Oferta 7KW pentru Persoane Fizice, Certificate Verzi – 12000€


1# Panouri 250W policristaline Axitec made in Germany, garantie 12 ani.
2# Invertor Kaco made in Germany, 10 ani garantie.
3# Structura aluminiu K2, cabluri/conectori/mufe made in Germany.
4# Transport, montaj, consiliere obtinere contract de subventii de stat pe 15ani.
>> Pret total la sistem fotovoltaic de 7kw montat pe acoperis de tabla – 12.000 euro inclusiv TVA. Avans 30% la facturare, livrare in 10 zile din Germania, montaj in 7 zile. Detalii despre rentabilitate, amortizare, subventii, puteti vedea aici. Pretul este orientativ, pentru detalii va rugam sa ne contactati: 0742-669918, 0722-290489, alex.imreh@yahoo.com

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In asteptarea viitorului apropiat, cateva informatii despre bateriile Tesla de 7KW.
Tesla Powerwall was launched in Los Angeles on April 30th 2015 by Elon Musk. Powerwall from Tesla,  is a home battery that charges using electricity generated from solar panels, or when utility rates are low, and powers your home in the evening. It also fortifies your home against power outages by providing a backup electricity supply. Automated, compact and simple to install, Powerwall offers independence from the utility grid and the security of an emergency backup.
What we know: Of the two Powerwall models (7 and 10 kWh1), only the 7 kWh is designed for daily charging/discharging. Up to 9 Powerwalls can be connected together to increase total storage capacity tesla-powerwall-and-solarto a total of 63 kWh or 90 kWh (depending on model).
The Powerwall does not include an inverter, which is required to convert DC power to household-usable AC power2.
There are unverified rumors that the Powerwalls support nighttime charging, but your electricity provider must offer what’s called “time-of-use metering” for you to take advantage of nighttime pricing.
In summary, we believe the Powerwalls will work with solar, but we must wait for more detailed technical information from Tesla to ensure compatibility with any specific system. Wholesale Solar we’ll be among the first to know when further information is released.

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Posted in Green Energy, Panouri Fotovoltaice | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

ONE ENGINE @24-48V > 200-1000W / mx.speed 20-45KM/H


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shop online @ biciclete-electrice.com/iBuild/Golden-Motors

6golden motor - CopyMotoare pro, cuplu foarte mare – 70Nm, cu frana regenerativa si protectie la supra-sarcina/senzor de temperatura. Cu același motor se obțin puteri diferite, între 250w-1000w, viteze maxime între 20km/h-50km/h, în funcție de tensiunea / capacitatea bateriei – 24V/36V/48V! Kiturile profesionale Golden Motor care pot transforma o bicicleta de calitate (MTB) intr-o bicicleta electrica au urmatoarele avantaje fata de alte kituri.
1# Controlerul este integrat in motor, ceea ce permite o instalare mai usoara, spatiu mai mult pe cadru pt baterie. Kitul are astfel cabluri mai putine ceea ce creste fiabilitatea, scade costurile de mentenanta.
2# Motorul este fara perii si fara pinioane. La pante mari, utilizare tipica pt MTB, solutiile cu pinioane sunt mai putin fiabile, rotile dintate se uzeaza, duc la zgomot, eficienta scazuta, fiabilitate scazuta.
3# Motoarele Golden functioneaza la tensiuni diferite intre 24V si 48V. Pentru a schimba puterea si viteza maxima este suficient sa schimbati bateria, fara sa mai schimbati motorul sau controlerul. Cu o baterie de tensiune mica, mai ieftina, bicicleta este conform normelor UE/Ro pt a circula legal in oras. Cu o baterie mai mare motorul va da putere mai multa, necesara in offroad, pe dealuri/in paduri, pt o utilizare tipica MTB.
4# Motoarele Magic Pie au putere variabila in functie de tensiunea bateriei, de la 250W/24V pana la 1000W la alimentare cu 48V. Daca doriti un motor mai mic cu o greutate mai mica, Smart Pie ofera putere suficienta in oras sau pe pante, intre 200W si 400W, la fel in functie de tensiunea bateriei care le alimenteaza.
5# Aceste motoare au ventilator de racire incorporat care poate dispersa pana la 60% din caldura produsa de motor. Racirea este importanta pt fiabilitate si pt eficienta, la pante mari, abrupte si lungi.
6# Controlerul si motorul folosesc componente de calitate si capacitate ridicata, care pot absorbi curenti mari – pana la 30A. Astfel ofera accelerari mai rapide si capacitatea de a urca pante mari, evitand arderea motorului/controlerului la suprasarcini.
7# Controlerul este inteligent, poate fi programat prin PC via un cablu USB pt a ajusta/optimiza parametrii electronici, pt a schimba setarile, pt a obtine performante mai mari si fiabilitate mai buna.
8# Motoarele performante Golden – Magic Pie si Smart Pie au FRANA REGENERATIVA, functie care nu este oferita de kituri mai ieftine. Functia este importanta nu numai pt a recupera energia cinetica la coborarea pantelor, ajuta si prin ”frana de motor” la pantele mari. La franare motorul devine generator, energia cinetica incarca bateria, frana regenerativa ajuta la franare pe pante abrupte sau/si lungi. La downhill decelereaza si incarca bateria.
9# Protectie la supraincalzire. La pante lungi motoarele electrice se pot supraincalzi. Controlerul Golden evita arderea si uzura motoarelor avand un senzor de temperatura care opreste motorul cand este depasita o temperatura maxima setata. Dupa racire naturala motorul va reporni, senzorul si controlerul va protejeaza astfel proprietatea, evita daunele de suprasarcina.
10# Conectori de calitate la standarde militare, estetici si fiabili evita conectari gresite, scad costurile de intretinere, se pot schimba usor de utilizatori. Alte kituri folosesc conectori de calitate slaba, care se pot distruge la transport sau cand bicicleta cade pe o parte.
11# Flexibilitate. Motoarele Golden pot fi montate pe mai toate bicicletele standard, sunt subtiri, se pot monta pe roti fata de 100mm si pe roti spate de 135mm. Se pot adapta la diverse modele de frane disc si la diverse transmisii, schimbatoare de viteza.  La fel motoarele Golden ofera flexibilitate pt ca pot fi folosite la putere mica pt a respecta limitarile on-road UE, reglementarile/legislatia din Romania sau alte reglementari din alte tari, sau necesitatile dvs off-road. In UE se face lobby intens pt a mari limita de la 250W la 350W. Daca aveti un motor Golden il puteti folosi in functie de limitarile actuale sau viitorare, puteti folosi bicicleta cu motor in Romania sau in vacanta in alte tari, in oras sau pe munte, la puteri diferite.

