Potrivit săpăturilor arheologice, orașul a fost locuit încă din epoca neolitică. Pe teritoriul localității Miercurea Nirajului au fost găsite topoare de piatră (2000 – 1700 î.Ch.), monezi bizantine din epoca împăratului Iustinian, un denar din domnia lui Iulius Cezar, iar hotarul satelor Beu și Moșuni este traversat de drumul roman spre castrul din Călugăreni.[5 Localitatea a fost atestată documentar în anul 1493 cu numele de Oppidum Zereda (Târgul de miercuri) în hrisovul voievodului László Losonczi(fr). Documentul menționează că localitatea deține rangul de oraș și totodată garantează privilegiile deținute de Miercurea Nirajului. Leopold al II-lea a permis printr-un ordin ținerea a trei târguri naționale în fiecare an. În urma Reformei Protestante, locuitorii orașului au devenit reformați. Miercurea Nirajului a fost pentru mult timp cel mai important oraș din Scaunul Mureș. Până în 1745 aici erau ținute ședințele consiliului scaunului secuiesc, deoarece între Târgu Mureș, deținătorul titlului de oraș liber regesc(en), și conducerea structurii administrative a fost mult timp un conflict politic și economic. În urma reformei adminstrative din 1876, scaunele secuiești și săsești, juridic autonome, au fost desființate și apoi încorporate în cele 15 comitate noi. Astfel, orașul Târgu Mureș, care până atunci a fost capitala oficială a scaunului Mureș, a devenit reședința comitatului Mureș-Turda. Noua entitate administrativă a inclus vechiul scaun secuiesc și o parte din regiunea Turda. Totodată, în 1876, ca urmare a hotărârii guvernului de la Budapesta, Miercurea Nirajului a fost retrogradată la rangul de comună și a devenit reședința districtului creat din localitățile limitrofe.
Székelysárd (until 1899 Sárd, Romanian Șardu Nirajului) was first mentioned in 1360 as Saar. It is mentioned as a wilderness in the 17th century, later Gergely Daczó settled Romanian serfs. In 1910 it had 462 inhabitants, mostly Hungarians, with a significant Romanian minority. In 1992 , out of its 403 inhabitants, 246 were Hungarians, 123 Romanians and 33 Gypsies. Many are engaged in animal husbandry (sheep) and farming.
De zeci de ani The Mighty Hollywood ne culturalizeaza cu fuck language, fuck culture. Ceea ce duce global la o populatiune tot mai abrutizata, adusa “democratizant” la nivel cu cartierele cele mai infecte si decadente din Dreamland USA (stil Harlem). De la Dan Chitic citire: F__utul, de orice fel ar fi el, este “partenerul strategic”, “element central al politicii externe a SUA”. Președintele Biden “a semnat un ordin executiv care va promova homosexualitatea și transgenderismul ca element central al politicii externe a SUA”! Știm cu toții, f—utul Planetei în general, a fost elementul central al politicii SUA de vreo ’70 de ani, așa, dar acum politica externă a SUA a făcut marele pas de la preocuparea despre cum ne f— ei pe noi, la obsesia cum ne f—em noi între noi, la propriu, fizic! Aceasta este “Noua Normalitate”, “The Great Reset” în care CoVid-ul nu e decât ultimul element, piatra din vârful unghiului – finis Coronat opus a Marii Revoluții Globaliste. Ce interes real poate avea Administrația celei mai puternice țări a lumii pentru cum se f.. oamenii pe planetă? Care e scopul zbaterii ăsteia pentru încurajarea sexului nenatural. Care e motivul real al nebuniei asteia, a obsesiei guvernaților noștri corect politici pentru sex – în general și pentru sexul nenatural – în special? Simplu: sexul este cel mai bun substitut al lui Dumnezeu găsit de societatea postmoderna. Prin sexualitatea precoce, prin sexualizarea copilăriei, copilului, omului de mâine, îi este inhibată setea de cunoaștere, îi este tăiată rădăcina sa din cer prin “descoperirea trupului” și autoerotism infantil… “dogma” corect politică impune înlocuirea miturilor, poveștilor și a lui Dumnezeu cu… o labă. O labă instituționalizată, programatică și dogmatizată! Asta e și finalitatea Legii educației sexuale pe care Iohannis și guvernărul său progresist o vrea trecută prin Parlament, căci e o lege “a timpurilor ei”, e o lege cerută de noile standarde ale lumii “Noii normalități”. Dar asta nu era suficient! Căci sexul natural, firesc, încă ține de o lege a firii, ba chiar de o normalitate devenită retrogradă, non-corect politică, care are deja prea multe legături cu lumea veche, conservatoare… toate negând “spiritul” și dogma “Noii Normalități”. E motivul pentru care chiar din copilărie omul de mâine e îndoctrinat că totul e pe dos, e “altfel” decât e, că trebuie să fi “altfel”… de unde noțiunea de fluiditate și încurajarea opțiunilor care până mai ieri erau considerate deviante. Faptul că lucrurile în “Noua Normalitate” trebuie să stea așa, să fie invers decât știam că e firesc, e o certitudine confirmată de ordinul președintelui Biden. Începând cu 5 februarie 2021 orice atitudine contrarie te situează pe un curs de coliziune cu doctrina oficială a “partenerului strategic”, te pune direct pe lista celor care se află pe “axa răului”. Ordinul acesta nu vine într-o lume în care cei cu alte orientări sexuale sunt discriminați sau marginalizați. Nicidecum! Nu, scopul principal pare a fi instituirea unei “liste negre” cu persoanele care se opun sexualității dogmatizate și dogmatizării sexualității nenaturale. Cu alte cuvinte prin Ordinul președintelui SUA se urmărește explicit eradicarea oricărei forme de conservatorism prin eliminarea din spațiul public a oricărei persoane care se va opune gayificării forțate a umanității, adică, în mod direct marginalizarea și demonizarea tuturor acelor persoane care se opun nefirescului generalizat, și în mod special, a tuturor exponenților religiilor și tradițiilor din lume, indiferent că aceștia sunt creștini, evrei, musulmani, hinduși, budiști sau orice fel de tradiție care nu admit “diversitatea” ca normalitate, care nu achiesează la “Noua Normalitate”. Aceasta este continuarea “firească” în ticăloșia ei a întreruperii totală și simultană a tuturor serviciilor religioase la toate cultele și tradițiile din întreaga lume, fapt care a avut loc pentru prima oară în istoria umanității anul trecut cu ocazia plandemoniei. Acum e clar: “Homo religiosus” trebuie să fie eradicat dacă nu poate fi reeducat. Noua normalitate, antitradiția, are nevoie și se poate clădi doar de către “Homo sexualis” și mai ales de privilegiații Noii Normalități – Homosexualii. Cei care deja au toata puterea vor puterea totala, controlul totalitar e mult mai usor de obtinut la o populatie decadenta lipsita de valori morale, de coloana vertebrala, ne vor vite duse usor de nas la abator. Iar scopul final este cel demografic, scop declarat fără perdea de puternicii zilei: scăderea demografică și depopularea planetei. De ce? Suntem prea mulți. Prea mulți și deveniți inutili de când am intrat în epoca robotizării și mai ales a Inteligenței Artificiale. Suntem niște animale de povară care suntem prea scumpi pentru cât producem, așa cum deveniseră și caii pe la mijlocul revoluției industriale, când au început să transporte mai scump decât mâinile cu abur. Efectul? Au dispărut caii fiind trimiși la abatoare. Pe noi nu ne pot trimite la abatoare. Și se pare că suntem mai rezistenți la boli și infecții decât s-ar fi dorit. Atunci singura soluție este să nu ne mai înmulțim! Și cum abstinența nu poate fi o soluție într-o lume a sexului dogmatizat, singura soluție este încurajarea relațiilor sexuale nenaturale, în urma cărora care să nu poată rezulta o nouă ființă umană. Chiar nu e complicat…Și dacă azi ei spun că suntem deja vreo 10% altfel, se pare că nu e suficient. Scopul, matematic și statistic, este să se ajungă la un procent de minim 30% care să iasă complet din schema “sporului natural”, la care se mai adaugă celibatarii și cuplurile infertile (din ce în ce mai multe) precum și cuplurile care au maxim 2 copii (și deci spor natural 0)! În felul acesta, în maxim 20 de ani “problema” suprapopulării va dispărea. Totul e ca obstacolele să fie înlăturate sistemic! Iar acele obstacole suntem noi, cei care refuzăm “Noua Normalitate”.
The Bessi (/ˈbɛsaɪ/; Ancient Greek: Βῆσσοι, Bēssoi or Βέσσοι, Béssoi) were an independent Thracian tribe who lived in a territory ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in Northern Thrace, but are often mentioned as dwelling about Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace and from Mount Rhodope to the northern part of Hebrus.Herodotus described them as a sort of priestly-caste among the Satrae, the Bessi being interpreters of the prophetic utterances given by a priestess in an oracular shrine of Dionysus located on a mountain-top. Later Strabo, provides a record in which the Bessi are described as the fiercest of the independent Thracian tribes, dwelling on and around the Haemus range, and possessing the greater part of the area around that mountain chain. Towards the end of the 4th century, Nicetas the Bishop of Dacia brought the gospel to “those mountain wolves”, the Bessi. Reportedly his mission was successful, and the worship of Dionysus and other Thracian gods was eventually replaced by Christianity. Cecaumenos the Byzantine historian described the Vlachs from Thessaly (i.,e. the Aromanians of Great Wallachia) as being descendants of ancient Dacians and Bessi who invaded Greece from the area on the Danube, supposedly seeking revenge for the defeat inflicted to their ancestors by Trajan during the Dacian Wars. In 570, Antoninus Placentius wrote that in the valleys of Mount Sinai there was a monastery in which the monks spoke Greek, Latin, Syriac, Egyptian and Bessian. The origin of the monasteries is explained in a mediaeval hagiography written by Simeon Metaphrastes, in Vita Sancti Theodosii Coenobiarchae in which he wrote that Saint Theodosius founded on the shore of the Dead Sea a monastery with four churches, in each being spoken a different language, among which Bessan was found. The place where the monasteries were founded was called “Cutila”, which may be a Thracian name.
Tatăl nostru” în străvechea noastră limbă bessă, spre jena noastră, îl păstrează o mănăstire romano-catolică şi l-a găsit în Alexandria Egiptului un savant american de origine armeană, numit Jack H. Antreassian (1920-2009), putrător de grijă a Bisericii Sfântului Grigore Luminătorul din Complexul Sfântului Mormânt din Ierusalim. În 1274 este atestat un ,,magister Paulus de Rodna et Bysterce”, iar în 1295 un ,,magister Vivianus” din Bisytercze. Este clar atestat şi în acest document numele ,,BISY” ca şi cel de ,,TER” (terra) adică: ,,ŢARA BISYLOR” sau ,,Besterr za”. Descompunerea toponimului ,,BESTERZE” în trei ne revelează: ,,TER”: ,,terra” adică ,,pământ” ,,ţară”; ,,BES” adică ,,a bessilor”, sau ,,Pământul (ţara) bessilor”; ,,ZE” arată divinitatea. Deci avem ,,Ţara dată de Dumnezeu bessilor”, aşa cum Cannanul a fost dat de către Dumnezeu evreilor. BESSII – preot profesor Nicolae Feier
„Eu sunt aicea barbar: nu mă pricepe nimeni, Iar geţii râd ca proştii de graiul meu latin… Şi besii şi sarmaţii dau zidului ocol.” Publius Ovidius Naso,”Ponticele”. „Dobrogea a fost din vechime o „BESS TERRA” (ŢARA BESSILOR)…Munţii Hercinici, calcaroşi, au numeroase peşteri (bess terra, pess terra), care au adăpostit comunităţi monastice besse precreştine străvechi (vestiţii pileates tarabostes) şi apoi creştinate. Aceste comunităţi besso-pileate au dat lumii personalităţi ilustre. Cu oarecare surprindere va afla cititorul că argonauţii, cutezătorii căutători ai „lânei de aur” au intrat pe braţul lui Ares, pe Istru (un braţ al Dunării) şi nu spre legendarul Caucaz, iar acest lucru îl afirmă Apolonius din Rhodos. Iason, Hercule şi alţii din pleiadă, erau traci, nu greci. Inşişi neamul grecilor sunt o expulzare (de tip solar) din neamul tracilor (poate al inzilor) spre sudul balcanic cu ramurile lor: aheii, dorienii, ionienii. Se ştie că vechii greci au „importat” masiv înţelepciune din Egipt şi că ceea ce numim platonism şi aristotelism vine în parte dinspre Ţara Crocodilului, dar şi din nordul balcanic, de unde au coborât. Marele neam al tracilor, cu peste o sută de triburi, conform surselor antice, avea în fruntea sa o castă preoţească „bessi” – notează autorul în Prolog şi de aceasta se va ocupa pe parcurs. Din reconfigurarea vocabulelor „terra besstes” a venit numele castei preoţeşti „tarabostes”, numiţi apoi şi „pileati”. Ca martor ia părintele Nicolae Feier pe istoricul Iordanes, ce notează: ”Aceia dintre ei care erau de neam, s-au numit la început „tarabostes”, apoi „pileati”. Dintre ei se alegeau regii şi preoţii.” „ Sfatul bătrânilor era compus din zece bărbaţi aleşi dintre cei mai curaţi şi înţelepţi bessi. Ei se numeau şi „dece”, adică „cei zece”.
balkancelts.wordpress.com/tag/bessi-tribe The campaign of 109 BC was launched, not along the Struma valley where Cato’s army had been destroyed, but along the Maritza (Hebrus) river valley, a route more suitable for a Roman army. Furthermore, this campaign appears not to have been directed at a specific military target, but at the ‘barbarian’ population in general. Thus, while the Scordisci are again mentioned as the focus of the Roman campaign, it was the Thracian Bessi tribe along the Hebrus river who bore the brunt of the Roman attacks. In fact, until this point the Bessi tribe had taken no part in attacks on Roman forces on the Balkans, nor had they played any role in the Celtic campaign against Rome. It would appear that the Thracian tribe simply happened to be ‘in the wrong place at the wrong time’. In terms of Roman expansion in the Balkans, Rufus’ victory in 109 BC did not lead to any territorial gains, and the Roman forces retreated south into Macedonia, indicating again the punitive nature of the campaign. During their homeward march a large part of the Roman army was drowned when the ice on the Hebros (Maritza) river cracked underneath them (Flor. 1.39.5). In the long term, the events of 109 BC did not significantly affect the geo-political situation in the Balkans. Rome had still not achieved a foothold in Thrace, and the attack on the Bessi tribe had the effect of turning this tribe into one of Rome’s most bitter enemies. In the ensuing conflict the Bessi became one of the most enthusiastic participants in attacks on Roman Macedonia, and continued to resist the Romans in Thrace even after the end of the Scordisci Wars. These events also forged closer links between the Bessi tribe and the Celts in Thrace. It should be noted that the term Scordisci is applied by the Romans to the tribes of today’s southwestern Bulgaria who lived in the Rila/Rhodope mountains area. This once again clearly illustrates that the term was used by the Romans to refer to all the Celts of Thrace, whether in today’s Serbia, northern Bulgaria or, as in the present case, southwestern Bulgaria (the tribes who had destroyed the army of Porcius Cato, and massacred the Roman garrison at Heraclea Sintica, in 114 BC). During the Curio campaign in 75 BC, large numbers of the native population were enslaved by the Romans, one of whom was a chieftain of the Maidi tribe – Spartacus. In this case, however, it appears that Rome had taken the vipers to her bed. In 73 BC a number of Thracian and Celtic slaves, led by Spartacus and the Celt Crixus, rose against the empire in a rebellion that would shake the very foundations of Rome.
