-lea (între timp distrus!), purtând un calendar şi regăsit în Scaunul Giurgeului; a fost copiat în 1690 de Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli şi interpretat ştiinţific de Sándor Klára; a doua inscripţie în piatră de la biserica reformată din Bâra (probabil de la sfârşitul secolului al XV-lea); fragmentul de pe „piatra cu scrieri” care conţine şi semne runice (muntele Bekecs, aproximativ mijlocul-sfârşitul secolului al XV-lea); cărămida cu rune secuieşti de la biserica unitariană din Dârjiu (anii 1490); inscripţia gravată în pictura murală din biserica catolică de la Ghelinţa (1497); inscripţia gravată în tencuiala bisericii unitariene din Chilieni (sfârşitul secolului al XV-lea – începutul secolului al XVI-lea); din aceeaşi perioadă, piatra „scrisă” din Jimbor şi grupul de semne de pe piatra din Vădaş; inscripţia din biserica de la Nicoleşti-Mihăileni (Sânmartin) – 1501; inscripţia runică de la Istambul (creat în 1515 şi distrus în 1865) – ne-a rămas copia creată de Kedeji Székel Tamás în secolul al XVI-lea; inscripţia de două rânduri desenată cu vopsea galben ocru din biserica reformată din Dalnic; inscripţia scrisă cu cretă roşie pe peretele nordic al bisericii reformate din Mugeni (anii 1530); prima şi a doua inscripţie din biserica reformată din Bâra (1561); inscripţia cu litere mici de pe „farfurioara aurită”, din biserica unitariană de la Turdeni, considerată obiect de cult (aproximativ 1600-1650); semnele gravate pe zidul bisericii reformate din Rugăneşti (1638 sau 1658); inscripţia de pe una dintre casetele bisericii unitariene din Inlăceni (1668); piatra „scrisă” din biserica catolică a satului Cioboteni (din a doua jumătate a secolului al XVII-lea – după unii, mai timpurie); inscripţia gravată pe piatra de pârâu din turnul bisericii reformate din Sângiorgiu de Pădure (aproximativ 1730); inscripţia lui Bod Péter de pe piatra – azi deja distrusă – din biserica reformată din Făgăraş (1759); inscripţia de pe tocul de pulbere din Chibed (sfârşitul secolului al XVII-lea – începutul secolului al XVIII-lea); inscripţia din aceeaşi perioadă de pe poarta de lemn (vasul de lemn) din Solocma; cele două semne strunjite la mijlocul secolului al XIX-lea (probabil pentru a acoperi o monogramă) de pe plosca de lemn din Ghindari; semnele runice de pe scândura din Vădaş (a doua jumătate sau sfârşitul secolului al XIX-lea); câteva inscripţii cu semne mixte (de exemplu din Bâra – începutul secolului al XVII-lea, sau din Cotuş – 1681).

Szekely-Hungarian-Rovas-standard-IEC-10646-2015Székely Rovásírás: A group of researchers dealing with the subject, primarily Klára Sándor use and recommend the term “Székely Writing” because there is no evidence that the writing was used by the Hungarian as a whole.  János Thuróczi’s in 1488 : “a part of this nation, which resides in Transylvania, makes certain signs on wood .. these Szeklers have not forgotten the letters of Scyth ..”

First mention in historical work comes from Kézai Simon his chronicle commemorates that the Székelys and the Blakes [40] used common writing. simon-de-keza-1.jpgsimon-de-keza-2Pannoniae, Pamfiliae, Macedoniae, Dalmatiae et Frigiae ciuitates, quae crebris spoliis et obsidionibus, per Hunos erant fatigatae, natali solo derelicto in Apuliam per mare Adriaticum de Ethela, licentia impetrata, transierunt, Blackis, qui ipsorum fuere Pastores et coloni, remanentibus sponte in Pannonia. „Orașele din Pannonia, Pamfilia, Macedonia, Dalmația și Frigia care fuseseră pustiite prin jafurile și asediile Hunilor, părăsindu-și solul natal, trecură, cu îngăduința lui Attila în Apulia, pe Marea Adriatică, Blackii (vlahii), care fuseseră păstorii și colonii lor, rămânând de bună voie în Pannonia.” Cu alte cuvinte, în secolul V d. Chr., Panonia era ocupată de blachi (vlahi – strămoșii românilor), pe vremea aprigului Attila. E important de subliniat că în Cântecul Nibelungilor (celebra epopee germană), care face referire la vremea lui Attila, se vorbește despre ducele VLAH Ramunc, aflat în alaiul lui Attila, prezentat ca un personaj de seamă de la curtea sa.
Adolf Armbruster. Romanitatea Românilor: The History of an Idea. Editura Enciclopedică. Ch1.3. This is further strengthened by the quote by Kézai: Blackis, qui ipsorum (Romanorum) fuere pastores et coloni, remanentibus sponte in Pannonia.