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shop online @ biciclete-electrice.com/iBuild/Golden-Motors
Golden Motors Advantages:
1# Integrated structural design, controller integrated into the motor hub – easy installation with built-in controller, save installation space and reduce wiring fault for e-bike, the e-bike appears simple with easy maintenance.
2# Brushless and gearless engine. When e-bike overloads or climbs, the gear is easy heating with deformation. Then gear ware will result in the teeth fracture and motor can not work. Gear structure will bring noise, low efficiency and short range.
3# Multi-voltage, open voltage 24V/36V/48V. The voltage of the battery is proportional to the revolution of the motor. As the the magic pie series motor is gearless, it has no wear and tear. The motor can work effectively under different voltages, thus the user can improve the speed and power just by replacing the battery to adapt to the different riding terrain and load.
4# Multi-output power rate and speed. Magic pie motor: 250W – 1000W, Smart pie motor: 200W – 400W. If you want to upgrade the power and speed of the e-bike, just replace the battery. It is unnecessary for you to replace the motor and controller.
5# Built-in cooling fan. According to scientific testing and user experience, good cooling has a great impact on the the reliability and efficiency of the motor and controller. Built-in cooling fan can quickly disperse the 60% heat generated by the motor, greatly improving the performance and reliability of the motor and controller. This advantage is important when climbing long slopes.
6# Heavy current handling capability, up to 30A. As the controller uses high-quality, high-capacity power components, it can handle heavy-current outputs, enhancing the accelerated performance and climbing ability of electric vehicles and greatly reducing the burned possibility of motor and controller under the impact of heavy current.
7# Programmable Intelligent Controller. Professional users or dealers can change the settings of the controller via USB to PC, to adjust/optimize the electronic control parameters, to obtain better performance, longer range, longer life span.
8# Regenerative braking! Magic pie series motor has the unique and reliable regenerative braking function. When braking, the motor becomes the generator, it can brake quickly and smoothly and let the inertial kinetic energy to become electricity charging the battery. With this unique function, riders will enjoy the safe and comfortable braking on long/steep slopes and longer range. When downhill, the battery is recharged while decelerating.
9# Overheat and Overload Protection. When the e-bike overloads by climbing long slopes, motor and controller can over-heat. The controller of magic pie motor has a built-in sensor to detect internal high temperatures. If temperatures go beyond the allowable limit, the controller will stop the power supply to the motor, it will shut down the system avoiding damages. The user will restart the e-bike after the e-bike cools naturally. The controller will check the temperature again. If the temperature is lower than the the set protection value, the motor will work again. This function will reduce product failure rates, it will protect the customer’s property.
10# Plug-and-play integration, waterproof , anti-wrong, military standard connectors. Convenient, aesthetic and reliable connectors. User-replaceable connectors greatly reduce the after-sales service. Other brand motors use cheaper loose connectors, wires exit from hollow shaft end, wires/cables can be damaged easily during transportation, or when the e-bikes fall down to ground at the side.
11# Flexibility/standards. The ultra-thin wheel hub Golden design, suits for most standard bicycles: front wheel   / rear wheel . Do It Yourself modifications are available to support different disc brakes and transmissions. The power rate and the speed of the motor are programmable to respect the local regulation.

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Posted in aisbikes, Bike Travel, Bikes, Electric Bikes, Green Tech | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

C.Noica – cu tandrețe întru răs-bunarea rostirii românești. Lee Whorf – engleza faţă de hopi e ca o măciucă faţă de o sabie. Salvarea de sub obsesia puterii – ”ras-bunarea prin smerenie”.


.. resemnificarea cuvântului „răzbunare”, scoborâtor din „răs-bunare”, care înseamnă revenirea la starea anterioară de bunătate. Aşa cum vremea „se răzbună” (de fapt „se răs-bună”), adică devine din nou senină…

Obsesia care a constituit principala ipoteză de lucru a lui Noica a fost „gândul că limba noastră de pădurari, oieri şi dieci este pe măsura filosofiei”. „Întreaga noastră filosofie cultă – va afirma el – este în consonanţă cu ţărănescul”. Pornind de la un scepticism, care nu era numai al său, convins initial că în viziunea Dinu-Lazar-Constantin-Noica-fotografiromani.ro_ţărănească nu se ajunge „decât la înţelepciune, nu şi la filosofie”, Noica va căuta „continuitatea dulce”, „prelungirea firii în spirit”, absenţa rupturii dintre cugetarea lumii noastre naturale şi filosofia cultă, va cauta nestematele de gândire speculativă în chiar minereurile limbii române naturale.
A găsit plenitudine filosofică în modulaţiile verbului „a fi”, în ordinea lui „rost”, în isprăvile dialectice ale negaţiei „ba”, în hârjoana cuplului „sinele-şi-sinea”, ori, nec plus ultra, în potenţialul arhitectonic al prepoziţiei „întru”, pe seama căreia va săvârşi minunea de a edifica un veritabil sistem filosofic – sau cel puţin unul ontologic. Insolitul acestei fapte constă în aceea că, de regulă, toate sistemele filosofice sunt construite pe seama unor substantive sau infinitive lungi; Noica a descoperit însă în limba română o prepoziţie, „întru” – din alt unghi de vedere un fel de punct arhimedic propice nu pentru a urni, dar pentru a ţine în echilibru întreg globul filosofiei şi al cunoaşterii.