The Thracian language was the language of the ancient population of the modern Thracia and several adjacent regions. The newest studies point out that, besides Thracia, Thracian was also spoken to the west of the Ossogovo mountain, along the upper course of the Bregalnica river and further to the west of the lower course of the river Vardar (Axios) including the modern city of Thessalonica and its environs. The northern branches of the Balkan mountains (approximately to the south of the line Montana – Devnja) probably also belonged to the Thracian linguistic territory. The ancient name of the city of Varna – Odessos is not Thracian, however, therefore in Varna and its environs was spoken another language – the Dacian. Jordanes in his Gothic history, written in the middle of the VI-th c. provides one of the final accounts. Thus, speaking about the Danube river, he informs us that this river is called Ister in the language of the Bessi (a Thracian tribe): “Qui [=Danubius] lingua Bessorum Hister vocatur”. It is accepted that lingua Bessorum for Jordanes and his contemporaries meant “the language of the Thracians”.
An interesting problem is the survival of Thracian words in the language of the Bulgarian Slavs. Such are river names: Iskar, Panega, Osam, Etar (Jantra), Ibar (the upper course of Marica), Marica, Strjama, Tundzha, Arda, Struma, Nestenica (Mesta’s tributary), Bregalnica; names of mountains: Ossogovo and Rhodopes. The ancient name of the Balkan mountains – Hemus, has survived in the rare form of Im(-planina), attested by N. Gerov in his “Dictionary of Bulgarian language” (vol. II, p. 32). Thracian are also the names of some settlements: Nessebar, Plovdiv, Silivrija (transmitted via the Greek), etc. There are reasons to believe that Thracian are also some geographical names, which were not attested in the ancient sources: Véleka (a river), Nésla (a village, named after the neighbouring river), Batkun (a village near the town of Pazardzhik), Pirdop, etc. A number of words in the modern Bulgarian are also Thracian in origin
www.kroraina.com/vg There are about fifty toponyms formed as two-stem compound words with the term dava ‘town, city’, e.g. Acidava, , Thermidava, Cumidava, Rusidava, Sucidava, etc. The number of toponyms of this type is considerable. This enables us to make some conclusions on the basis of their geographical distribution. Their distribution is as follows: – Twenty-nine of these names, i.e. more than half of them, appear in Dacia (today Rumania): Dacia was, therefore, their centre of irradiation. – Ten of them are to be found in Scythia Minor (today Dobrudža) and Mysia Inferior (today northern Bulgaria). – Eight are attested in the south-eastern part of Mysia Superior, i.e. Dardania and Dacia Mediterranea (today north-eastern Yugoslavia). In Thrace there are about fifty toponyms formed as two-stem compound words with the term para (probably meaning ‘river’ or ‘brook’), e.g. , Bessapara, , Sauzupara etc.; fourteen toponyms formed as two-stem compound words with the term bria ‘town, city’, e.g. , etc.; eleven toponyms formed as two-stem compound words with the term diza ‘fortress’, e.g. Beodizos, Orudiza, , etc. These three types of toponym occur only in Thrace; they do not appear in Dacia, in Mysia or in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Besides these there are other toponyms and personal, names that appear only in Thrace or only in Dacia. From this characteristic geographical distribution of the most frequent toponyms in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula (see Fig. 1) an important conclusion emerges. If in Thrace and Dacia the same toponymy was not used, then these two countries must have been inhabited in antiquity by peoples who spoke two different languages, i.e. two different ethnic unities dwelt there. Therefore the Daco-Mysian language was different from the Thracian one. This conclusion is certain, since it is not founded on etymologies that might be of a subjective character, but on geographical distribution which is an objective criterion. Thus we have separated Dacian (or Daco-Mysian) from Thracian as two different IE languages, and all other data and considerations support this conclusion. The study of the phonology of these languages, for example, proves that they are very different from each other.
kroraina.com Many linguists and historians, e.g. H. Hirt, V. Pârvan, Th. Capidan, A. Philippide, N. Jokl, G. Weigand, P. Skok, D. Detschew, H. Baric’, I. Siadbei, etc. have put forward very important considerations indicating that the Albanians cannot be autochthonous in the Albania of today, that their original home was the eastern part of Mysia Superior or approximately Dardania and Dacia Mediterranea, i.e. the northern central zone of the Balkan Peninsula, and part of Dacia. Now, however, when it is clear that Daco-Mysian and Thracian represent two different IE languages, the problem of the origin of the Albanian language and the Albanians themselves appears in quite a new light. Rumanian possesses about a hundred words which have their correspondences only in Albanian. The form of these Rumanian words is so peculiar (e.g. Rum. mazǎre = Alb. modhullë ‘pea(s)’) that they cannot be explained as borrowings from Albanian. This is the Dacian substratum in Rumanian, whereas the Albanian correspondences are inherited from Dacian. In this way it has been definitively proved that Albanian is descended from Daco-Mysian. Therefore the primitive home of Albanian is a Daco-Mysian region, probably Mysia Superior (Dardania, Dacia Mediterranea) or western Dacia. This fact enables us to explain the numerous typical agreements between Albanian and Rumanian. Rumanian and Albanian took shape in the Daco-Mysian region; Rumanian represents a completely Romanised Daco-Mysian and Albanian a semi-Romanised Daco-Mysian.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlachs#Shepherd_culture During the Middle Ages, many Vlachs were shepherds who drove their flocks through the mountains of Central and Eastern Europe. Vlach shepherds may be found as far north as southern Poland (Podhale) and the eastern Czech Republic (Moravia) by following the Carpathians, the Dinaric Alps in the west, the Pindus Mountains in the south, and the Caucasus Mountains in the east. Some researchers, like Bogumil Hrabak and Marian Wenzel, theorized that the origins of Stećci tombstones, which appeared in medieval Bosnia between 12th and 16th century, could be attributed to Vlach burial culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina of that times. wikipedia.org/wiki/Statuta_Valachorum Based on the Grenzers’ petitions and the court statement, Emperor Ferdinand II issued the Statuta Valachorum on 5 October 1630. Privileges of Grenzers (called as “Vlachs” or “Morlachs”) on the northern and northwestern border of Bosnia in 1630 was confirmed by Ferdinand II in “Statuta Valachorum”. In 1627, the Varaždin Grenzer told authorities they “rather be hacked into pieces than be separated from their officers and become subjects of the Croatian nobility”. In 1627, emperor Ferdinand II granted the “Vlach people inhabiting the regions of Slavonia and Croatia, the right to stay undisturbed in their settlements and estates”; the Frontier Vlachs were allowed land use regardless of the land’s ownership, in an effort to make the Grenzers independent of the Croatian nobility, and more willing to wage wars for him. The Statuta, applied only to Vlachs in the area of the Varaždin Generalate (between Drava and Sava), later[when?] came to be used by all Vlachs.The Vlach law refers to various special laws and privileges enforced upon pastoralist communities in Europe in the Late Middle Ages and Early modern period. The term “Vlachs” originally denoted Romance-speaking populations, primarily concerned with pastoralism; the term became synonymous with “shepherds”.
core.ac.uk/download/pdf/154436981.pdf In the Serbian medieval state, as well as in other Balkan Christian states, there were no regulations that would uniformly regulate the position of the Vlachs. Regulations regarding the position of the Vlachs can usually be found in the foundation or donation charters of the monasteries. In the few charters from the first half of 14th century rules regarding the Vlachs were grouped under the common name Zakon Vlahom. Apart from this, common law applied to them as well. In conquering the Christian lands in the Balkans in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Ottoman state initially held certain lands and regions in a vassal status, and the sanjaks were formed following their definite subjugation and the liquidation of the vassal status, within the subjugated lands or regions. After the formation of a particular sanјak a tax list was immediately established, and that is how Ottoman Tax Registers (defters) were created. In each defter of the particular sanјak in the early Ottoman period (second half of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century) there existed a regulation known as kanun, regulating the duties of the Vlachs. They contained rules and legal traditions of common law, that had existed earlier in the territories of the subjugated Balkan Christian states.
Jus Valachorum : Today, the word katun in the Serbian and Bulgarian languages has the meaning of “a place in the mountains where livestock (mostly sheep) is grazed and milked in the summer”; in Romanian, cătun means “a small group of homesteads, smaller than a village”; in Albanian, katund means a “village”; in Modern Greek, κατοΰνα (katuna) means “a tent, a camp”. After much wandering in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, researchers came to understand, in the second half of the 20th century, mostly thanks to medievalists and Ottomanists,12 that the medieval katun was the corporate organization of social and economic life of transhumant livestock breeders. It was the basic unit of livestock breeders’ community, made up of several dozen households (kletištes) which were tied by kinship, sometimes with relatives in the female line (nephews, in-laws).13 After a certain period, it could divide and develop into new organizations of the same type (this is referred to as division of the katun).14 A katun was led by an elder (elected by their self-governing authority), and each katun had been called after its elder (for example: the “katun of Vukac Radičević”) before the transhumant population became sedentary.15 In the western areas of the Balkans, the leader of the katun was most often called katunar. A self-governing body – assembly, gathering (skupština/zbor), was formed by the elders (katunars/primićurs) of the several katuns. However, in the central and western areas of the Balkans, the ruler would appoint a knez (under this name since the beginning of the 13th century, before that the term sudija [judge] was used) as the leader. The institution of katunar/primićur and knez secured the self-governance of livestock breeders, and the knez was the link between the self-governance system and the central state government. Knez also acted as a judge for the members of all katuns under his control. The ruler would also appoint the vojvoda of a larger group of livestock breeders, also from among the katunars, who were responsible for recruiting (mobilization) soldiers in their groups, as well as for leading the warriors during military campaigns.16 Such an organization of livestock breeders based on katun (katun organization) would secure the social autonomy of the Vlach population within the feudal system of Christian states in the Balkans, including the medieval Serbian state.
Saint Blaise (St. Vlaho), identified by medieval Slavs with the pagan god Veles, is the patron saint of the city of Dubrovnik and formerly the protector of the independent Republic of Ragusa.
Saint Blaise or Saint Blaise has been the patron saint of Dubrovnik since 972, when the Republic of Dubrovnik became the property of his relic. To this day, only two relics have survived, an arm and a head preserved in the cathedral. Saint Blaise made a strong impression on the hearts of the people of Dubrovnik when he saved them from the attack of the Venetians. At that time (10th century) he appeared to a parish priest in Dubrovnik and revealed to him that a friendly visit by the Venetians was only a pretext with which they wanted to gain the territory of Dubrovnik. Thus, St. Blaise also became a symbol of freedom for the people of Dubrovnik, and as such we meet him even on the Dubrovnik flag. In Dubrovnik, his statues adorn all the entrance doors, all the towers and also the city walls. The most beautiful statue of St. Blaise is a gilded statue from the 15th century in the church of St. Blaise . On this statue, Blaž holds Dubrovnik from the times before the earthquake. The feast of St. Blaise is on February 3 and the whole of Dubrovnik celebrates this day. A very special ritual was introduced with a procession in which the relics of St. Blaise are carried.
Blessed, bishop and martyr, St.Vlaho lived 300 years after Christ. He was first a doctor and then a bishop in Armenia. When Emperor Licinius began to persecute Christians, Blaise was also arrested. On the way to the judge, Blaž was asked by a mother to heal her son, who had a fishbone stuck and had almost suffocated. Blaž prayed over the young man, blessed him and returned the healed to his mother. That is why Christians recommend themselves to St. Blaise for all diseases of the neck; Blaise’s blessing of the throat is well known. The name Blaž comes from the adaptation of the Latin version of the name (Blasius), and the Dubrovnik name Vlaho is derived from the Greek word Vlasios. Survivors (after the attack of the Avars and Slavs ), and frightened inhabitants at the beginning of the 6th century by the earthquake-stricken famous city of Epidaurus , fled to the desolate cliff of Laus , Raus , Rausium , Rhagusium , to continue living and working there. In 610 . Pope Boniface IV turned the pagan Pantheon in Rome , which until then worshiped 14 pagan gods, into a Christian temple dedicated to the Mother of God and fourteen Christian martyrs, helpers in distress, who died during the reigns of the emperors Decius and Diocletian and among them was St. Blasius – Sv. Vlaho and so began to spread his worship in the west and in Dubrovnik.