The runic script was first mentioned in the 13th century Chronicle of Simon of Kéza,[13] where he stated that the Székelys may use the script of the Blaks. Simon of Kéza (HungarianKézai Simon) was the most famous Hungarian chronicler of the 13th century. He was a priest in the royal court of king Ladislaus IV of Hungary. His most important work is Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, written in Latin around 1282. simon-de-keza-3.jpgRemanserant quoque de Hunis virorum tria millia ex praelio Crimildino erepti per fugae interfugium, qui timentes occidentis nationes in campo Chigle vsque Arpad permanserunt, qui se ibi non Hunos, sed Zaculos vocauerunt. Isti enim Zaculi Hunorum sunt residui, qui dum Hungaros in Pannoniam iterato cognouerunt remeasse, redeuntibus in Rutheniae finibus // occurrerunt, insimulque Pannonia conquestrata, partem in ea sunt adepti, non tamen in plano Pannoniae, sed cum Blackis in montibus confinii sortem habuerunt. Vnde Blackis commixti litteris ipsorum vti perhibentur. „Mai rămăseseră dintre Huni trei mii de bărbați, care au scăpat cu fuga din războiul Crimildin și care, temându-se de popoarele din Apus, au rămas tot timpul în câmpia de la Chigla (în Rusia de astăzi – n.m.), până în vremea lui Arpad (secolul IX-X). Aceștia aici nu s-au chemat Huni, ci Zaculi (Secui). Căci acești Zaculi sunt rămășițe ale Hunilor care, când au aflat că Ungurii se întorc din nou în Pannonia, le-au ieșit în cale, când se întorceau, în Ruthenia (în Rusia de astăzi – n.m.) și, după ce au cucerit împreună Pannonia, au dobândit o parte din aceasta, însă nu în câmpia Pannoniei, ci vecini cu Blackii (românii), au avut aceeasi soartă în munți. De aceea, amestecându-se cu Blackii, se spune că se folosesc de literele lor.”

În vremea venirii lui Arpad în Europa, pe teritoriul Transilvaniei Gelu a fost conducătorul unei formațiuni statale cu populație românească și slavă – în secolele IX și X – ce cuprindea bazinele Someșului Mic și Almașului, până la Poarta Meseșului. Lucrarea Gesta Hungarorum al lui Anonymus îl numește “Gelou, un anume blac”Glad a fost voievod al unei formațiuni statale medievale timpurii localizată pe teritoriul Banatului istoric – teritoriul dintre Tisa, Mureș, Dunăre și Carpați -, în prima jumătate a secolului al X-lea. Reședința principală a ducelui era Morisena – astăzi Cenad. Menumorut a fost menționat în cronica notarului Anonymus al regelui ungur Béla al III-lea ca fiind Duce al țării dintre Tisa (o parte din Ungaria de astăzi -n.m.), Mureș, și Munții Apuseni, locuită de români, slavi, avari, “cozari” (probabil o ramură a hazarilor), având ca reședință cetatea Biharea, pe timpul venirii ungurilor – anul 896.