Originea schimbării de orientare – spre limba naturală „din colibe şi cătune”, cum spusese Hasdeu – va fi stat în bună parte şi sub efectul strălucitorului eseu al lui Mircea Vulcănescu, Dimensiunea românească a existenţei, cu glosele fenomenologice asupra unor cuvinte („fire”, „vreme” etc.) al căror potenţial metafizic nimeni nu-l luase în seamă până atunci; Noica va aminti mai târziu de acel eseu, mărturisind: „… fără lecţia căruia, poate, n-aş fi scris niciodată Rostirea românească”. În plus, dacă e să căutăm înrâuriri nu avem voie să ignorăm lecturile lui Constantin Noica din opera lui Wilhelm von Humboldt. Frate mai mare al mai cunoscutului geograf şi explorator Alexander von Humboldt şi savant plurivalent din linia deschisă de Herder, Wilhelm von Humboldt a fost unul dintre primii filologi moderni care au văzut în limbă o zestre de legitimare a popoarelor. Lui i se datorează, de asemenea, lansarea noţiunii de Nationalcharakter, în continuarea celei de Volksgeist, prima fiind preluată şi difuzată în secolul al XX-lea de antropologia americană.
„Ca un miracol ţâşneşte limba din gura unei naţiuni! În definitiv, cu particularul lor, limbile exprimă, fiecare, universalul rostirii, respectiv al logos-ului. Fiecare limbă are acces la tot. Aşa fiind, adâncirea într-o limbă poate spune uneori ceva esenţial despre rostirea omului… În el însuşi – se ştie – cuvântul a apărut în trecut nu drept mijloc de comunicare, ci drept o adevărată forţă a spiritului în sânul realităţii”

Dincolo de asemenea influenţe, două sunt temeiurile ce sprijină tentativa lui Constantin Noica de a propulsa limba română printre limbile filosofice de pe Terra: acele temeiuri sunt hermeneutica heideggeriană şi ipoteza Sapir–Whorf privind relativitatea culturală a limbilor.  În stilul romantic al lui Wilhelm von Humboldt, am putea exclama şi noi: „Ca într-un paradis se răsfaţă limba în hermeneutica heideggeriană”! Şi dacă, însoţindu-l pe Heidegger în căutările sale, nu vom afla propriu-zis ce este fiinţa,  vom afla în schimb, cu siguranţă, unde sălăşluieşte fiinţa, anume: în limbă. Lui Heidegger, într-adevăr, îi aparţine celebra definiţie metaforică: „Limba este casa fiinţei” / „Die Sprache ist das Haus des Seins”. Dar dacă limba e casa fiinţei, bogăţia fiinţei constă în posibilitatea de a avea mai multe case, cum confirmă şi un exeget ca Michel Haar: gândirea „trebuie să găsească o limbă, să-şi caute cuvintele, gândirea se înscrie în limbi particulare ca să-şi traseze drumul”. Prin exerciţiile sale hermeneutice, Heidegger explora originile cuvintelor descompunându-le şi recombinând apoi sensurile părţilor componente. Entschlossenheit, de exemplu, înseamnă „hotărâre”, dar grafiat Ent-schlossenheit, înseamnă „ieşire din închis”, ceea ce spune mult mai mult decât o simplă decizie, este ca o radiografiere a mişcării atitudinii de la starea de pasivitate, poate de complacere în limitare, la starea de acţiune.