Worship of the patron saint of St. Vlaho remained unchanged during the turbulent times of Dubrovnik’s history. He united the people of Dubrovnik, nobles and serfs, citizens and merchants, to think the same and strive for the same, to keep this small independent state free and perform such great deeds in every branch of human skills. Everyone and everything was subordinated to higher goals and no one was allowed to indebt the Republic too much, to be honored too much. Throughout the duration of the Republic, St. Vlaho was the supreme leader, coins with his image were minted, ships sailed under his flag, his statues watched over the walls, his pictures were seen from all angles and prevented many misdeeds and crimes.
Vlachs in the history of Croatia: In the Middle Ages the term Vlach was primarily an exonym that referred to Romance-speaking pastoralist communities in the mountains. Due to their specific lifestyle, the term acquired a social-professional (shepherds) connotation. In the 13th and 14th centuries the shepherds of the Balkans were called Vlachs (Vlasi). While the Slavic communities managed to form national identities founding regional provinces and kingdoms, Romance-speaking Vlachs didn’t manage to form a national identity and were prone to assimilation. However, even if they were prone to national, linguistical and cultural assimilation with the Slavs, they did contribute to their respective communities. The Vlachs mentioned in medieval documents up until the 16th century, before the Ottoman invasion and migrations, were the progeny of romanized Illyrians and Thraco-Romans. Some Romance-speaking groups were autochthonous in Croatia and assimilated with Slavs, some were assimilated but preserved their identity and name, while some other groups migrated from Herzegovina to Dalmatia in very late 14th century.
The regions of Lika (which mostly involved the Croatian Military Frontier) and Dalmatia were the border area between Habsburg, Ottoman and Venetian empires, a place of mass migrations and mixing of communities.Raymond D’Aguilers and William of Tyre during the passage of the Crusaders in the 11th century pointed at the difference between the people who live in hilly hinterland, speak Slavic and deal with grooming of the cattle, from those in the coast who still speak Latin language, probably extinct Dalmatian language, and have different customs. In documents from Lika (1433), Cetina (1436), and Zrmanja (1486–87), a century after their first mention in Croatian historical documents, the Vlachs had distinct names and surnames, differed from the Croats. The Vlachs were called as “Vlasi na Hrvateh”,“good Vlachs” (dobri Vlasi), “good men from katuns” (dobri muži katunari), or “royal Vlachs” (Olahi domini nostri regis, Wolachi banatus regni Croatie). Despite this cross-pollination of language some groups of Vlachs may have remained distinct from the Slavs; historical sources from the 14th-15th century differ Slavs and Vlachs in the area of Kotor, Dubrovnik, Bosnia and Croatia (Slavi et Vlachy, Vlachy et Bosgniani, Serbi et Vlachi). In 1345, in Cetina Croati et Olachy are differed, while in a 1436 document, Catholic Vlachs of the county of Cetina (around the town of Sinj) were represented as distinct from both the Croats and the Serbs inhabiting the county. In 1450, in the area of Šibenik were differed Morlachi ac Hervati. In a book by Ragusan historian Ludovik Crijević (1459-1527), Writings on the Present Age, Vlachs (Valachos) were distinguished from other people, and were mentioned as “nomadic Illyrians who in the common language are called Vlachs” and there is also the mention of the present-day surname Kožul/lj in “Cossuli, a kind of Illyrian people considered Romans”. During the Orthodox migration to Žumberakin 1538, general commander Nikola Jurišić mentioned the Vlachs who “in our parts are called as Old Romans” separate from the Serbs and Rascians.
During the 14th century, Vlach settlements existed throughout much of today’s Croatia, but centres of population were focused around the Velebit and Dinara mountains and along the Krka and Cetina rivers.The Vlachs were divided into common Vlachs from Cetina and royal Vlachs from Lika. The Vlach population lived on the territory of noble families; of Nelipić (Cetina–Knin), Šubić (Pokrčje), Gusić (Pozrmanje), and Frankopan (Lika). Between 1400 and 1600 many Vlach families had settled Istria and island of Krk. The Frankopans settled Vlachs on the island of Krk (Dubašnica, Poljica) in the 15th century, and later around Učka. The Venetian colonization of Istria started not later than the early 1520s, and there were several cases when they returned to Dalmatia. They and other Vlachs in northern Istria were called Ćići. The mountain Ćićarija consequently got named after its inhabitants.
The Vlach people distinctively lived a nomadic life as shepherds and as traveling merchants on trading routes.They lived in villages, and hamlets called katun (ro. cătun), smaller village-like places in the mountains and lower areas where they dwelled during the transhumant period. The 1436 document (Vlach law) confirmed in Klis by banIvan Frankopan beside clear ethnic diversity in the Cetina county showed that there were two social groups of Vlachs, those with villages who pay tax, and those without villages who are nomads and thus obligated to serve in the army as horsemen. According to Stjepan Pavičić (1931), the Romance Vlachs or Morlachs of the Dinara and Velebit lost their Romance language by the 14th or 15th century, or were at least bilingual at that time.The so-called Istro-Romanians, called by themselves Rumeri or Vlasi, continued to speak their language on the island of Krk(extinct in the 20th century; recorded Pater Noster) and villages around the Čepić lake in Istria, while other communities in the mountains (Ćićarija) above the lake preserved the Shtokavian-Chakavian dialect with Ikavian accent from the southern Velebit and area of Zadar. The documents about Vlachs from Cetina county indicate Chakavian dialect with Ikavian accent. The evidence of their Romance language are toponyms throughout the Dinaric Alps, and many anthroponyms (surnames) with specific Romance roots, and Romanian ending suffixes. The “Vlach” or “Romanian” traditional system of counting sheep in pairs do (two), pato (four), šasto (six), šopći (eight), zeći (ten) has been preserved in Velebit, Bukovica, Dalmatian Zagora, and Ćićarija until today.
The data on Lika and Krbava in 1712–14 censuses (studied by Croatian historian Marko Šarić) divided pre-modern ethnic groups (etnije) into Orthodox Vlachs listed in the census as Schismatics (Schismatische Wallachen, Walachi, Wolochi), Catholic Vlachs (Bunjevci), Carniolans (Kranjci), Croats and Turks (Catholicizated former Muslims), based on Zagreb bishop Martin Brajković’s earlier groupings. The statistical categories were minimal to socio-religious and military and economic aspects of the population, but as it includes a list of 713 surnames it is an important source for onomastics, to comprehend the ethnic identity of the population. The majority of nobility in Lika consisted of Catholic Croats, while the vast majority of population were Vlachs (Orthodox). By confessional affiliation the Orthodox (Vlachs) numbered 71% of the total population in Lika and Krbava while Catholics overall 29%. According to ethnic structure by dual model, 87% of Lika-Krbava population belonged to the Vlachs of social and cultural history. According to ethnic structure by model of five nations Orthodox Vlachs numbered 71%, Bunjevci (Catholic Vlachs) 16%, Carniolans 6%, Croats 4% and Turks (Muslims converted to Catholicism) 2%. The future studies have found that at the beginning of the 20th century only 60–64% of the surnames were preserved, with mostly Carniolian surnames vanished. Despite the fact that Velebit Vlachs (Morlacs) were mostly Croats and Catholics, among them exist real Romanians, we see this from their surnames such as “Bučul, Čutul, Prendivoj, Hamet, Kapo, Sebikoč, Cako, Delebrajde, Čepulado.”Pope Gregory IX in letter from 14 November 1234 for king Béla IV of Hungary noted that the “Vlachs, although by name are considered Christians… have rituals which are hostile to the Christian name”. Pope Gregory XI in letter from 1372 for Franciscans in Bosnia ordered to convert Vlachs who live in tents and pastures (Wlachorum… quorum nonnulli in pascuis et tentoriis habitant), also relating to the activity of the Bosnian Church (also see Stećaks). Orthodoxy was also more akin to them rather than feudal Roman Catholicism which dogma did not allow to embrace as many pagan beliefs like in Orthodox Church.
Reference to the existence of Vlachs or Romance-speaking people in Medieval Croatia dates from the early Middle Age; One of the first mention of Vlachs is the 1071 charter by the Croatian King Krešimir IV about the Rab diocese, when on the island of Pag the village Wlasici (today village Vlašići) was mentioned, but is considered a forgery from the late 12th and early 13th century. In the Libellus Policorion, church cartular dated in the mid 14th century that includes transcriptions of older collected documents about estates of now extinct Benedictine Abbey of St John the Evangelist in Biograd and Saints Cosmas and Damian on the island of Pašman, is mentioned one Kutun (Katun) district. Vlachs can be traced by personal names and peculiarly by ending suffix “-ul” in Dalmatian cities documents since the 10th century. The sudden appearance of the Vlachian name in the historical documents is due to the official introduction of specific rights in the notary books for taxation and trade only from 1307. The first collective reference of Vlachs, or Morlachs in some Latin and mostly Venetian and Italian documents, dates from the early 1320s (almost 900 years after Slavic migration); in 1321, a local priest from Dobrinj on the island of Krk granted land to the church (“to the lands of Kneže, which are called Vlachian”), while in 1322 they and people of Poljica were allied to Ban of Croatia, Mladen Šubić, who fought against Croatian pretenders at the Battle of Bliska in the hinterland of Trogir. In 1344 are mentioned Morolacorum in lands around Knin and Krbava, within the conflict of counts from Kurjaković and Nelipić families, and that they can shelter their livestock on islands of Rab, Hvar, and Brač. In 1345 are mentioned in the charter by king Louis I of Hungary to Nelipićs, to whom was confiscated Knin in exchange for Sinj and other forst in Cetina county with all “with their inhabitants, Croats and Vlachs”. In 1352, in the agreement in which Zadar sold salt to the Republic of Venice, in which Zadar retained part of the salt that Morlachi and others exported by land. In the 1357 charter of Šibenik was imposed a provision that Vlachs mustn’t use without authority the city lands for pasture. In 1362, the Morlachorum, unauthorized, settled on lands of Trogir but were allowed to use it for pasture for a few months. In 1383, Vlachs around Šibenik, which partially belonged to the Queen Elizabeth and noble Ivan III Nelipić, were causing problems, and citizens wrote to the Queen asking for help. The Queen warned the Ban of Croatia, Emerik, and ordered him to send Vlachs away from the city lands and take fines from them, from which a part to be given to the citizens. In 1387, when nobles from the family Budislavić from Krbava confirmed with a charter the privileges of the citizens of city Pag, was determined that Vlachs musn’t use the city lands for pasture. In the Statute of Senj dating to 1388, the Frankopans mentioned Morowlachi and defined the amount of time they had for pasture around river Gacka when they descended from the mountains. Some scholars consider that to the alleged Vlachian migration in the 14th century to the Dalmatian Zagora preceded black death which enabled permanent Vlachian colonization and pasture of animals on desolated land. This migration would be followed with the sudden appearance of stećak tombstones in the Cetina county, showing the cultural specificity of the newly arrived communities. The particular appearance of the stećaks indicate separate socio-cultural identity, to whom afterlife was important, as well socio-professional prosperity for such valuable burials. In the 1376 and 1454 documents by Republic of Dubrovnik about trade with Bosnian lands are distinguished Vlachi et Bosgnani. In Bosnian documents are first mentioned in c. 1234 by ban Matej Ninoslav, and from 1361 up to 1417 were mentioned royal Vlachs of Bosnian bans and kings. On 13 April 1411, Bosnian Duke Sandalj Hranić sold the Croatian town Ostrovica, which was a gift from King Ladislaus of Naples to the Republic of Venice. A year later on 10 April 1412, the Murlachos (probably in service of King Sigismund) captured the Ostrovica Fortress from Venice. In August 1417, Venetian authorities were concerned with the “Morlachs and other Slavs” from the hinterland, that were a threat to security in Šibenik. In 1405 and 1421, morolakis seu olakonibus and wolachos sugari lived on the lands of Ostrovica Lička, today near Gospić in Lika. During the 15th century, the Vlach population in Croatia expanded so significantly that they were sometimes mentioned as a distinct entity along the Croatians. In 1412 King Sigismund bestowed the Sinj county and Travnik fortress to Ivan III Nelipić, and mentioned that Croats and Vlachs were at his disposal (cum universis Croatis et Vlahis). In the so-called Pašman Breviary (1431) were distinguished Croats and Vlachs enslaved by the Turks. On 6 August 1432, the Ragusians reported to King Sigismund that the Turks had invaded into the Croatian lands, and captured many Croats and Vlachs. In 1432, on the order of King Sigismund, Morlachs were required for military service and to gather at the Ban’s camp where they were joined by the “whole of the Croatian Kingdom and co-existing forces of the Vlachs”. In 1433 was released document which defined relation between “good Vlachs” and Church of St. Ivan on the Hill in Lika, mentioning Vlach judicial court, and that “not one Vlach among us brother Croat Vlachs will carry out any evil on the said property”.
The sale of Dalmatia on 7 April 1433 by King Sigismund to the Republic of Venice earned him the enmity of Ivan Frankopan. With death of last Nelipić in 1435, Frankopan convinced the Vlachs to side with him by promising them the resurrection of old “Vlach Laws” (previously given by Nelipić’s). Law for parish of Cetina given by Ivan Frankopan on 18 March 1436 distinguishes Vlachs from Croats and Serbs and determines that the Vlachs have their own knez. These laws dated from the middle of the 14th century and included many personal rights for the Vlachs. According to the “Vlach Laws”, Vlachs that chose to follow Frankopan received various privileges, such as serving under Vlach commanders instead of Croatian ones, crimes committed in the town of Sinj would be judged by a Vlach magistrate rather than a Croatian one, the Croatian prince of Cetina would not be permitted to appoint a voivode (prince) over them  and Croats were restricted to having only one Vlach as their shepherd. Encouraged by these promises, the Vlachs attacked nearby littoral towns under Venetian control, but in 1436 on behalf of king Sigismund, Ban of Croatia Matko Talovac waged war against Ivan Frankopan who didn’t manage to survive. As they previously supported Frankopan, Vlachs from Cetina now were persecuted, resulting on 2 July 1436 informing the Vlachs of a peace treaty between Talovac and Venice that had been signed that forbade further attacks on Venetian towns, but it wasn’t always respected. The persecution was also in part due to the new conflict between Talovac and herzog Stjepan Vukčić Kosača who at the time had capital in Imotski. Kosača managed to conquer in 1440 Omiš and Poljica, but lost them to Venice in 1444. From this time are dated stećaks from Bisko. In 1444 conflicts between Talovac and Vlachs again re-emerge, with estates of Vlachs Mikul Dudanović, Radoj Gerdanić and their siblings being given to the widow of Šimun Keglević. This resulted with the migration of Morlachs from the Talovac estates in Cetina to Poljica under Venice control in 1446.