The First Bulgarian Empire was a medieval state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded circa 681, at the height of its power, spread from the Danube Bend to the Black Sea and from the Dnieper River to the Adriatic Sea. It entered into a centuries-long interaction, sometimes friendly and sometimes hostile, with the Byzantine Empire. Bulgaria emerged as Byzantium’s chief antagonist to its north, resulting in several wars. The two powers also enjoyed periods of peace and alliance, most notably during the Second Arab siege of Constantinople, where the Bulgarian army broke the siege and destroyed the Arab army, thus preventing an Arab invasion of Southeastern Europe. Byzantium had a strong cultural influence on Bulgaria, which also led to the eventual adoption of Christianity in 864. After the disintegration of the Avar Khaganate, the country expanded its territory northwest to the Pannonian Plain. Later the Bulgarians confronted the advance of the Pechenegs and Cumans, and achieved a decisive victory over the Magyars, forcing them to establish themselves permanently in Pannonia.  During the late 9th and early 10th centuries, Simeon I achieved a string of victories over the Byzantines. Thereafter, he was recognized with the title of Emperor, and proceeded to expand the state to its greatest extent. After the annihilation of the Byzantine army in the battle of Anchialus in 917, the Bulgarians laid siege to Constantinople in 923 and 924. The Byzantines, however, eventually recovered, and in 1014, under Basil II, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Bulgarians at the Battle of Kleidion. By 1018, the last Bulgarian strongholds had surrendered to the Byzantine Empire, and the First Bulgarian Empire had ceased to exist. It was succeeded by the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1185.

In June 1957, near the Romanian village Basarabi (former Murfatlar) was discovered the Monastic Complex of Murfatlar. The workers of a limestone quarry suddenly  found an entrance of a rock church, which later would be called B1. From 1957 to 1960, romanian archaeologists conducted archaeological survey organized by the Institute of Archaeology in Bucharest presented by Ion Barnea and, the Directorate of architectural monuments presented by Victor and Liana Bilchiuresku . In the course of studies they found several churches and chapels (B1 , B2 , B3, B4, E3 , E5 ) , galleries (H , G ​​1-5), burial chambers (C1 , C2) and cells (E1 , E2 , E4 , E6 ) . Medieval workers in limestone quarry and  monks have left many anthropomorphic, zoomorphic and, geometric drawings on soft limestone walls. But not only that. On walls of the Monastic complex, its inhabitants had engraven Cyrillic, Glagolitic, Greek and runiform inscriptions.basarabi-murfatlarThe following year, romanian scientist D. Bogdan published an article in which he analyses about 45 runiform inscriptions found in the church B1 and neighboring areas . Conclusion of the author is that the inscriptions can be divided chronologically into three groups: signs of old Turkic runic inscriptions with old Turkic runes and glagolitic and Cyrillic letters and Cyrillic and Glagolitic inscriptions. According to Bogdan, since about 40 Murfatlar signs differ from the Old Turkic letters, then the Murfatlar Script can be attributed to Daco-Getae population which later began to use the Cyrillic and Glagolitic. The article presented facsimiles with over 45 Runiform inscriptions.
In 1962 Jon Barney wrote the article “Predvaritelynie informacia o kamennah pamyatnikah in Basarabi” which tells the story of the new discoveries in Murfatlar rock complex , B2-4 churches, galleries and burial chambers.