Al doilea temei ce susţine lucrarea lui Constantin Noica asupra limbii române, scoţând efortul său din categoria actelor donquijoteşti, este plasat în perimetrul antropologiei. Este vorba de ceea ce antropologii au fixat sub denumirea „ipoteza Sapir–Whorf”. Ca expresie a relativismului cultural-lingvistic, ipoteza Sapir–Whorf postulează legătura dintre limbă şi gândire ca manifestări culturale ale unei colectivităţi anume, manifestări determinate la un nivel profund de experienţa de viaţă a oamenilor. Intuită de un antropolog de talia lui Franz Boas, ideea a fost formulată mai întâi de Edward Sapir (discipol al lui Boas) în secolul trecut, în anii ’20, dar a fost dezvoltată şi supusă validării de Benjamin Lee Whorf (discipol al lui Sapir), prin amănunţite studii de caz asupra limbilor unor grupuri etnice din America de Nord – şi vechi, şi contemporane: maya, uto-azteci, eschimoşi, hopi, navajo, zuni etc. Conform unui cunoscător în domeniu, două sunt ipotezele cardinale ale lui Whorf: „Întâi, că toate nivelurile superioare ale gândirii sunt dependente de limbă. În al doilea rând, că structura limbii pe care cineva îndeobşte o foloseşte influenţează modul în care acela îşi înţelege mediul. Tabloul universului se schimbă de la un grai la altul”.
avatar_pandora_background_by_pimperius-d3hl96jWhorf nu şi-a limitat însă cercetările la limbile exotice, ci s-a angajat în comparaţii între acestea şi limbile „mari” ale civilizaţiei moderne. Rezultatele au fost surprinzătoare, precum se vede şi din rândurile următoare: „Relativ puţinele limbi ale culturilor care au ajuns la civilizaţia modernă promit să acopere globul şi să provoace extincţia sutelor de variate specii lingvistice exotice, dar e frivol a pretinde că ele prezintă în vreun fel o superioritate. În comparaţie cu multe limbi americane/amerindiene, sistematizarea formală a ideilor în engleză, germană, franceză ori italiană pare săracă şi pustie”. Speciale comparaţii a întreprins Whorf între limba engleză şi limba hopi, în privinţa reprezentării timpului şi spaţiului; concluzia? – ca subtilitate şi rafinament, engleza faţă de hopi e ca o măciucă faţă de o sabie!. Dacă un lingvist cum era americanul Lee Whorf putea spune că limba hopi a pieilor roşii era, sub multe raporturi, mai potrivită pentru teoria relativităţii decât germana ori engleza, nu ne vom sfii să credem că o limbă de obârşia nobilă şi dezvoltarea impresionantă a celei româneşti are a spune ceva raţiunii”.
Cele două temeiuri care susţin strădania şi judecăţile lui Constantin Noica privind virtuţile filosofice ale limbii române (hermeneutica heideggeriană şi ipoteza Sapir–Whorf) nu se află doar într-un simplu raport de adăugire, una la cealaltă. Semnificaţiile lor sunt consonante, dar statutul lor nu este identic. În operaţionalitatea lor faţă de demersul noician, ele se completează într-un mod special, şi anume: ipoteza Sapir–Whorf reiterează hermeneutica heideggeriană, iar aceasta o luminează pe cea dintâi de la altitudinea cea mai înalt speculativă! În faţa revendicărilor lui Noica, Heidegger este un ins singular, iar un ins, fie el şi Heidegger, e mai puţin decât o instituţie. Spre deosebire, ipoteza Sapir–Whorf conferă demersului noician o validitate instituţională din partea unei discipline ştiinţifice – antropologia, întrucât această ipoteză a fost general adoptată de antropologi, ea fiind inclusă în manuale şi în dicţionare. În plus, studiile de caz ale lui Whorf au generat o veritabilă tradiţie de cercetare antropologică în lumina relativismului cultural-lingvistic, tradiţie pe care un exeget mai recent o numeşte „abordare linguacentrică”.

Noica nu a eliminat niciodată din discursul său referirile la Platon, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, sau Heidegger, ci dimpotrivă a imaginat un dialog cu aceştia, ca la o întrunire a marilor spirite, convins că filosofia comparativă pe temeiuri lingvistice (terenul în care el, de fapt, s-a exersat tot timpul) înseamnă o mai bună aşezare a modurilor de a filosofa. La această imaginară şezătoare a limbilor, într-o lume pândită de globalizare (deşi termenul nu apăruse încă în dicţionare), el simţea că: „Este o datorie de cultură să ridici la lumina zilei tot ce stă tăinuit şi infuz în cugetul tău şi, făcând aşa, să urci către înţelesuri care sunt ale omului, chiar dacă poartă pecetea geniului local”. „Căci totul în filosofie, şi poate şi în cultură – este nu atât să atingi universalul şi legea, cât să ridici particularul la universal şi la lege”.

Istoria umanităţii a adus însă în prim-plan, în toate etapele ei, încă o ipostază a generalului, una în care dinamica acestuia e guvernată de formula nietzscheană Wille zur Macht – să-i zicem generalul grandorii, al „voinţei de putere”. Sub specia acestui tip de general au lucrat în istorie popoarele mari, care au supus alte popoare şi care şi-au extins cultura şi limba proprie pe arii vaste. Paradoxal, însă, din punct de vedere ontologic, acest tip de general (care nu se cunoaşte şi nu se recunoaşte decât pe sine) este mai sărac decât orice individual care îşi depăşeşte condiţia de individual pur şi simplu şi îşi apropriază condiţia de model ontologic!  Instanţa de la care poate veni salvarea acelui general al grandorii/puterii este antropologia – şi nu numai prin studii de felul celor întreprinse de Benjamin Lee Whorf, ci prin consacrarea observării participative drept metodă fundamentală în cercetarea unei culturi; şi oricât ar fi de „primitivă” cultura abordată, una dintre exigenţele principale ale observării participative este învăţarea de către cercetător a limbii vernaculare, adică a limbii populaţiei cercetate. Altminteri, cu toată smerenia lor, culturile „mici” îşi au şi ele şansa lor de răsbunare, la judecata fiinţei: spre deosebire de culturile „mari”, care nu ştiu decât de ele însele, culturile „mici” – îmbogăţite de îmbinarea între aplecarea către sinele propriu şi deschiderea către culturile „mari” – se pot înfăţişa la acea judecată ca „modele ontologice”.