The Vlachs of Lika were ruled by Croatian princes and bishops, while Vlachs who lived along the Cetina river were more autonomous and were governed by Vlach princes, dukes and judges. They also paid more favorable taxes and were free from paying for pasture for their cattle. However, they were not completely free citizens and faced restrictions such as prohibitions on becoming court witnesses, jurors and officers. Their rights were contained in the “Vlach Paper” from 1476, which itself is an extension of the “Vlach Laws” from 1436. Both of these were written in Cyrillic and kept in the Franciscan monastery in Trsat. Also, during this period, large numbers of Vlachs were traded or used as gifts between Croatian nobles, and local churches. In the summer of 1448 during warfare around Šibenik city’s authority complained in Venice about Morlachs and Croats who subordinate with Ban of Croatia.In 1463, in the župa of Vrlika were mentioned Vlachs from the de genere Thwlich (Tulić), gifted by the King Matthias Corvinus to the local Croatian nobel Ivan Čubretić. In 1481, by the king some Vlachs were settled in Lika. In 1486-87 were mentioned at the Zrmanja river region, around the Kegalj-grad, because of land disputes with nobles Keglević. In the late 1480s are mentioned in Dubašica and Poljica on island Krk, “corvati et morlacchi“. In 1504 document from Krk mentions “…every Christian, nobleman and peasant, Vlach or Croat”. In the 1504 document about war tributes, besides from Vrlika, were also mentioned Vlachs from Knin (Tinninienses), Obrovac (Obrowacz) and Nutjak. Another group or Vlachian term besides Morlachs was Ćići (ger. Tschitsche). In the early 15th century was mentioned as a surname in Istria, while in 1463 by priest Fraščić as a group who under Ivan Frankopan plunder Istrian territory beneath mountain Učka. In 1499, the Carinthian parish priest Jakob Urnest mentioned a territory Czyschnlandt between Croatian and Bosnian kingdoms, which some consider to be the Cetina river region in southern Croatia. In penal records of Trieste from the year 1500 contain an inscription of an accused who, when asked of his home country, replied Ciccio da Segna (Senj), while another man declared himself as Ciccio da S. Michele di Leme (Lim valley in Istria). In 1523 and 1527, in the estate of Lupoglav were settled Tschizen aus Krabatten. In 1528, Tschitschen were mentioned in regard of possible settling in Modruš and other lands as a resistance against Martolosi. In 1530, they were prohibited to purchase grain in Novo Mesto and Metlika in Lower Carniola. In 1539, royal commissioner Erasmo von Thurn submitted a request by Ćići to King Ferdinand if they could be given some deserted land on karst and Istria. Also, previously in 1530 general commander Nikola Jurišić mentioned Vlachs who were commonly called Ćići (Valachi, quos vulgo Zytschn vocant), while Slovenian diplomat Benedikt Kuripešič in his travel through Bosnia mentioned his use of Zitzen and Zigen as exonym, along Vlach and Martolosi, for the Serbs and Orthodox immigrants in Bosnia which came from Smederevo and Greek Belgrade (Smedraw and griechisch Weussenburg). In October 1538, captain of Bihać Erazmo Thurn wrote to King Ferdinand I that Ćići from Istria (die issterreichischen Zittschen), who were around Ottoman occupied Obrovac, moved to king’s land with many men and 40,000 cattles.
Vlach migrations to the Austrian Empire from the Ottoman Empire, and vice versa, were generally caused by the loss of financial status or privileges of Vlach laws, rather than from any form of ethnic or religious persecution. Usually the migrations were caused or performed in periods after turbulent events, like Battle of Mohács (1526), the conquest of Dalmatia (1522), Lika and Krbava (1527-28), and subsequent battles.
Bogumil Hrabak emphasized that not all cattle breeders and shepherds in the Balkans were called Vlachs, an example being the Arbanasi. According to Zef Mirdita, there’s a clear distinction between the Serb ethnic community and the Vlachs as seen in Serbian medieval documents mentioning “Vlachs” separately from “Serbs”, and for example the prohibition of intermarriage between Serbs and Vlachs by Emperor Stefan Dušan (in Dušan’s Code). However, as argued by John V. A. Fine Jr., “a more detailed examination of the code shows that it was in fact occupational”. Mirdita noted that the Vlachs were always mentioned as an ethnic group and were in the process of Slavicization which wasn’t completed in the 15th century. On the basis of documents from the 13th to the 15th century it is evident that the Vlachs were considered by the Serbs as “others” i.e. different from themselves. In a study about Western Balkans household and families, Austrian historian of historical anthropology Karl Kaser argued a Catholic Vlach origin of Bunjevci who became absorbed in Croat community while Orthodox Vlach was absorbed in Serbian community. Hrabak emphasized that South Slavic scholarship and Serbian nationalists tried to neglect or minimize the contribution of Vlachs in their ethnogenesis and history because the old-Balkan element insulted their idea of pure Slavs. Jaroslav Šidak noted that due to receiving derogatory connotation in Historija naroda Jugoslavije II (1959) the issue was avoided by writing a lowercase “vlachs” in the meaning of a social term. Some international scholars like Noel Malcolm consider that Bosnian Serbs have a large element of non-Slavic ancestry (Vlachian) and that national concept of Croats and Serbs are 19th- and 20th-century constructs. Mirko Valentić claim that the Vlachs were Serbianized only in the 19th century. The War in Croatia lasted from 1991 until 1995. Croatian historian Drago Roksandić claimed in 1991, before the war escalated, that until today, the “Vlach question” (Vlaško pitanje) had caused and still caused many disagreements between experts and non-experts in ex-Yugoslavian countries, as well as in the other Balkan countries with Vlach communities. The Vlach heritage has had a remarkable impact on modern Serbs, Croats and Bosnians.
Dalmatianlanga dalmata, dalmato; Italian: lingua dalmatica, dalmatico; Croatian: dalmatski) is an extinctRomance language that was spoken in the Dalmatia region of present-day Croatia, and as far south as Kotor in Montenegro. The Ragusan dialect of Dalmatian, the most studied prestige dialect, was the official language of the Republic of Ragusa for much of its medieval history until it was gradually supplanted by other local languages. Dalmatian speakers lived in the coastal towns of Zadar (Jadera), Trogir(Tragur, Traù), Spalato (Split; Spalato), Ragusa (Dubrovnik; Raugia, Ragusa), and Kotor (Cattaro), each of these cities having a local dialect, and on the islands of Krk (Vikla, Veglia), Cres (Crepsa), and Rab (Arba). Almost every city developed its own dialect. Most of these became extinct before they were recorded, so the only trace of these ancient dialects is some words borrowed into local dialects of today’s Croatia and Montenegro. Ragusan is the Southern dialect, whose name is derived from the Romance name of Dubrovnik, Ragusa. The Maritime Republic of Ragusa had a large and important fleet, by the 15th century numbering about 300 ships.The language was threatened by the Slav expansion, as the Ragusan Senate decided that all debates had to be held in the lingua veteri ragusea (ancient Ragusan language) and the use of the Slav was forbidden. Nevertheless, during the 16th century, the Ragusan Romance language fell out of use and became extinct. Dalmatian evolved from the vulgar Latin of the Illyro-Romans. It was spoken on the Dalmatian coast from Fiume (now Rijeka) as far south as Cottora (Kotor) in Montenegro. Speakers lived mainly in the coastal towns of Jadera (Zadar), Tragurium (Trogir), Spalatum (Split), Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Acruvium (Kotor), and also on the islands of Curicta (Krk), Crepsa (Cres) and Arba (Rab). The oldest preserved documents written in Dalmatian are 13th century inventories in Ragusa (Dubrovnik). Dalmatian is also known from two Ragusan letters, dated 1325 and 1397. The available sources include roughly 260 Ragusan words. Surviving words include some 260 Ragusan words like pen (pâine) ‘bread’, teta (tată) ‘father’, chesa (casă) ‘house’, and fachir (a face) ‘to do’, which were quoted by the Dalmatian, Filippo Diversi, Rector of the republic of Ragusa in the 1430s.
In 1897, the scholar Matteo Bartoli, himself a native of nearby Istria, visited a burbur (‘barber’ in Dalmatian) Tuone Udaina (Italian: Antonio Udina), the last speaker of any Dalmatian dialect, to study his language, writing down approximately 2,800 words, stories, and accounts of his life, which were published in a book that has provided much information on the vocabulary, phonology, and grammar of the language. Bartoli wrote in Italian and published a translation in German (Das Dalmatische) in 1906. The Italian language manuscripts were reportedly lost, and the work was not re-translated into Italian until 2001. Just one year later, on 10 June 1898, Tuone Udaina was accidentally killed at 74 in a roadwork explosion.
In the most recent classification from 2017 it was classified by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History with the Istriot language in the Dalmatian Romance subgroup. It was once thought to be a language that bridged the gap between Romanian and Italian, but it was only distantly related to the nearby Romanian dialects, such as the nearly extinct Istro-Romanian spoken in nearby Istria, Croatia. Some of its features are quite archaic. Vlachs (Aromanians) from Herzegovina and Dalmatia were known as “Caravlachs” during Turkish occupation. “Cara” means black in Turkish and North in Turkish geography. Translated into Greek, the name became Morlachs (from Mauro Vlachs). Vlachs or Morlachs spoke a language close to Romanian. Vlachs or Morlachs spread into all Dalmatian areas including Adriatic isles and towns. The majority were Slavicized and many of them were Islamized or Catholicized. Today there are only a dozen Morlachs in Croatia and they have lost their maternal Romance spoken language.
According to the De administrando imperio of the Byzantine emperorConstantine VII Porphyrogennetos, the city was founded, probably in the 7th century, by the inhabitants of the Roman city of Epidaurum (modern Cavtat) after its destruction by the Avars and Slavs c. 615. Some of the survivors moved 25 kilometres (16 miles) north to a small island near the coast where they founded a new settlement, Lausa. It has been claimed that a second raid by the Slavs in 656 resulted in the total destruction of Epidaurum.Slavs settled along the coast in the 7th century. The Slavs named their settlement Dubrovnik. The Romance (“Latin”) and Slavs held each other antagonistically, though by the 12th century the two settlements had merged. The channel that divided the city was filled, creating the present-day main street (the Stradun) which became the city centre. There are recent theories based on excavations that the city was established much earlier, at least in the 5th century and possibly during the Ancient Greek period (as per Antun Ničetić, in his book Povijest dubrovačke luke). The key element in this theory is the fact that ships in ancient time traveled about 45 to 50 nautical miles per day, and mariners required a sandy shore to pull their ships out of the water for the rest period during the night. An ideal combination would have a fresh water source in the vicinity. Dubrovnik had both, being halfway between the Greek settlements of Budva and Korčula, which are 95 nautical miles (176 km; 109 mi) apart. During its first centuries the city was under the rule of the Byzantine Empire. The Saracens laid siege to the city in 866–67; it lasted for fifteen months and was raised due to the intervention of Byzantine Emperor Basil I, who sent a fleet under Niketas Ooryphas in relief. Ooryphas’ “showing of the flag” had swift results, as the Slavic tribes sent envoys to the Emperor, once more acknowledging his suzerainty. Basil dispatched officials, agents and missionaries to the region, restoring Byzantine rule over the coastal cities and regions in the form of the new theme of Dalmatia, while leaving the Slavic tribal principalities of the hinterland largely autonomous under their own rulers; the Christianization of the Croats and the other Slavic tribes also began at this time. With the weakening of Byzantium, Venice began to see Ragusa as a rival that needed to be brought under its control, but an attempt to conquer the city in 948 failed. The citizens of the city attributed this to Saint Blaise, whom they adopted as their patron saint.The city remained under Byzantine domination until 1204, with the exception of periods of Venetian (1000–1030) and later Norman (1081–1085, 1172, 1189–90) rule. In 1050, Croatian king Stjepan I (Stephen) made a land grant along the coast that extended the boundaries of Ragusa to Zaton, 16 km (10 mi) north of the original city, giving the republic control of the abundant supply of fresh water that emerges from a spring at the head of the Ombla inlet. Stephen’s grant also included the harbour of Gruž, which is now the commercial port for Dubrovnik.The official language until 1472 was Latin. Later, the Senate of the Republic decided that the official language of the Republic would be the Ragusan dialect of the Romance Dalmatian language, as opposed to the Slavic vernacular (Croatian), which was also forbidden for use in senatorial debate. In January 1348, the Black Death struck the city and decimated the urban population. With the great Portuguese explorations which opened up new ocean routes, the spice trade no longer went through the Mediterranean. Moreover, the discovery of the Americas started a crisis of Mediterranean shipping. That was the beginning of the decline of both the Venetian and Ragusan republics. On 6 April 1667, a devastating earthquake struck and killed over 5,000 citizens, including many patricians and the Rector (Croatian: knez) Šišmundo Getaldić. The earthquake also levelled most of the city’s public buildings, leaving only the outer walls intact. Buildings in the Gothic and Renaissance styles – palaces, churches and monasteries – were destroyed. Of the city’s major public buildings, only the Sponza Palace and the front part of the Rector’s Palace at Luža Square survived. Gradually the city was rebuilt in the more modest Baroque style. With great effort Ragusa recovered a bit, but still remained a shadow of the former Republic.