In the book “Tyurko-balgari i Madzari” Peter Juhasz  examine the relationship between Szekely alphabet and Bulgar runiform. Juhasz offered a long list of inscriptions attributed to Medieval Bulgars, among which stood out around 60 inscriptions 1000 years old, found in the rock churches near the village of Murfatlar. V. Beshevliev  in an article on Murfatlar Script gives 40 facsimiles with those mysterious  inscriptions. Polish  linguist Edward Tryjarski claimed reading of a few Runiform inscriptions. In 1991 was published the book “Kamennata kniga na Balgarite ” by economist Peter Dobrev, he claimed he deciphered Bulgar Alphabet.
Bulgarian scientists established that while the signs of Murfatlar had similarity with 15 Orhon-Yenisei letters, 15 Szekely rovas, 14 characters from Novocherkassk, 12 of Karakent, 6 Mayakskoе gоrоdishte, 4 signs of Nagy Szent Miklos, 3 from Humara,  it had similarities with  6 main characters and three variants of Futhark runes. He also notes the similarity of 4 murfatlar signs with Cyrillic alphabet.
Romanian scientist A. Stanchulesku had made the first attempt to decipher the Murfatlar Script. He found that the murfatlar inscriptions were written at 4 stages :  Gothic, Gothic-Old German, Old German and Bulgar. According to Stanchulesku, Dako-Getae who had lived near Murfatlar around the 4th century used an ancient script and incised on the walls of the monastery Gothic texts. Same letter with minor changes has been used during following centuries to write Old German texts. So using different languages ​​Stanchulesku managed to decipher several of Murfatlar runiform inscriptions (Stanciulescu A. 1977 , Stanciulescu A. 1986).
Sv. Venelinova in 2003 released  an article comparing Murfatlar Script with signs of Nagy Saint Miklos.
According to Granberg, there was a Balkan Runiform alphabet consisting of 25-26 letters.
Some of letters of this alphabet either had had local variants or varied over time. The direction of writing was from right to left. Also the Runiform alphabet influenced some of the Cyrillic letters (Granberg A. 2005).
In 2011 Z. Voinikov
published a study of Runiform script of the Ancient Bulgarians. He attempted to decipher tens of runic inscriptions from the Cave monastery of Murfatlar. Voynikov believed that the language of the ancient Bulgarians was akin to the language of the medieval Alans.
Nedyalko Ovcharov: From the inscriptions shown above I separated 77 different characters. 44 of them were found two or more times. The first column of  the following table shows the number of characters, the second – sign itself and the third frequency of use ( first number represents how many times the second meeting in how messages).
The first samples of Orkhon-Yenisei writing found along the Orkhon River date from the beginning of the 8th century. The materials on the table are from Kononov (A. Kononov 1980). They compare the letters of the three branches of Orkhon-Yenisei script (Orkhon, Yenisey and, Talas) with 44 most common of the Murfatlar characters. Their form is shown at column 6 and, their serial number at 7. I found that 13 of most common Murfatlar signs are graphically close to Orkhon characters.
First artifacts of Runiform script found in Eastern Europe are the inscriptions of the treasure of Nagy Saint Miklos from 1799 and texts on flask from the area of ​​Tsaritsyno found in 1896’s. In an article for newly found inscription from Sarvash, Hungarian linguist A.Rona-Tash divided Runiform scripts from Eastern Europe on five geographical regions : the Northern Caucasus , the Volga- Don region, Dobrudzha, Eastern Bulgaria and Carpathian basin (Rona-Tas A. 1988). Kyzlasov made a slightly different division. Based on thorough analysis, he classified Steppe Alphabets into two groups: Asian and Eurasian. Asian group includes Orkhon-Yenissey script. In Eurasian group, Kyzlasov put Don, Kuban, Ashiktash, South-Yenissey and Isfarin alphabets. Outside this division Kyzlasov left runiform inscriptions from the Balkans and the Carpathian Basin (Kyzlasov I. 1994). Here we make a comparison between the five alphabets of the Eurasian group, based on Kyzlasov’s classification with Murfatlar runiform script. Murfatlar signs fell in with: 14 signs of Don characters, 13 of Kuban, 10 of South-Yenissey, 11 of Ashiktash and, 5 of  Isfarin.

Greek language was an official language of Early Mediaeval Bulgaria to the adoption of the disciples of Cyril and Methodius by Boris in 886, today we know over 70 Greek inscriptions on stone issued by the Bulgarian state on various occasions. The earliest are from the king Tervel and at the latest by the time of king Simeon (Beshevliev C. 1979).  The following table compare 44 Murfatlar signs with the letters of the Greek alphabet used in four Bulgar inscriptions. Nine of Murfatlar characters coincide in form with the letters of the Greek alphabet.

Initially scientist thought that the alphabet created at about 863 AD by Cyril and Methodius to record the Slavonic language was Cyrillic (Dobrovski, Sreznevski) but Glagolitic was cryptography. Today, most scientists believe that the Glagolitic alphabet was created by the brothers and probably one of their students created Cyrillic  based on the Greek uncial letters are added to the missing of the Greek alphabet Slavic sounds (Ivanova T. 2004, Grammar of Old English, 1991). The following table comparing 44 Murfatlar characters with the letters of the Cyrillic alphabet. Ten of Murfatlar signs coincide in shape with Cyrillic letters.

Carpathian Basin Script is known from two findings: the world-famous treasure of Nagyszentmiklos and the needle case from Szarvas. The treasure from Nagyszaintmiklos was found at 1799 near the town of Sânnicolau Mare  in northern Banat today in Timiş County in western Romania and consists of 23 gold vessels  dated from the 6th to the 10th century. On the dishes were cut 12 runiform inscription. After the excavation, the treasure was transferred to Vienna. Ever since, it has been in the possession of the Kunsthistorisches Museum there, where it is on permanent display. The following table compares 44 Murfatlar characters with the signs from Carpathian Basin. Eleven of Murfatlar signs coincide in form with the Carpathian characters. 