Şi iată-l pe Constantin Noica pus pe comparaţii inter-culturale (cross-cultural comparisons, cum spun antropologii): căutând corespondenţe în germană şi în engleză pentru „vreme” şi „vremuire”, punând faţă în faţă „sinea” şi „sinele” cu esenţele lui Platon, cu „mumele” lui Goethe şi cu „lucrul în sine” kantian, sau minunându-se de paradoxul negaţiei „ba”, care ajunge uneori să întărească afirmaţia „da”, adică să săvârşească ceva ce verbului hegelian „aufheben” nu-i stătuse la îndemână. Cu puţină luare-aminte, putem desprinde din asemenea exerciţii comparative o lecţie despre ce înseamnă a gândi universal şi a simţi local. Ducându-ne gândul până la capăt, putem vedea acolo – de ce nu? – o reţetă de împăcare între Geist şi Seele!… Deşi din asemenea comparaţii vocaţia filosofică a limbii române iese mai mult decât onorabil, comparatistul şi-a păstrat cumpătul şi a izbutit să nu alunece spre zona etnocentrismului. Dovadă, printre altele, stă şi acest comentariu lucid, după ce descoperise surprinzătoarele resurse de acţiune ale minusculei vocabule „ba”: „Dacă este grotesc să spui că dialectica ar fi trebuit să apară la noi, în spaţiul Dunării de jos – cum [la fel] este să spui că Orfeu e de la noi, că Diotima lui Platon e de la noi –, are totuşi oarecare rost să crezi că suntem în măsură să-i primim mai bine mesajul decât alte limbi şi cugete. În orice caz, suntem oarecum în spiritul ei; purtăm cu noi ceva din fluiditatea ei. Iar lucrările lui ba pot să ne-o arate”. Prin astfel de reflecţii, Noica iese din starea de seducţie în care îl aduce adesea plăcerea propriilor explorări hermeneutice, se ridică deasupra lucrării pe care o întreprinde şi îşi dă el însuşi măsura simţului măsurii.

Un sceptic, dacă nu chiar un rău-credincios, ar putea, totuşi, ridica din umeri: „Ei, şi? La ce bun toată această demonstraţie de subtilitate în gândire dacă virtuţile relevate nu trec hotarele limbii române, sau dacă ele nu atrag pe alţii, din afară, spre a se împărtăşi din subtilităţile limbii noastre?”. În aparenţă, scepticismul acesta nu poate fi depăşit, numai că hotarele au puterea de a obstrucţiona doar în plan orizontal. Or, adevărata universalitate este pe verticală! A spus-o Nichita Stănescu, dar o spusese în alt fel şi Eminescu; comentând „principiul independenţei absolutului”, formulat de Laplace, „poetul nepereche” nota: „Pentru a constata mişcarea, trebuie ceva nemişcat” 40. Este nevoie, aşadar, de un reper Absolut. Dar numai ignorând orizontalitatea universalului şi privind în sus, Absolutul devine accesibil ca instanţă, şi anume: în ipostaza de Dumnezeu al teologiei (care rânduieşte totul la Judecata de Apoi), de Raţiune hegeliană (care priveşte cu amuzament – die Lust der Vernunft – cum lucrurile se frământă făcându-i jocul), sau de conştiinţă transcendentală de tip fenomenologic (care ţinteşte atingerea unor esenţe prin reducţia eidetică, după care supune datele obţinute testului de intersubiectivitate). În orice caz, privind în sus oamenii au putut măsura înălţimea munţilor; la fel privind, nu se poate măsura, desigur, cu aceeaşi exactitate înălţimea ideilor, dar se poate spune totuşi dacă o idee este mai aproape de cer decât alta.

În ultimul paragraf din „Cuvânt înainte” la Rostirea filosofică românească, Noica reflecta public: „Ce e de făcut, la drept vorbind, cu asemenea cuvinte, nu ştim. Un Eminescu al filosofiei româneşti n-a apărut încă. Dar atâta vreme cât se vorbesc limbile popoarelor şi nu ale maşinilor, suntem datori să credem că se va ivi unul”. Era limpede din această întredeschidere confesivă că Eminescu va fi fost pentru Noica steaua fixă – iar omeneşte vorbind, modelul – după care se va fi călăuzit în propriile-i căutări. Avea s-o spună şi mai târziu, într-o conferinţă din 15 ianuarie 1980, ţinută la Biblioteca „Astra” din Sibiu: „măsura noastră este Eminescu”, unde posesivul „noastră” exprimă totodată extensiune etnică (de la „noi, românii”) şi pluralul modestiei. Rezultatele acelor căutări ne-ar îndreptăţi să-l aşezăm de pe acum pe filosof lângă poet. Consacrările însă – şi în registrul religios, şi în cel profan – se săvârşesc în timp, iar timpul ne cere, neînduplecabil, să avem răbdare. Poate că personalitatea lui Noica ne este încă prea aproape ca imagine vie spre a o percepe şi ca efigie. Şi-apoi, timpul istoric aduce nu numai limbaje ale maşinilor, dar şi tăvălugul globalizării. Totuşi, atâta vreme cât vor exista popoare, vor exista şi limbi naturale – şi, implicit, un filosof precum Constantin Noica lângă un poet precum Mihai Eminescu: două conştiinţe capabile, amândouă, a împăca pe Geist cu Seele, adică a gândi global şi a simţi local, întruchipând astfel aspiraţia către unitatea sintetică dintre universal şi particular, ca valoare absolută.

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Dialectica putere / simțire, materialism / spiritualitate, tehnologie / ecologie, imperii / popoare: se definesc reciproc, se condiționează reciproc. Dacă nu se vor echilibra reciproc, nu o să mai avem loc pe pamântul asta, unde sa ne mai ascundem.  Salvarea de sub imperiul măciucii, de implozia provocată chiar de către obsesia puterii, poate veni doar cu ”răs-bunarea prin smerenie”, însăși ”marile culturi imperiale” dominante prin tehnologie si  forță, își pot gasi salvarea doar prin re-conectarea la spiritualitate, re-învățînd sa ”simtă” de la primitivi, de la ”culturile minore” nepervertite de obsesiile ”materialismului”. Salvarea noastră, a fiecăruia separat și a tuturor împreună, depinde de râsul copiilor. I just hope ”the Russians” love their children too, sper că suficient de mulți vor fi în stare să râda împreuna cu copiii lor…

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Mini scuter pliabil, 12kg, 16km/h, autonomie 11km