Slavs invaded and settled the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries, traditional historiography, based on DAI, holds that the migration of Serbs and Croats to the Balkans was part of a second Slavic wave, placed during Heraclius’ reign. Romance-speakers lived within the fortified Dalmatian city-states. In 6th century Byzantine historians used the term Vlachs for Latin speakers.[. During the late 9th century the Hungarians invaded the Carpathian Basin, where the province of Pannonia was inhabited by the “Slavs [Sclavi], Bulgarians [Bulgarii] and Vlachs [Blachii], and the shepherds of the Romans [pastores Romanorum]” (sclauij, Bulgarij et Blachij, ac pastores romanorum —according to the Gesta Hungarorum, written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Béla III of Hungary. Chroniclers John Skylitzes and George Kedrenos wrote that in 971, during battles between Romans and Varangians led by Sveinald (Sviatoslav), that Northern part of Danube were dwelled by sedentary Vlachs and tribes of nomad Pechenegs who lived in tents.George Kedrenos mentioned about Vlachs in 976. The Vlachs were guides and guards of Roman caravans in Balkans. 11th century : Byzantine writer Kekaumenos, author of the Strategikon (1078), described a 1066 revolt against the emperor in Northern Greece led by Nicolitzas Delphinas and other Vlachs. The names Blakumen or Blökumenn is mentioned in Nordic sagas dating between the 11th–13th centuries, with respect to events that took place in either 1018 or 1019 somewhere at the northwestern part of the Black Sea and believed by some to be related to the Vlachs. In the Bulgarian state of the 11th and 12th century, Vlachs lived in large numbers, and they were equals to the Bulgarian population.
12th century : The Russian Primary Chronicle, written in ca. 1113, wrote when the Volochi (Vlachs) attacked the Slavs of the Danube and settled among them and oppressed them, the Slavs departed and settled on the Vistula, under the name of Leshi. The Hungarians drove away the Vlachs and took the land and settled there. Byzantine historian John Kinnamos described Leon Vatatzes’ military expedition along the northern Danube, where Vatatzes mentioned the participation of Vlachs in battles with the Magyars (Hungarians) in 1166. The uprising of brothers Asen and Peter was a revolt of Bulgarians and Vlachs living in the theme of Paristrion of the Byzantine Empire, caused by a tax increase. It began on 26 October 1185, the feast day of St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki, and ended with the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire, also known in its early history as the Empire of Bulgarians and Vlachs.
R1 populations spread genes for light skin, blond hair and red hair. There is now strong evidence that both R1a and R1b tribes during the Bronze Age contributed to the diffusion of the A111T mutation of the SLC24A5 gene, which explains apporximately 35% of skin tone difference between Europeans and Africans, and most variations within South Asia. The distribution pattern of the A111T allele (rs1426654) of matches almost perfectly the spread of Indo-European R1a and R1b lineages around Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and South Asia. eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1a_Y-DNA#Turkic Based on descendant testing, it appears most likely that the sultans of the Ottoman dynasty belonged to haplogroup R1a-Z93. This has not been officially confirmed yet. All sultans of the Ottoman Empire (1299-1922) descend in patrilineal line from Osman I, making it one of the longest reigning Y-chromosomal lineage in history. King Béla III of Hungary (c. 1148-1196) was tested by Olasz et al. (2018). His Y-DNA was identified as R1a (possibly the Z93 branch and Z2123>Y934 clade based on STR values, but unconfirmed), while his mtDNA was H1b. Béla was a member of the Árpád dynasty, which ruled over Hungary (and Croatia from 1091) from the arrival of the Magyars in the 9th century until 1301. The Serbian-American scientist and inventor Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) is most famous for his work on the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system, the induction motor, the Tesla coil, etc. His haplogroup was first thought to be I2a-L147.2+ based on the results of another (unrelated) Tesla from the same village as his father. However, the testing of actual relatives, published on the Serbian DNA Project at Poreklo, showed that his Y-DNA line was more probably R1a-M458 (L1029 subclade).
Seimeni IYI – Simbolistica IYI este foarte veche, regăsindu-se în ideogramele proto-elamite din mileniul III î.e.n., descoperite în Iran, precum şi pe sigiliile civilizaţiei Harappa, dezvoltată cu peste 5200 de ani în urmă în Valea Indusului. Incadrarea stâlpului suplicatoriu în Y între două simboluri face trimitere la reprezentarea cultului Pomului Vieţii în civilizaţiile sumeriană, asiriană, egipteană, precum şi mayaşă, reprezentări în care Pomul Vieţii este încadrat între cel puţin două siluete umane sau divine aflate în poziţii sugerând venerarea, amplasate la stânga şi la dreapta Pomului Vieţii. Grupul de simboluri IYI se regăseşte şi în China, într-o pictogramă desenată pe o lespede de piatră, din camera funerară a Piramidei Albe, ridicată în anul 684 e.n. de împăratul Gaozong, care azi seamănă cu un munte – Muntele Liangshan, aflat la 80 km de oraşul Xi’an – în care a fost descoperită o mumie caucaziană cu părul blond.Limba protobulgară (sau bolğar, bulgara veche) a fost limba vorbită de protobulgari, acum dispărută. Foarte puține izvoare există despre această limbă și puține sunt înțelese. Este considerată de mulți lingviști a fi fost o limbă turcică din ramura ogură (oghură; în limba turcă oğur) și se crede a fi fost vorbită în statele fondate de protobulgari: Bulgaria Mare (în latină Magna Bulgaria) (în secolul al VII-lea), Bulgaria dunăreană (sec. VII-IX) și Bulgaria de pe Volga (până în secolele XIII, XIV). A fost strâns înrudită cu limba ciuvașă (astăzi singura limbă turcică ogură). Pe stragul statului ciuvaş se regăseşte grupul de simboluri IYI.
The Oghurs were the first wave of Turkic-speakers to move west across the steppe. They were followed westward by the Oghuz Turks and then the Kipchaks. Most of the Oghuz turned southwest and left their languages in Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Turkey while the Kipchaks remained on the steppe and became the modern Kazakhs. The Onogurs, whose name in Turkic possibly ‘ten tribes’, are also mentioned from 463 until the eighth century when they were absorbed by the Bulgars. The Khazars emerged east of the Bulgars around 630 and soon replaced them. They were a mixture of Bulgars, other Oghurs, Gokturks and others. With the formation of the Bulgar and Khazar states the term ‘Oghur’ gradually disappears from the records. The Chuvash people continue to speak an Oghur language which is somehow connected to that of the Volga Bulgarians. wikipedia.org/wiki/Oghur_(tribe)
“Tamga,” or “tamag,” literally means a stamp or seal in Mongolian. Tamgas are also stamped using hot irons on domesticated animals such as horses in present-day Mongolia and others to identify that the livestock belongs to a certain family while they graze during the day on their own. Among modern Turkic peoples, the tamga is a design identifying property or cattle belonging to a specific Turkic clan, usually as a cattle brand or stamp. The Turks who remained pastoral nomad kings in eastern Anatolia and Iran, however, continued to use their clan tamgas and in fact, they became high-strung nationalistic imagery. The Ak Koyunlu and Kara Koyunlu, like many other royal dynasties in Eurasia, put their tamga on their flags and stamped their coinage with it. For the Turks who never left their homeland of Turkestan in the first place, it has remained what it originally was: a cattle brand and clan identifier.
According to Ottoman tradition, Osman I, the founder of Ottoman Empire, was a descendent of the Kayı tribe. wikipedia.org/wiki/Ertugrul Hungarian scholar Gyula Németh (1969) links Kayı(ğ) with to another people whom Muslim scholars called Qay, identified with the (para-)Mongolic-speaking Xí (< MC *ɣiei 奚) in Chinese sources, Dad-pyi in Old Tibetan, and Tatabï on Orkhon inscriptions In the Middle Ages, part of the Kayi tribe moved from Central Asia to what is now Ukraine, they are known in the Old Russian Chronicles as kovuy and kaepichi. According to the famous Soviet and Russianlinguist and turkologist A. V. Superanskaya, the origin of the name of the city of Kiev is associated with the Kayı tribe: “As ethnographers testify, ethnically “pure” peoples do not and cannot exist. On the contrary, new peoples arise from ethnic mixes of two or more peoples, usually assimilating the best features of each.” With the Russified name Kaitag (Mountain Kayı) the Kayı tribe played a prominent role in the history of the Caucasus, and now the Kaitag language is classified as one of five dialects of the Kumyk language, which for ten centuries (10–19 cc.) was a lingua franca in the North Caucasus. Kaitag principality was a leading component of the Shamkhalate of Kazi-Kumukh state on the Caspian western seaboard that in different forms lasted from the 8th to the 19th centuries. wikipedia.org/Kayi Tribe#History
The Dulo clan was a ruling dynasty of the Bulgars, an elite caste intimately related to the origin and activity of the Huns and Western Turkic Khaganate. Particularly, it is said that the Dulo descended from the rulers of Great Bulgaria, which was founded by KhanAsparukh‘s (679–700) father on the steppes of Ukraine. This state was a centralized monarchy from its inception, unlike previous Hunno-Turkic political entities, which were tribal confederations.
Romanians have an even greater diversity of R1a clades than Bulgarians, despite not being speakers of a Slavic language. In fact, not all Romanian R1a is of Slavic origin. It includes Germanic clades (L664>S2894>YP285>YP282 and Z283), Iranian ones (Z93) and Jewish ones (CTS6). The Slavic clades represented include L1029 (under M458>CTS11962) and YP951 (under CTS1211>Y35>CTS3402>YP237>). Historically, no other part of Europe was invaded a higher number of times by steppe peoples than the Balkans. Chronologically, the first R1a invaders might have come with the westward expansion of the Sredny Stog culture (from 4200 BCE), which led the way to a succession of steppe migrations that lasted for over 2,000 years until the end of the Yamna culture (3500-2000 BCE). These early invasions from the Steppe were probably conducted in majority by R1b men, accompanied by a small number of R1a. Then came the Thracians (1500 BCE), followed by the Illyrians (around 1200 BCE), and much later the Huns and the Alans (400 CE), the Avars, the Bulgars and the Serbs (all around 600 CE), and the Magyars (900 CE), among others. These peoples originated from different parts of the Eurasian Steppe, anywhere between Eastern Europe and Central Asia, thus contributing to the relatively high diversity of R1a subclades observed in Carpathians and the Balkans today, especially in Bulgaria and Romania. Nevertheless, the vast majority of R1a in Southeast Europe today appears to be of Slavic origin.
Proto-Indo-Iranian speakers, the people who later called themselves ‘Aryans’ in the Rig Veda and the Avesta, originated in the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (2100-1750 BCE), in the Tobol and Ishim valleys, east of the Ural Mountains. It was founded by pastoralist nomads from the Abashevo culture (2500-1900 BCE), ranging from the upper Don-Volga to the Ural Mountains, and the Poltavka culture (2700-2100 BCE), extending from the lower Don-Volga to the Caspian depression. Horse-drawn war chariots seem to have been invented by Sintashta people around 2100 BCE, and quickly spread to the mining region of Bactria-Margiana (modern border of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Afghanistan). Copper had been extracted intensively in the Urals, and the Proto-Indo-Iranians from Sintashta-Petrovka were exporting it in huge quantities to the Middle East. They appear to have been attracted by the natural resources of the Zeravshan valley for a Petrovka copper-mining colony was established in Tugai around 1900 BCE, and tin was extracted soon afterwards at Karnab and Mushiston. Tin was an especially valued resource in the late Bronze Age, when weapons were made of copper-tin alloy, stronger than the more primitive arsenical bronze. In the 1700’s BCE, the Indo-Iranians expanded to the lower Amu Darya valley and settled in irrigation farming communities (Tazabagyab culture). By 1600 BCE, the old fortified towns of Margiana-Bactria were abandoned, submerged by the northern steppe migrants. The group of Central Asian cultures under Indo-Iranian influence is known as the Andronovo horizon, and lasted until 800 BCE. The Indo-Iranian migrations progressed further south across the Hindu Kush. By 1700 BCE, horse-riding pastoralists had penetrated into Balochistan (south-west Pakistan). The Indus valley succumbed circa 1500 BCE, and the northern and central parts of the Indian subcontinent were taken over by 500 BCE. Westward migrations led Old Indic Sanskrit speakers riding war chariots to Assyria, where they became the Mitanni rulers from circa 1500 BCE. The Medes, Parthians and Persians, all Iranian speakers from the Andronovo culture, moved into the Iranian plateau from 800 BCE. Those that stayed in Central Asia are remembered by history as the Scythians, while the Yamna descendants who remained in the Pontic-Caspian steppe became known as the Sarmatians to the ancient Greeks and Romans. The Indo-Iranian migrations have resulted in high R1a frequencies in southern Central Asia, Iran and the Indian subcontinent. The highest frequency of R1a (about 65%) is reached in a cluster around Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and northern Afghanistan. In India and Pakistan, R1a ranges from 15 to 50% of the population, depending on the region, ethnic group and caste. R1a is generally stronger is the North-West of the subcontinent, and weakest in the Dravidian-speaking South (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh) and from Bengal eastward. Over 70% of the Brahmins (highest caste in Hindusim) belong to R1a1, due to a founder effect. Maternal lineages in South Asia are, however, overwhelmingly pre-Indo-European.
The present-day inhabitants of Central Asia, from Xinjiang to Turkey and from the Volga to the Hindu Kush, speak in overwhelming majority Turkic languages. This may be surprising as this corresponds to the region where the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European speakers expanded, the Bronze-Age Andronovo culture, and the Iron-Age Scythian territory. So why is it that Indo-European languages only survives in Slavic Russia or in the southern part of Central Asia, in places like Tajikistan, Afghanistan or some parts of Turkmenistan ? Why don’t the Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Kazakhs and Kyrgyzs, or the modern Pontic-Caspian steppe people (Crimean Tatars, Nogais, Bashkirs and Chuvashs) speak Indo-European vernaculars ? Genetically these people do carry Indo-European R1a, and to a lesser extent also R1b, lineages. The explanation is that Turkic languages replaced the Iranian tongues of Central Asia between the 4th and 11th century CE. Because R1A males made children with many turk woman so mother language prevailed!