Szekely Script was mentioned for first time in the chronicle of Simon De Keza (1282-1285), but the earliest examples of Szekely inscriptions are from the 15th century. The Inscription of Homorod-Karaksonfalva, in romanian Crăciunel, dates back til before 1495. : În timpul lucrărilor de întreţinere în biserică s-a constatat că inscripţia runică vizibilă pe una dintre pietrele turnului şi cunoscută de mai devreme este mult mai veche decât s-a crezut. Piatra cu inscripţie a fost incorporată în turnul în stil gotic târziu în anul 1496, din această cauză cercetătorii   au crezut că aceasta provine din această perioadă. În timpul lucrărilor însă s-a constatat că aceasta  constituia un element al porţii. Deci, inscripţia provine probabil din secolul XIII, adică din aceeaşi perioadă ca şi inscripţia găsită la locul bisericii medievale din satul vecin Vargyas (în l. română Vârghiş), unde runele au fost sculptate pe marginea cristelniţei având o formă arhaică, datate din  sec. XIII sau XIV.
The oldest known Szekler alphabet was found on the cover of incunabula in the library of Nikolsburg ( Mikulov , Czech Republic ) and dates back to 1483 . Today are known some 15 Szekely inscriptions before 1598 when J. Telegi wrote short monograph on Szekely script (Rona-Tas A. 1999). The origin of Szekely writing is not established.  Attempts were made to compare it with Orhon-Yenisei runiform (Nemeth J. 1971) or, Don-Kuban script (Hosszu G. 2013 ) . It is assumed that the shapes of the letters a, e , o , u come from the Greek alphabet through the mediation of  Slavic alphabets (Rona-Tas A. 1999). The following table comparing 44 Murfatlar sign with the Szekely rovas. Eight of Murfatlar signs coincide in shape with Szekely characters.

After graphically comparing the characters of Murfatlar, with alphabets that could be related to it in one or another way, I have got the following interesting conclusions :
1. The following 23 Murfatlar characters are found among the characters of the Runiform alphabets of Europe and Asia :
2. Those 21 Murfatlar characters are found among the characters of the Greek, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets :

3. 7 Murfatlar signs are found among the letters of the Greek, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, but not among the letters of the Runiform alphabets. It is likely that these letters are borrowed as graphics and sound values.

4. The following 11 characters are not found in any of the analysed above alphabets:

5. Two of Murfatlar signs, who are one of the most frequently occurring, have analogues in all Runiform alphabets and Glagolitic. In Orkhon-Yenisey script, Szekely runiform and Glagolitic these letters have the same sound value: n and o (this sign in Orkhon-Yenisey alphabet have phonetic value for “o” and “u”). Experts believe that these two letters were borrowed from the Semitic alphabets in Central Asia where they had almost the same shape (Clauson G. 1970 , B. Livshits 1980).

In 1978, near the village of Ravna, Varna district, was found a Medieval Bulgarian monastery from the second half of the 9th century. On the walls of the monastery, had been discovered nearly 150 inscriptions written in several graphic systems: Cyrillic, Glagolitic, Greek alphabet and Runiform alphabet. Among them was the runic inscription incised on a stone block. It was published by K. Popkonstantinov as No. 1 (Popkonstantinov K. 1997) . On the stone block were depicted a human figure and two horses. Above the human figure had been incised the first 4 letters of the Greek alphabet. In the outline of one of the horses were cut 11 Runiform characters. The second sign from left to right is identical with the letter “a” of the Greek alphabet. The third sign is graphically similar to b1 from Orkhon-Yenisei alphabet. This allows me to guess that inscription Ravna1 (in the numbering of Popkonstantinov) depicts the beginning of a Runiform alphabet. It could be assumed that the fourth character is “b” with an extra dash – perhaps with sound value ” v”, and the fifth which, resembling Orkhon-Yenisei “ng” have sound value of “g”. The sixth sign is graphically similar to “d” of Szekely alphabet.

Inscription R1 from Ravna according K. Popkonstantinov

Final Notes – So far, we found out the phonetic value of 26 Murfatlar grapheme.

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