E00055-7-BE00055-7-FE00055-7-EE00055-7-CEvo scooter ZT-55 sp
Asa ceva poate face fericit un copil! Viteza maximă 16km/h, autonomie peste 11km, timp de încărcare baterie 6h. Greutate proprie 12kg, sarcină maxima 50kg. Roți 8”, frână de picior în spate. Motor 100W, baterii cu acid 2x12V/4.5Ah.
Shop Online @ biciclete-electrice.com/ztech-55

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2015 eBike shopping. Dacă viteza maximă e sub / limitată la 25km/h, nu trebuie permis de conducere și nici înmatriculare.


www.stealthelectricbikes.com/stealth The Fighter : 3.7kW, total weight 35kg, Top Speed: F-37-2-1000x67860km/h, Range: up to 60km. The electrical output is multiplied when combined with your own pedal power, which is driven through a two-speed internal gearbox. Peak Power: 3.7kW (3700 Watts), Motor Type: Brushless DC, Battery Type: LiFePO4, Battery Capacity : 1.0kWh, Recharge Time : 2 hours, Charge : Standard 110-240V.

stealthelectricbikes.com/bomber  Top Speed: 80km/h, Range: up to 80km, Peak Power: 5.2kW (5200 Watts), Battery Type: LiFePO4, Battery Capacity : 1.5kWh.
stealthelectricbikes.com/hurricane Top Speed: 80km/h, Range: 45 – 55km, Peak Power: 5.2kW (5200 Watts), Battery Capacity : 1.5kWh.

www.bhbikes.com/evo-jumper Top Speed: 40km/h(?), Weight 23,5 Kg, Battery 432Wh-36V/12Ah, Motor ev665_1_viewBrushless 350W, Autonomy Up to 90 km. BATTERY removable and completely integrated in frame.
Pe maneta dreapta apare maneta de ”gaz”, care comanda manual motorul electric. O unitate de comanda poate  seta diverse grade de putere electrica care ”asista” pedalatul, electronica simte cererea de putere de la pedala si ajuta in functie de panta. ”Frina de motor” preia energia cinetica la coborire si o ”baga” in baterie, ajuta la incarcare, poate fi activata prin buton manual sau controlata electronic. Price: € 3,285.90

2014 New Electric Scooter - Buy Electric Scooter,Electric Scooter,Electric Scooter Product on Alibaba.comChina Brand Name: HARWAN,WANGYE 2014 NEW ELECTRIC SCOOTER – Supply Ability: 100.000 Unit/Units per Month. Number of Employees: 301 – 500 People . Export Percentage: 31% – 40%.
Motor – 72V5000W, 16 inch disc aluminum wheel motor, No-load speed 950RPM(95km/h). Controler – 72V5000W, battery 2x72V32AH OR 2x72V25AH lithium battery-Ni Co Mn. Charging times 800 times ≥80%. Max speed 95km/h. Travel-mileage
approx. 80km (at 50km/h). G.W/N.W 180kgs/160kgs. Charger 72V20A 220V. Charging time 2-4h. Charging voltage 110V/220V, charging current 20A. Warranty 2 years.

Electric Bike 48 V 10 AH Folding Bycicle 3 Colors Electric Bycicle Free Shipping-in Electric Bicycle from Sports   Entertainment on Aliexpress.com   Alibaba Group

1000usd pe aliexpress.com cu Free Shipping to Romania!! Power: 240W, Voltage: 48V10AH, Trip: 40km-60km. Pe ebay o bici electrica BMW costa peste 21.000euro si mai zice ca e ‘chilipir’.  e-bikekit.ro vinde ebike-uri  la 1000euro, dar bateria nu e integrata in cadru, ceea e bine (chiar daca nu e cool) pt ca astfel se pot gasi mai usor baterii de schimb. Tot pe ebay un Nordwerk E-Bike cu baterie integrata in cadru, de 17kg livrata din Germania costa 1800euro. Sau Winora E-Bike SX1 374Wh livrata, frumoasa, 1320Euro, de la www.schauer-sw.de cu ‘45% discount promotional’. 

Bicicleta electrica cu pret de 2600lei < 600euro nu necesita permis de conducere. bicicleta electrica zt-01-453x397Incarcatorul este inclus in pret, are stopuri, faruri, semnalizari economice care prelungesc durata de viata a bateriei. Motor fara perii cu putere nominala de 250–350W, voltaj 36V, consum in mers 2-3 kw.h / 100km, viteza 25 km/h, autonomie peste 33 km. Are 3 baterii Plumb Acid 12Ah de 12V, cu timp de incarcare 6-7 ore. Sarcina maxima este de 130 kg, greutate proprie 64 kg, frâna față/spate cu tambur. Un scuter cu putere mai mare de 500W costa 3840RON cu baterie de 20Ah, are autonomie peste 60km. La fel nu necesita permis de conducere, avand in dotare un limitator conform legislatiei din Romania.

Un kit de 250 cu baterie costa peste 600euro in Romania adica mai mult decat vehicolul de mai sus. Problema cu kiturile este controlul, un articol, un exemplu bun in acest sens aici> electricbikereport.com/choosing-between-the-bionx-or-ezee-electric-bike-conversion-kit. 28The eZee bikes were very elegant looking, with the electric assist system seamlessly integrated into the bikes. The eZee bike with the grip throttle was OK. But I found it harder to have a really smooth experience as I was always adjusting the throttle position to maintain the proper speed. Then I tried the Ezee with the dial assist which is apparently also an option with the hub kits. As I understand it, the system uses a pedal rotation detector. When it detects pedal movement, it supplies pulses of power. The length and strength of the power bursts is determined by the assist dial setting. So you’ll be pedaling and feel a pulse of power every few seconds. It actually works better than it sounds when you are cruising. The bionx-sl-350-dtmomentum of the bike smooths the pulses and it ends up feeling pretty smooth. However, I was braking a lot and I found myself fighting the pulses a lot during the braking. A pulse would start just when I needed to brake and continue even after I started braking. The eZee control systems may have been improved since I tested them. But overall I just really, really loved the torque sensor mode of the Bionx. It is so transparent to the bicycling experience. The bike feels just like a bike always does, but my legs are suddenly much stronger. Plus you can also use the thottle with the Bionx PL350, which seems like the best of both worlds. Too bad the Bionx is the most expensive system!