Proto-Turkic originated in Mongolia and southern Siberia with such nomadic tribes as the Xiongnu. It belongs to the Altaic linguistic family, like Mongolian and Manchu (some also include Korean and Japanese, although they share very little vocabulary in common). It is unknown when Proto-Turkic first emerged, but its spread started with the Hunnic migrations westward through the Eurasian steppe and all the way to Europe, only stopped by the boundaries of the Roman Empire. The Huns were the descendants of the Xiongnu. Ancient DNA tests have revealed that the Xiongnu were already a hybrid Eurasian people 2,000 years ago, with mixed European and North-East Asian Y-DNA and mtDNA. Modern inhabitants of the Xiongnu homeland have approximately 90% of Mongolian lineages against 10% of European ones. The oldest identified presence of European mtDNA around Mongolia and Lake Baikal dates back to over 6,000 years ago.
It appears that Turkic quickly replaced the Scythian and other Iranian dialects all over Central Asia. Other migratory waves brought more Turkic speakers to Eastern and Central Europe, like the Khazars, the Avars, the Bulgars and the Turks (=> see 5000 years of migrations from the Eurasian steppes to Europe). All of them were in fact Central Asian nomads who had adopted Turkic language, but had little if any Mongolian blood. Turkic invasions therefore contributed more to the diffusion of Indo-European lineages (especially R1a1) than East Asian ones. Turkic languages have not survived in Europe outside the Pontic-Caspian steppe. Bulgarian language, despite being named after a Turkic tribe, is actually a Slavic tongue with a mild Turkic influence. Hungarian, sometimes mistaken for the heir of Hunnic because of its name, is in reality an Uralic language (Magyar). the The dozens of Turkic languages spoken in the world today have a high degree of mutual intelligibility due to their fairly recent common origin and the nomadic nature of its speakers (until recently). Its two main branches Oghuz and Oghur could be seen as two languages about as distant as Spanish and Italian, and languages within each branch like regional dialects of Spanish and Italian.
eupedia.com/history/5000_years_of_steppe_migrations_into_europe Another paternal lineage found in the Yamna culture that seem to have spread with the Indo-European migrations is I2a2a-L701. Haplogroup I2 was the main lineage of Mesolithic Europeans and was found throughout the continent. I2a2a-L701 appears to be a branch found in Mesolithic Ukraine and southern Russia that became part of the Yamna culture. It is also likely that some paternal lineages of the Neolithic cultures adjacent to the Pontic Steppe were partly absorbed by the Steppe invaders and propagated with them to the rest of Europe. That could have been the case of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, located around modern Moldova and western Ukraine, which was adjacent to the Yamna culture in 3500 BCE.
4200-3900 BCE : Late Copper Age horse riders invade the old Balkanese tell settlements of eastern Romania and Bulgaria. Most of the towns and villages of the Gumelnita, Varna and Karanovo VI cultures are abandoned. A new hybrid culture emerge, the Suvorovo-Cernavodă culture (4000-3200 BCE), which will expand further south to the Aegean during the Ezero period (3300-2700 BCE). 3500 BCE : Other advances from the steppe into the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture lead to the formation of the hybrid Coţofeni culture, also known as Usatovo culture, in north-eastern Romania. 3200-2800 BCE : First north-west expansion of the Yamna culture from the western steppe to modern Poland, Germany, Scandinavia and Baltic countries. Creation of the Corded-Ware (or Single Grave, or Battle-Axe) culture (3200-1800 BCE). 2800-2500 BCE : Hybrid people from the Cotsofeni and Ezero cultures start moving up the Danube and settle in mass in the Hungarian plain. The southward expansion of the Abashevo, Poltakva and Catacomb cultures from the Volga-Ural to the Black Sea shores pushed more pastoralists of the late Yamna culture to Europe. 2500-2300 BCE : Indo-Europeans expand from the Hungarian plain to Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, southern Poland and southern Germany and start the most important Central European Bronze Age culture : Unetice (or Aunjetitz). 2300-2000 BCE : The Indo-Europeans continue their advance to Western and Northern Europe, spreading the Bronze Age and the single grave tradition with them. 2000-1100 BCE : The Sea Peoples invade the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean from the north (probably from the Black Sea). This is one of the most controversial part of ancient history due to the lack of clear evidence about the origin of the Sea Peoples. The Indo-Europeans from the steppe or from Europe itself were the only warriors with sufficiently advanced weapons and knowledge of seafaring to have destroyed the powerful palace-states of Greece, Anatolia, the Levant and Egypt. It also fits the 1000-year interval otherwise lacking any major migration from the steppes, at the time when the eastern Indo-Europeans were conquering Pakistan and India from Central Asia. 800-550 BCE : The Cimmerians are ousted from the Pontic steppe by their cousins the Scythians coming from the Volga-Ural region and Central Asia. The Cimmerians settle in Anatolia and around modern Romania around 800 BCE. The Cimmerian culture commenced circa 1200 BCE. Some archaeologists place their origins in the North Caucasus. Some accounts have it that the Cimmerians moved to northern Germany and the Netherlands and became the ancestors of some Germanic tribes, like the Sicambri (ancestors of the Franks). The Scythians followed between 650 and 550 BCE in Transylvania, Hungary and southern Slovakia. They kept trade routes with the steppes until the Roman conquest of Pannonia and Dacia. 100-500 CE : The Huns from southern Siberia invade Eastern Europe, pushing the Alans (a Samartian-descended tribe) westward. The Goths, Vandals, Franks, Angles, Saxons, Jutes and others cross into the Roman Empire under pressure from the new steppe migrants, which caused the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. 550-1000 CE : The next invaders from the steppe were the Avars, who entered the lower Danube region in 562. The Avars established their dominion over the Danube basin, from central Romania to eastern Austria, from the late 6th to early 9th century.
Why do old Turkic scripts in Mongolia called Orkhon look so much like the scripts Vikings used (Runes) at around the same time (8th to 10th century)?eupedia.com/forum/Viking-runes-reading-with-Turkic-languagelike Runes, Old Turkic was carved into hard materials (like wood, rock or metal) and you had mostly angular shapes as a result, because these are most easiest to carve into the material. Because of the latter, the two unrelated scripts have some similar shapes. “I am Danish, I have learned to read runes in history classes when I was 12 years old or something, we found it interesting, and used runes for secret messages, such as love letters. Runes is not a language, its an alphabet of mostly konsonants, made with straight lines, so they can easily be carved into wood or stone, and runes are actually a copy of some older, southern or more widespread alphabeth. In my eyes it resembles the Greek alphabet much. However, when I see a rune inscription, I can translate, or understand ½ of it with my modern Danish tongue. Forget the runes, they are just an adaptation of an alphabet to a wood carving culture with no paper. Its much more interesting to study the hieroglyps of the Nordic Bronze age.
It has long been established that the name elements Μουκα-, Βειθυ-, Διας-, Δαλη-, -πορις –κενθοςand –ζενις from the Pizos inscription are well documented Celtic name elements which appear throughout Europe in single element or compound Celtic names. Cf.:Μουκα- = (Celtic) Mocca, Mocia, Mucci, etc. The ‘Thracian’ Mouka- (variants muca-, muco-, mouki-, Moci-, etc. See Detschew 1957: 312-320) has long been linked to the Celtic Mocca, Mocia, Mucci , etc. The element occurs over 400 times inall areas of Thrace from the 3rd c. BC onwards, i.e. it appears in Thrace exactly during the period of Celtic expansion into the region, in both single and double element personal names (see Holder AC2, 602-605; Mac Congail op. cit. 146-149; Detschew 1957:312; Duridanov 1997). This Celtic element is recorded in continental Celtic names in Gaul such as Moccasenia (Lyon, Gaul –CIL 13, 1874), Moccia (Beaucaire, Gaul –CIL 12, 2824, and on two inscriptions from Cimez, Gaul – CIL 5, 7936 and 7947), Moccius (Suse, Gaul –CIL 05 07147 and 07835), N. Italy – Moccilo (Mediolanum/Milan –CIL 5 6042) and in the second element in the Celtic nam eCatomocus from Apras, Hungary (CIL 3 6480).
In Thrace the element is most commonly found as the first element of double compound names, most frequently in the structures – Μουκα-ζενις –from Kustendil, Nicopolis ad Istrum, Dupnica, Ivailovgrad, Pazardjik (x2), Glava Panega, Plovdiv, Kazanluk and Bela-Zlatina (Detschew 1957: 313); Μουκα-κενθος –Pazardjik (x3), Elchovo, Sliven, Osman Pazar, (Detschew 1957: 314); or, as in thePizos case – Μουκα-πορις.This element appears 15 times on other inscriptions at the Pizos site and on inscriptions from Kazanluk, Chirpan (x3), Tarnovo, Stara Zagora, Harmanli, Provadia, Pazardjik and twice on the Carasura inscription (line 12/13). In each case the second elements of the compound ( –ζενις,-κενθος, and –πορις) are well attested Celtic name elements. Particularly interesting are compound ‘Thracian’ names such as Μουκακενθος Βειθυος (fromPazardjik –Detschew 1957: 314) which is formed exclusively of well documented Celtic name elements. – source – academia.edu The Thracian Myth Celtic Personal Names in Thrace.
wiki – Mocán was a medieval Irish saint. He established Teampall Inis Adhaimh (now Barraderry Church) south-east of Carraroe, Connemara. Very little seems to be known of him, other than that he lived in the Middle Ages. The surname Mocan was first found in Banffshire (Gaelic: Siorrachd Bhanbh), former Scottish county located in the northeasterly Grampian region of Scotland, now of divided between the Council Areas of Moray and Aberdeenshire, where they were they held a family seat at Balnabruiche in Strathspey. Early History of the Mocan family – This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Mocan research. Another 126 words (9 lines of text) covering the years 1641, 1691, 1695, and 1707 are included under the topic Early Mocan History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.
Mocan ar putea fi un cuvânt arhaic însemnând (aproximativ) ”oier” sau ”cioban”, din rădăcina PIE mek- ”to bleat” (Pokorny), cf. v.ind. mēká- ”țap”, arm. mak`i ”oaie”, MHG mecke ”capră”. Mocan ar putea fi un cuvânt arhaic însemnând (aproximativ) ”oier” sau ”cioban”, din rădăcina PIE mek- ”to bleat” (Pokorny), cf. v.ind. mēká- ”țap”, arm. mak`i ”oaie”, MHG mecke ”capră”. Oierii aromâni numeau pe bulgari mucani .. Numele de „mocan” ar putea deriva de la sensul acestei ocupații de crescator de vite, asociabilă substantivului „moacă” (bâta ciobănească folosită pentru sprijin sau ca armă de apărare).
Dr.Vasile Glodariu, susţinea cum că Moţii ar fi de origină celtică.Reposatul profesor îşi întemeia această convingere pe simpladenumire a satului Albac(în care s-a născut Horia),care ar fi cuvânt celtic, căci o localitate cu denumire identică se găseşte şi în Scoţia, ai cărei locuitori ar fi,după unii istorici, rămăşiţe de ale vechilor Celţi.
In Trascau / Bedeleu pe valea Ariesului dar nu jos in vale ci sus pe culmi inca se mai gasesc cruci de piatra asa zis celtice, care atesta o civilizatie veche. Asa cum voievozii ctitoreau biserici tot asa doar comunitati instarite puteau ctitorii astfel de cruci de piatra, care nu sunt cruci de morminte ci sunt cruci amplasate pe coame de deal, sa marcheze tinuturi, drumuri. Pe acele coame de sute mii de ani s-a practicat o agricultura in terase pana la 1600m altitudine. Unde azi merge drum principal in vale, pe vremuri vechi era jungla, si romanii aveau drumurile sus unde nu riscau sa fie atacati de sus, unde puteau domina zona. La fel de mii de ani cetatile kurgane, ariene si apoi medievale tot asa au fost amplasate pe virfuri ce domina si care pot fi natural aparate de pante abrupte. Si evident zonele acestea au fost mii de ani zone de minerit – aur, fier, inainte de romani dacii si inaintea lor celtii. Ar putea fi o legatura intre celti si mocani, legatura sugerata confirmata de simbolurile, formele acestor cruci asa zis celtice? https://aleximreh.wordpress.com/2017/09/18/crucile-solare-din-apuseni/
Majoritatea crucilor de pe Arieşul Mijlociu din Munţii Apuseni sunt strâns legate de viaţa/tradiţia agrar-pastorală a zonei urmând ciclurile agrare/pastorale: imaş-ţarină, într-un spaţiu care nu depăşeşte uneori ca diametru doi kilometri sau chiar mai puţin. Între două pâraie e imaş, dincolo de părău, e ţarină şi fiecare spaţiu are într-un fel de centru al său o cruce, la care se oficiau slujbe religioase, sfeştanii de binecuvântare a stânelor, păstorilor şi vitelor pentru înlăturarea duhurilor rele pentru a le feri de boli, de dezlănţuiri ale naturii. În ţarină, la o asemenea cruce ca cea a Crocanilor, de Rusalii sau la Sânpetru, se oficia un mare maslu la care participau oamenii din satele comunelor Sălciua, Ponor, Baia de Arieş şi din alte sate: Poşaga, Mogoş, când se sfinţea apa cu care mai apoi se stropeau holdele, casele, colibele şi vitele. O semnificaţie deosebită avea agapa din această zi, cu binecuvântarea bucatelor şi oferirea de către gospodari celor din jur să guste din bucatele lor: Har din har, dar din dar se face!, pentru a da putere de rodire anului. Din Dealul Feţii până la Crucea Crocanilor sunt patru cruci, una în Cărbunări (Crucea din Funduri) şi una în dunga ce duce spre Fântâna Cailor (Crucea Mică); în Meterg mai era o cruce undeva, dispărută; o altă cruce se afla pe drumul spre Faţa Natului şi o alta la După Stână, toate integrate în spațiul ciclului agrar imaş-ţarină. Crucile din Lucaci (cea de piatră pusă de Codrescu pe pământul său), cea din Doştină – Crucea Bandî – şi Crucea Porumbului din şaua dintre Huda lui Papară şi Vânătare marcau locurile de ritual religios din vecinătatea colibelor şi stabulaţiei gospodarilor. De reţinut e că majoritatea acestor cruci sunt celtice, au în centrul lor discul solar şi motive arhaice: rozete, zigzaguri, calea şerpuită, funia împletită, coarnele berbecului şi alte motive care se găsesc pe diferite obiecte din gospodărie: furci de tors, lăzi de zestre, juguri, bâte, fluiere, codorişti de bici etc., toate exprimând o spiritualitate străveche, într-o stilizare artistică uimitoare, ce se poate constata cel mai expresiv pe ţesăturile şi cusăturile portului popular din zonă. Pe unele dintre crucile mari, ca aceea din vârful Citerii şi cea de la Podul de peste Arieş din Sălciua de Sus e sculptat ochiul divin iar dedesubt e scris dictonul: „Ce ţie nu-ţi place/ Altuia nu-i face”, zicere cu efecte moralizatoare imediate. Nu puţine dintre aceste cruci au baza încastrată într-o piatră de moară sau de râşniţă folosită ca masă de rugăciune, alteori piatra de moară sau de râşniţă este plasată pe un stâlp independent lângă cruce, cum e cazul Crucii de la Podul de peste Arieş din Sălciua de Jos. Aceasta, ca şi crucea mare de lângă podul din Sălciua de Sus sunt plasate în vecinătatea apei, pentru că aici se desfăşura ritualul de la Bobotează.