front10cmrear13cm

Kit 48V1000W: motor pus pe roata fata – minim 98mm,  motor pus pe roata spate – minim 135mm. Marimea rotii (ex 26inch) este trecuta  pe pneu.

neodrives Rear Conversion Kit 250W @ 1.414,00 EUR: The neodrives 250 W motor with a maximum of 40 Nm of torque, can easily master even steep climbs and is particularly to inspire sporty drivers off the road. The neodrives system is powered by a 36 V Lithium-Ion Battery. With 14.5 Ah and 524.9 Wh you can reach ranges of up to 130 km without having to recharge.

Bicicletele electrice sau scuterele electrice se pot conduce fără permis dacă nu depășesc viteza de 25km/h sau sunt limitate la această viteză. Orice vehicul care nu este limitat sau prin construcție depășește 25km/h este considerat moped si are nevoie de permis. Scuterele/bicicletele electrice care sunt limitate la 25 km/h nu sunt mopede, nu necesita permis de conducere și nici înmatriculare: ’’Moped – vehicul, 25cu doua sau trei roti, a carui viteza maxima prin constructie este mai mare de 25 km/h, dar nu depaseste 45 km/h si care este echipat cu un motor cu ardere interna, cu aprindere prin scanteie, cu o capacitate cilindrica ce nu depaseste 50 cm3 sau cu un alt motor cu ardere interna ori, dupa caz, electric, a carui putere nominala continua maxima nu depaseste 4 kW, iar masa proprie a vehiculului nu depaseste 350 kg, neincluzand masa bateriilor in cazul vehiculului electric. Este asimilat mopedului cvadriciclul usor, astfel cum este definit la pct. 6 partea A din anexa nr. 1 la sectiunea 4 din Reglementarile privind omologarea de tip si eliberarea cartii de identitate a vehiculelor rutiere, precum si omologarea de tip a produselor utilizate la acestea – RNTR 2, aprobate prin Ordinul ministrului lucrarilor publice, transporturilor si locuintei nr. 211/2003, cu modificarile ulterioare.”

Bateriile de pe bicicletele electrice trebuie sa aiba neaparat inscriptia “Deep Cycle” sau “Lead Acid for Power Bike“. Câteva recomandări pentru a nu isi pierde din autonomie:
1# Nu incarcati bateriile bicicletei electrice, decat cu incarcatorul original. Nu folositi Deep-Cycle-Lithium-Ion-Batteryredresoare si nu le incarcati separat, decat in serie asa cum sunt ele legate, la tensiunea corespunzatoare.
2# Nu lasati bateriile sa se descarce complet niciodata. Daca cu bicicleta dvs parcurgeti in media 40km cu o singura incarcare, cand va apropiati de maxim 35km parcursi incarcati-o.
3# Pe timp de iarna, daca nu folositi bicicleta, detasati bicicleta si depozitati-o in casa. Tot pe imp de iarna sau alte motive de nefolosire, reincarcati acumulatorii la 30 de zile chiar daca nu i-ati folosit deloc.
4# La bicicletele electrice cu manson de acceleratie, la pornirea de pe loc, rotiti in mod liniar nu brusc, astfel mentineti curentul de descarcare pe baterie redus.
incarcator flat-453x397Bateriile pe litiu au incarcare diferita fata de cele pe plumb, de aceea nu este recomandata incarcarea ambelor tipuri de baterii cu acelasi incarcator. Bateriile bazate pe Litiu, nu accepta supraincarcare si nici incarcare in proportie de 100%, astfel ca incarcatoarele pentru acumulatorii bazati pe litiu sunt diferiti fata de cei pe plumb. Incarcatoarele care au pe iesire curenti mari, nu fac decat sa deterioreze in timp acumulatorul, incarcandu-l intr-un timp mai scurt. Incarcatoarele pentru acumulatori bazati pe Litiu sunt mai costisitoare, este folosita alta tehnologie. Dar bateriile Litiu sunt 4.5 ori mai ușoare decat cele pe plumb și mult mai mici ca volum.

Pretul Brut si Net la autovehicule: Cand o firma cumpara un autovehicul <<de afara>>, tranzactia poate fii efectuata in pretul Net (fara TVA). Cumparatorul este in acest caz o HTB1xQ6_GFXXXXXRapXXq6xXFXXXjpersoana juridica, firma (autovehiculul devine prin tranzactia efectuata, proprietate a firmei). Pentru a cumpara autovehiculul <<pe firma>>, acesta din urma trebuie sa fie oficial inregistrata; de asemenea trebuie sa detina Cod Unic de Inregistrare (CUI). Nu are importanta care este domeniul de activitate al firmei important este doar: ca firma sa fie activa, inregistratata oficial la Oficiul Comertului si sa aiba un CUI. Toate tranzactiile dintr-o tara vor fii efectuate dupa pretul Brut, asadar pretul ce contine TVA-ul. Indiferent daca autovehicul este cumparat de catre o persoana fizica sau juridica. In momentul in care o persoana fizica cumpara un autovehicul din strainatate, plateste intodeauna pretul Brut.

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‘Varianta bulgărească’&Save RM versus Syriza, Front National, Podemos. De ce este în esență activismul apolitic ‘o prostie’.