Potrivit unor istorici, numele de „valah” a aparţinut iniţial celţilor, care locuiau în zona Transilvaniei. Istoricul V. D. Koroliuk presupune că etnogeneza valahilor ar fi început în parte de vest a Daciei: Noricum (Austria), Transilvania şi Panonia. Anume în această regiune, a locuit un număr important de celţi romanizaţi, de la care şi provine numele de „valahi”. Ulterior, masa acestor celţi romanizaţi s-a integrat în arealul romanităţii orientale, participând la constituirea etnosului românesc. Odată ce o mare parte din celţi romanizaţi s-au aşezat în Transilvania, în special în Maramureş, crucea celtică a devenit o parte a culturii populare româneşti, fiind cunoscută în calitate de „cruce maramureşeană”. Chiar şi în prezent, în zona Maramureşului, acest model de cruce este foarte răspândit. octavianracu.wordpress.com/2010/09/24/crucea-celtica-istoricul-si-semnificatia/
Celtii au inaintat pe cursul marilor rauri ale Transilvaniei (si pe cursul Somesului) in perioada secolelor VI-II i.Ch. si au supus populatia locala. Izvoarele istorice ne indica prezenta pe meleagurile noastre a tribului celtic al anartilor. Celtii au stapanit aceste locuri pana la razboaiele cu regele dac Burebista, care i-a invins si i-a impins pana in zona Panoniei sau chiar mai departe. Razboaiele lui Burebista cu triburile celtice s-au desfasurat in perioada anilor 60-59 i.Ch. Enclave celtice supuse Regatului Dac au mai ramas pe aceste locuri din bazinul Somesului (NV Romaniei de azi), datorita faptului ca zona este relativ izolata si inconjurata de paduri dese. Celtii au convietuit aici cu dacii timp de secole si au fost asimilati de acestia. Dupa cucerirea de catre romani a Daciei aceasta zona bogata a ramas inafara cuceririi romane, in zona Daciei Libere. Dacia Porolissensis era aproape si era o zona predilecta pentru incursiunile de jaf ale razboinicilor daco-celti. Influenta celtilor asupra dacilor a fost covarsitoare. Dacii au avut numai de invatat de la civilizatia celtica, ce avea o cultura mai avansata decat civilizatia dacica. S-a produs astfel un mix de culturi. Deci in zona cercetata de mine se constata aceasta influenta culturala celtica. Se poate constata si in teren aceasta. Consider ca dovezile materiale pot confirma aceasta teorie,chiar daca nu exista izvoare scrise. Se poate spune ca daco-celtii sunt stramosii nostri. http://tudorphotoblog.blogspot.com/2015/07/adevarata-poveste-crucii-celtice-de-la.html
Din cauza culorii blonde a părului și ochilor albaștri, elemente mult mai frecvente aici decât altundeva în rândul românilor, moții au fost considerați fie descendenți ai celților, fie ai slavilor, ai alanilor, sau ai triburilor germanice (Goți, Gepizi…). Mocanii non-transhumanți – sunt un grup distinct de mocani care ocupă valea Arieșului între comuna Bistra (unde tradițional începe Țara Moților) și până în josul văii în apropiere de Cheile Turzii. Aceste comunități de mocani sunt cunoscute sub numele de mocănimea Văii Arieșului. „Centrele” de odinoară ale acestei mocănimi sunt satele Lupșa și Sălciua, unde, până de curând, aurul se exploata direct din apa râului, scursă prin sitele manevrate de localnici. Proximitatea acestor resurse și relieful tipic fac ca acești mocani să fie mai degrabă crescători de vite decât oieri. Mocănimea văii Arieșului se extinde la nord pe cursurile râurilor afluente ale Arieșului, în special pe valea râului Poșaga (valea Poșăgii) cuprinzând zona din jurul comunei Mărișel, aflată pe teritoriul județului Cluj , loc tradițional de întâlnire estivală a mocanilor. Alt grup de mocani e reprezentat de mocănimea Ampoi-Întregalde, situată, ca și mocănimea Văii Arieșului, tot pe teritoriul de azi al județului Alba. Mocanii de regiune sunt legați locului, spre deosebire de moți, care sunt „toți în drum”, călătoresc pentru a-și vinde produsele de lemn. Tipice pentru aceasta zona etnografică sunt șurile acoperite cu paie sau șindrila, monumentale prin înălțimea acoperișului sau grajdurile mari de bârne, acoperite cu paie. Casele sunt la fel foarte înalte, proporția dintre înălțimea pereților și cea a acoperișului fiind de 1 la 3. Uneori construcțiile sunt ridicate pe un soclu de lespezi de piatră. Satele mocanimii Ampoiului sunt atestate ca fiind cele mai vechi din regiune. aleximreh.wordpress.com/2017/12/19/moti-si-mocani/
Povestea spune că într-o nu-știu-care-țară, trăia un om foarte-foarte bogat împreună cu familia lui, iar toată obida îngrijirii pământurilor și casei reveneau unor țărani săraci lipiti pământului. Într-o zi oarecare, pe la amiază, bogătașul își luă mai cu de-a sila copilul de mână, îl urcă în vârful unei coline și spuse apăsat:– Privește! într-o zi, toate câmpurile acestea vor fi ale tale… De bună seamă într-o altă zi, când abia se crăpa de ziuă iar soarele începuse a înroșii obrazul câmpurilor, unul din țăranii care trudeau pentru bogatas, urcă grăbit împreună cu fiul aceiași colină. Ziua de muncă nu începuse, iar copilului nici prin cap nu-i trecea la ce o trebui azi să-și ajute părintele. Țăranul se așeză jos și cu mâna împinsă spre depărtări șopti copilului:– Privește…
O broască aflată dintotdeauna în adâncul unei fântâni, își zicea cu amărăciune privind cerul micuț și albastru ce i se profila prin deschizătura puțului : Vai cât de mic este cerul ! Nu poți explica unei broaște prizoniere într-o fântână nimic din maiestatea oceanului. Oamenilor pătrunși de cutume, deprinși a trăi în lagărul unor concepte formale, nu le poți povesti despre Tao fără de început. Trebuie mai întâi să străbată mările ignoranței și să ajungă la limanul simplității în care trăiește natura.
Formula fericirii, după regretatul Beligan: „Mănâncă puțin, citește mult și pune totul la spate“.
Să fi anticipat Wilde cătunul sincerităților virtuale – tip Facebook: „Dă-i omului o mască și-ți va spune tot adevărul!“.
Un moldovean se întâlnește cu un japonez: – Băi Niși câte ore lucrați voi în Japonia de sunteți așa deosebiți? – 8 ore obligatoriu. Dar voi? – “Decât” patru. Da de ce lucrați voi așa de mult ? – Păi 2 ore pentru mine, 2 pentru patron, 2 pentru împărat și 2 pentru Japonia. Da voi de ce lucrați așa de puțin? – Păi 2 ore pentru patron, 2 pentru mine, împărat n-avem, iar de România mă doare-n c(ot).
Conform ultimului studiu al unei reputate universități britanice moldovenii sunt cei mai sănătoși oameni din lume, deoarece alimentația lor e total lipsită de E-uri: carni, fasoli, ligumi, fructi…
Înaintea lui Buddha se înfățișă un sihastru dornic să-i vorbească de ultima sa mare realizare. După șase ani de trudă, încercări fără număr și dezamăgiri pe măsură reușise să traverseze fluviul aflat înaintea lor mergând pe apă. Măritul Gautama așteptă ca omului să revină din înaltul entuziasmului, iar când îi auzi respirația, îi răspunse: – Și a meritat atâta trudă? Eu l-am trecut zilele astea oferindu-i barcagiului un bănuț.
De ceva vreme Buddha rătăcea tot mai departe de Kapilavastu, lăsându-și pașii să hotărască în locul pretinsei raționalități, pe care oamenii o creditează o viață. Într-un sătuc oarecare, mai mult o înghesuială de colibe sărăcăcioase, un tânăr îi ieși în întâmpinare și începu dintr-o dată să-l ponegrească: – Cu ce drept pretinzi tu că îi înveți pe alții cale eliberării ? Ești la fel de ignorant ca oricare dintre muritori. Nu te mai preface că propovăduiești, eventual mulțimii celor proști care te vor urma. Buddha ascultă răbdător, niciun mușchi nu păru a-i tresării pe ovalul feței, așteptă cu răbdare ca tânărul să-și deverse degrabă furia, iar apoi, îl privi în ochi cu îngăduință, adresându-i cu calm întrebarea: – Dacă vrei să oferi cuiva un cadou, dar aceea persoană nu este acasă, cui aparține până la urmă cadoul? Tânărul răspunse puțin încurcat: – Celui ce l-a cumpărat. – La fel stat lucrurile și în privința înverșunării tale. Ești fără îndoială foarte înfuriat, dar eu după cum bine poți observa nu mă simt deloc insultat. Nefericirea pricinuită de vorbele-ți usturătoare își aparține, n-ai făcut decât să te rănești singur, prietene.
Un învățăcel se apropie odată de maestrul său și îi adresă următoarea întrebare: – Maestre, e adevărat că și eu posed natura lui Buddha? – Nu, îi respunse sec și cu oarecare detașare maestrul. – Dar nu tu m-ai învățat că oricine posedă o parte din natura lui Buddha, până și broaștele, plantele… – Da, așa este, am spus. – Păi atunci de ce nu și eu ? – Pentru că tu întrebi…
.„Proştii se plâng că nu sunt cunoscuţi de suficient de mulţi oameni. Înţelepţii se plâng că nu cunosc suficient de mult oamenii.“ Kong-Fu-Zi
Un măgar păștea pe lângă pădure, un tigru înfometat îl zări, foamea îl făcu să se apropie foarte mult, îndărătul unor tufișuri. Nu mai văzuse în viața lui așa prădăciune, numai bună pentru prânzul cel amânat. Și totuși prudența sau teama îl îndemnară să-i urmărească o vreme obișnuințele. După un timp se strecură din tufiș, iar tocmai când își calcula mișcările prin care i-ar sfârteca beregata, măgarul, cel mai probabil din sfânta sperietură, scoase un răget asurzitor. Tigrul o luă degrabă la sănătoasa, nu mai auzise vreodată un tunet rablagit atât de puternic, oprindu-se după o distanță cam respectabilă. Se înapoie a doua zi, observă că răgetele măgarului țineau mai degrabă de o apucătură decât de pericol, folosindu-le periodic, sau cine știe, frânturile unui limbaj dispărut. Peste câteva zile se strecură din nou în apropierea măgarului, dar abia avu timp să-și retragă mustața de dinaintea copitelor, cele două picioare posterioare având forța și rapiditatea loviturii fatale. După alte câteva zile tigrul își încolți nebunatica pradă, iar prânzul ce urmă șterse orice rușine înjositoare, din trecutul său încărcat. Măgarul și-a epuizat trucurile !
Dedic astazi unor occidentali infatuați, cocoșați de lăcomia materialistă și cu plicitiseala cronicizată, povestea lui Rinzo. V-o redau în speranța evitării perplexității sau rictusului vulgar. Într-o dimineață Rinzo dorind să-și întîlnească maestrul, merse la coliba acestuia și bătu cu insistență la usă: – Cine-i acolo ? – Sunt eu, Rinzo… – Pleacă, se auzi o voce hotărâtă, dornică să alunge orice prezență omenească, prevestitoare a atâtor neliniști. Rinzo plecă buimac, încercă să înțeleagă reacția maestrului, de bună-seamă cu ajutorul unui truism din cele dragi stirpei. Peste câteva ceasuri se întoarse, bătând cu sfială la ușa sărăcăcioasă. – Cine-i acolo ? – Rinzo, spuse cu voce aproape stinsă învățăcelul. – Pleacă, n-ai auzit sau te faci că nu înțelegi. Rinzo plecă mai abătut ca oricând, rătăci o vreme prin bazarul mare al vieții întreținându-se cu prieteni, străini, curioși, colecționari, din cei ce împestrițează pământul. Spre seară, pașii îl aduseră din nou înaintea colibei maestrului. De dincolo de ușă vocea inconfundabilă răbufni? – Cine-i acolo ? – Nimeni, abia reuși să îngâne sărmanul învățăcel. – A, tu ești Rinzo, intră, de când te așteptam, ușa era deschisă…
Oamenii din categorii Tare-tare demult, în îndepărtatul Bagdad sau în înfloritorul Constantinopole, povestitorul nu-și mai amintește exact, s-au strâns toți învățații pământului, judecătorii înfumurați, savanți fără operă și alte specii neclasificate de oameni, pentru a răspunde la întrebarea padișahului: câte feluri de oameni există? După lungi cercetări despre a căror profunzime nici nu putem bănui ceva, fiecare tabără și-a prezentat răspunsul definitiv și irecuzabil. Musulmanii au găsit două tabere: drept-credincioși și păgâni. Creștinii – păcătoși și preafericiți. Un siren disgrațios : greci și barbari. Indienii – morții și vii. Un filfizon: deștepții și proștii. Bătrânul Pitagora: bunii și răii. Au urmat luni de zile de expuneri, maieutici și dialectici, ba câteodată ciondăneală curată, dar pestrița adunare nu era în stare să formuleze un singur răspuns ce ar fi trebuit transmis padișahului. Într-o zi liniștită și blestemată ca mai toate zilele trecu prin apropiere Nastratin, așezat de-a-ndoaselea pe un măgăruș pricăjit. – Nastratine ! Hoge ! avem a-ți pune o întrebare. Toate cercetările noastre au găsit că există două categorii de oameni, dar nu ne putem pune în niciun fel de acord care sunt ele… Nastratin, fără să ceară vreun rezumat al exegezelor atâtor minți luminate rosti în timp ce își împingea ușor măgărușul dinspre călcâie: – Păi e foarte simplu…există două categorii de oameni. Aceia care cred că există două categorii de oameni și restul, care nu cred.
Un bei foarte lacom prăduia de o vreme o provincie a Imperiului. E drept că fusese înscăunat la moartea tatălui său, despre care supușii nu avea amintiri prea plăcute. Amândoi – ca mulți despoți din zilele nostre – credeau că puterea e făcută pentru a se abuza de ea. Într-o zi un derviș îmbrăcat sărăcăcios cânta în gura mare pe străzile orașului: – Allah să-i dea sănătate beiului nostru ! Viață lungă acestuia ! Un om se apropie îmbufnat și îl întrebă: – Cum poți omule să te rogi pentru sănătatea unui despot? – Pentru că și tatăl lui a fost despot, dar fiul e mai hain ca tatăl. Omul îl privi nedumerit; – Nu înțeleg. – Păi gândește-te ce ne-ar aștepta de la fiul actualului despot, dacă cel de acum ar muri !
Despre Nastratin gurile rele șopteau ba că este un credincios îndărătnic, ba că e un sceptic cam șugubăț, chiar și vestea ateismului nu păruse a-l ocoli. Într-o zi, un străin ajunse înaintea lui și îl întrebă: – Creză în Dumnezeu? – De bunăseamă. – Dar de ce crezi ? Poți să aduci o dovadă a existenței acestuia? – Ce poate fi mai simplu: mă rog la el în fiecare zi. – Susții de asemeni că nu există decât un singur Dumnezeu. Pe ce te bazezi ? – Pe faptul că nu mă rog decât la el. – Ai putea să-mi dai o dovadă a atotputerniciei Lui? – Ce dovadă mai vie decât aceea că nu-mi îndeplinește niciodată rugămințile !
Doi rabini încep într-o după-amiază o discuție foarte aprinsă despre existența lui Dumnezeu. Ajung să treacă în revistă toate argumentele despre existența și nonexistența acestuia, iar pe la 4 dimineața ajung amândoi la concluzia rațională că Dumnezeu nu există. Dis de dimineață unul dintre ei tocmai se pregătea de plecare și ținea să-i mulțumească celuilalt rabin, pentru găzduială. Îl caută o vreme și îl află într-un colț îndepărtat al curții făcându-și rugăciunile. – Ce faci omule acolo ? – Păi nu vezi, îmi fac rugăciunile. – Dar nu îți mai aduci aminte ce-am discutat aseară ? Am căzut împreună de acord că Dumnezeu nu există. Poți să-mi spui pentru cine îți mai faci rugăciunile ? Gazda răspunse: – Dar ce treabă are Dumnezeu cu asta…?
La sfârșitul conciliului de patru zile în care episcopi și cardinali, secretari și vicari întorseseră pe toate fețele încă o problemă încuietoare găsită prin Biblie, singurul lucru care se șoptea pe culoarele Vaticanului, dar care nu trebuia să răzbată spre public din rațiuni bine întemeiate, era justețea concluziei că Adam și Eva nu erau cu siguranță chinezi. Cine știe spre ce dimensiune istorică s-ar fi îndreptat omenirea, dacă în locul mărului l-ar fi servit pe șarpe la prânz.
Trăia odată un om care se părea că suferă de toate bolile lumii. Nu era zi lăsată de Dumnezeu să nu-i pocnească închieturile, să nu-i țiuie măcar o ureche, să nu-i amoartă un umăr. Toate, dar absolut toate organele îi întunecau ceas de ceas zilele pe care le mai avea de trăit. Nimeni, nici dintre apropiați, dar nici măcar medicii nu reușiseră să-i pună un diagnostic, nicidecum să-i afle de leac. Într-o zi prin satul lui trecu un străin, care se oferea să-i ajute pe oameni la treburi mărunte în schimbul mâncării și adăpostului peste noapte. Străinului îi trecu pe la ureche necazul ce-l bântuia pe sărmanul său semen. Îl ascultă, păru să-l consulte cam neândemânatic și apoi îi spuse: – Prietene suferi de o boală netratabilă, la care îi vei afla leacul odată cu ceilalți oameni. De moarte. La aflarea presupusului diagnostic mare fu mirarea apropiaților să-l vadă pe omul nostru ridicându-se după multă vreme din pat, ba apucându-se chiar să-și sape grădina. Pe seară își chemă prietenii care se cam înstrăinaseră, stătu cu ei multă vreme de vorbă, iar unul mai îndrăzneț hotărâ să-l întrebe cum de și-a schimbat așa brusc apucăturile. – Nimic mai simplu, răspunse omul. Până ieri credeam că am toate bolile pământului. Astăzi am răsuflat ușurat când am aflat că am numai una.
“Cea mai bună căsnicie este cea dintre o femeie oarbă și un bărbat surd.”
“Nebunia în cazul indivizilor este rară, dar în cazul grupurilor, partidelor, națiilor și epocilor este o regulă”
Milet 610 î.e.n., autor, un oarecare Anaximandru: „începutul lucrurilor este apeiron-ul… De acolo de unde se produce naşterea lucrurilor, tot de acolo le vine şi pieirea, potrivit cu necesitatea; căci ele trebuie să-şi dea [să-şi facă] dreptate şi să-şi dea răsplată unele altora pentru nedreptatea făcută, potrivit cu rânduiala timpului”
“Prostia este mama norocului şi a fericirii sexuale. Cu norocul de partea ta, te poţi descurca şi fără minte”.
Două -trei cugetări ale călugărului Giordano, supranumit Il Nolano (cel din Nola), numele adevărat Filippo Bruno (fiu de mercenar din Campania, sudul Italiei). Dominican neortodox, preot eretic, excomunicat de biserica catolică și de cea protestantă, adus după 7 ani de procese în Campo de’ Fiori (Roma, 1600) legat cu călușul la gură și ars de viu, în aplauzele satisfăcute ale prostimii.
“Ne place sau nu, noi singuri ne croim viaţa. Născându-ne pe lumea aceasta, cedăm uşor iluziilor, simţirilor, credem în ceea ce vedem. Ignorăm cât de surzi şi orbi suntem. Atunci ne asaltă frica, şi uităm că suntem divini, că am putea schimba cursul rău al întâmplărilor. De obicei, cei care nu înţeleg îndeajuns cred că ştiu mai multe, iar aceia care sunt complet lipsiţi de minte cred că ştiu totul”.
Haplogroup I is the oldest major haplogroup in Europe and in all probability the only one that originated there. Haplogroup I2a1 seems to have come out of the Neolithic period as the big winner for reasons that are not yet clear. Haplogroup I2a1 is by far the largest branch of I2 and the one most strongly linked to Neolithic cultures in south-east, south-west and north-west Europe. I2a1a-M26 was probably one of the main paternal lineages of the Megalithic cultures of western Europe during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods. I2a1b is found overwhelmingly in the Dinaric Slavs as well as in Bulgaria, Romania, Moldavia, western Ukraine and Belarus. It is also common to a lower extent in Albania, Greece, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, and south-western Russia. The high concentration of I2a1b-L621 in north-east Romania, Moldova and central Ukraine reminds of the maximum spread of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture (4800-3000 BCE). It evolved as an offshoot from the Starčevo–Kőrös–Criş culture. The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was the most advanced Neolithic culture in Europe before the Indo-European invasions in the Bronze Age and seems to have had intensive contacts with the Steppe culture before the expansion of Yamna to the Balkans and Central Europe (see histories of R1a and R1b). From 3500 BCE, at the onset of the Yamna period in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, the Cucuteni-Trypillian people started expanding east into the steppe of what is now western Ukraine, leaving their towns (the largest in the world at the time), and adopting an increasingly nomadic lifestyle like their Yamna neighbours. It can easily be imagined that Cucuteni-Trypillian people became assimilated by the Yamna neighbours and that they spread as a minority lineage alongside haplogroups R1a and R1b as they advanced toward the Baltic with the Corded Ware expansion. https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_I2_Y-DNA.shtml
I2a2 is found in most of Europe and seems to have had a continent-wide distribution before the arrival of Neolithic farmers. Remains from the Late Neolithic Sredny Stog culture (4500-3500 BCE) in Ukraine and of the Chalcolithic Globular Amphora culture (3400-2800 BCE) from Ukraine and Poland, were also tested by Mathieson et al. (2017). All six individuals from the Globular Amphora belonged to haplogroup I2a2. The Sredny Stog people carried a mix of I2a2, R1, R1a and R1b lineages. L701 was also found in Copper Age Bulgaria. Other I2a2a individuals was also found in Neolithic Scotland (L1195 and CTS10057), Neolithic Spain (CTS616 and Z161) and Neolithic Hungary (CTS10057). During the Early Bronze Age, I2a2a was found in southern Russia during the Yamna culture (L699), in Hungary (L1229), and in Germany (L38). This very ancient dispersal and its relatively low modern frequency makes it very difficult to assess what happened to each branch before the Late Bronze Age or the Iron Age. Nowadays, I2a2 peaks in central and northern Germany (10-20%), the Benelux (10-15%) as well as in northern Sweden. It is also found in 3 to 10% of the inhabitants of Denmark, eastern England, and northern France. It is rarer in Norway, except in the south, where the Danish influence was the strongest historically.
I2a2b (formerly I2b2) could have appeared soon after the Last Glacial Maximum, perhaps 17,000 years ago. Most of its branches would have become extinct and only one survived with a patriarch living during the Bronze Age, probably in Germany. The oldest known L38 sample comes from the Unetice culture in central-east Germany 4,000 years ago. Four out of the six samples from the 3,000 year old Lichtenstein Cave in central Germany belonged to L38+ as well. The cave was part of the Bronze Age Urnfield Culture. Based on the STR dating, it is believed that this lineage spread from Germany to England via Belgium in the Late Iron Age with the Celtic people of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures. I2a2b is therefore essentially a Alpine Celtic haplogroup. The distribution of I2-L38 matches fairly well that of haplogroup R1b-U152 north of the Alps. Both haplogroups are also found at low frequency in Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and central Turkey, probably reflecting the migration of La Tène Celts in the third century BCE (see map). R1b-U152 is associated with both the Central European Celts (Unetice, Urnfield, Hallstatt, La Tène) and the Italic people. In Italy, I2-L38 is limited to the Alpine region, mostly the north-west, where Gaulish tribes settled, and it is likely that I2-L38 was brought to Italy by Celtic migrations many centuries after the arrival of Italic tribes from the Alpine Danube region. I2-L38 people would therefore have been autochthonous to the region between the Alps, Central Germany and the Low Countries and were assimilated into the Celtic society during the Hallstatt or La Tène period.
The most important material heritage of Vlachs in Western Balkans are the necropolises with petroglyphs. The Vlach tombstones with petroglyphs appeared in the 12th century, and the apparition ceased during the Ottoman occupation in the 16th century. Marian Wenzel wrote that the tombstones with petroglyphs „were initially erected by feudal aristocracy, and that the custom was later adopted and the decoration much elaborated by certain groups known as Vlachs who were organized on a “cătun”, (small village in Romanian and Albanian), on a tribal, non- feudal basis.”( Marian Wenzel, “Bosnian and Herzegovinian Tombstobes-Who Made Them and Why?” Sudost-Forschungen 21 (1962): 102-143). John Fine wrote that the Vlachs controlled the carrying trade and the protection of caravans from brigands and they became extremely rich and came to dominate Zeta (Montenegro) and Hum (Zachlumia, today in Herzegovina).(John V. A. Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century, (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1994), p.19.)) According to a historical tradition in Montenegro, the Vlachs are considered to be the builders of the church of Vlaška Crkva (“The VlachChurch”) in Cetinje . Stećak (Cyrillic: Стећак, [stetɕak]; plural: Stećci, Стећци, [stetɕtsi]) is the name for monumental medieval tombstones that lie scattered across Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the border parts of Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia. An estimated 60,000 are found within the borders of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina and the rest of 10,000 are found in what are today Croatia (4,400), Montenegro (3,500), and Serbia (2,100), at more than 3,300 odd sites with over 90% in poor condition. Marian Wenzel wrote that the Romanians/Vlachs of North East of Serbia “still perform “hora” funerary dance (kolo in Serbian) in which three female dancers carry bunches of ﬂowers, while the leader carries a sword, which corresponds to some petroglyphs with hora depicted on some funerary monuments. This particular dance is believed to serve as a soul’s guide to the other world.”Elizabeth Wayland Barber approached the petroglyphs with dancers with flowers and wrote: “The parallels between (Romanian/Vlach) dancers from Duboka in Timok and the depictions on medieval funerary stecci are far too close for accident.” She also made a comparison between male dancers wielding swords from petroglyphs and the Romanian dance“Căluşari”.
alltrails.com Prenj is a mountain range in the Dinaric Alps of southern Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in eastern Herzegovina near Mostar, Jablanica and Konjic. The highest peak is Zelena glava at 2,115 m. Prenj massif has at least 11 peaks over 2000 m. Blidinje Park often called “Herzegovinian Alps” covers an area of 364 km2. The central part is dominated by lake Blidinje. The western border of the park is covered by Vran mountain (2074 m), and in the south, the river Neretva and the mountain Cvrsnica (2228m) complete the impressive combination of natural wonders. More than 300 km of mountain trails and pristine nature are at your disposal.