De ani de zile vad in mediile de socializare un apetit insatiabil pentru solutii strategice, toata lumea se gindeste ce ar trebui facut de parca am fi toti ministrii, dar cind e vorba de CUM, raminem la proteste virtuale si uneori la proteste mai reale – la semnaturi electronice, comentarii gârla si din cand in cand ca prin minune, lumea iese prin miscare browniana la proteste de strada. Zilnic putem vedea mii, zeci de mii de oameni care se gonfleaza, dă’i si dă’i cu comentariile in mediile de socializare dar nu vad aproape pe nimeni sa vrea sa se organizeze, vad pe unii care fac izolati haiducie pana obosesc si se retrag in cochilie, dar nu vad aproape pe nimeni sa se gandeasca sa duca un razboi adevarat acolo unde se iau deciziile, acolo unde ne este decisa soarta. Da, in momente de criza am avut si proteste istorice, foarte mari chiar, cei care ar fi putut duce lucrurile mai departe au o responsabilitate – ocaziile ratate se razbuna, sau poate mai trebuie acumulari cantitative care sa duca la acel ‘salt calitativ’. Am vazut ‘varianta bulgareasca’, protestatari ecologisti care au ocupat parlamentul, au dat jos guverne si cam atit.

Au fost apoi protestele enorme Syntagma si Indignados, din care s-au nascut Syriza si Podemos. S-a ajuns la aceste proteste când cutitul a ajuns la os, cind criza a dus la somaj de 50-60% in rindul tinerilor. In Grecia PIB-ul a scazut cu 30%, veniturile la fel, o mafie de 2000 de familii a furat mii de miliarde euro in cardasie cu marile interese financiare globale, grecii de rand sunt indatorati pe 2 generatii. Ce are in comun cel mai mare partid din Grecia care a pornit si de la unele grupuri trotzkiste/anarhiste/eurocomuniste, cu cel mai mare partid din Franta care a avut la origine un vadimism xenofob?  Da au radacini ideologice opuse si extremiste, dar s-a ajuns la partide radicale anti-sistem, anti-oligarhie, impotriva colonizarii economice prin indatorare, care vor sa apere interesul economic comun al cetatenilor, impotriva elitelor locale si globale. Da Syriza are compasiune si intelegere pentru imigranti in timp ce partidul lui Marine le Pen e cam invers in aceasta privinta. Syriza a ajuns un partid radical de stinga departe de excesele ideologice ale unor grupuri extremiste, se pregateste sa preia guvernarea si nu va avea sprijin nici din partea partidului comunist de extrema stinga 5%, nici din partea partidului de extrema dreapta 7%, sustinut fervent de multi membrii ai politiei grecesti. Marine le Pen a ajuns sa-l ‘obrazniceasca’ pe tatal ei, a castigat alegerile europarlamentare in Franta, nu mai conduce un partid extremist oricat ar vrea mass media aservita sa perpetueze imaginea extremista a lui Jean-Marie Le Pen.

Au ajuns atit stinga ideologica cat si dreapta ideologica sa faca impreuna ‘nationalism economic’ si la urma urmei mie mi se pare asta firesc pt ca indiferent de valori morale, indiferent de idologie, noi toti 80% suntem la stinga acelor elite de 5% care ne duc spre un fascism corporatist controlat de marile finante, asta impreuna cu un procent relativ mic de colaborationisti, lucrurile fiind decise in final de cei care stau deoparte sau care nu stiu sa se organizeze, de cei multi manipulati sau apatici, fatalisti, bagati in ceata de mass media controlata. De aceea scarba fata de politica este indusa sistematic in interesul sistemului care se perpetueaza prin noi si noi facaturi votate disciplinat de electoratele clientelare minoritare. Dar se pare ca in Grecia si Spania, procentaje mari si-au gasit niste sperante si au iesit din letargie. Partide mari care monopolizau viata politica, controlate de mafiocratie, au cazut dramatic, au aparut ”peste noapte” Syriza si Podemos, partide noi care ajung sa fie cele mai mari din parlament, care pot inlocui clasa politica supercorupta, care au o sansa sa preia guvernarea, sa faca schimbari structurale inainte de a se corupe si ele.

Revenind la oile noastre, da e cat se poate de important sa stim ‘strategic’ unde ar trebui sa ajungem dar fara sa gandim ‘strategic’ CUM, fara sa incercam efectiv sa gasim solutii pt a face pasi reali, fara organizare/structurare, totul e doar o discutie wishful thinking, o amagire/supapa, periculoasa prin risipirea unor energii pozitive. Toate problemele serioase se pot transa in final doar politic, daca ne gindim la solutii structurale atunci trebuie odată și odată să depășim ‘prostia’ asta cu activismul civic apolitic care exclude orice implicare in politica! Sa nu ma intelegeti gresit, nu ii fac prosti pe cei care aleg calea asta de implicare, e ok sa vrei sa te implici asa, doar de aici se poate porni. Dar acest mod de a actiona e ca un țopăit într-un singur picior, atit timp cat nu exista si al doilea picior – noi partide care sa preia puterea de la actuala clasa politica, cam greu sa urci muntele intr-un singur picior. Unii se simt depasiti de complexitatea structurarii politice, se tem ca orice implicare ii va duce la compromisuri murdare. Desigur daca e sa faci politica alaturi de actuala clasa politica nu poti decât să intrii în rahat. Dar e o prostie sa spui ca DOAR, exclusiv prin activism civic apolitic se pot rezolva problemele structurale, sa crezi ca e destul sa protestezi, sa critici actuala clasa politica, sa nu intelegi ca trebuie noi partide care sa INLOCUIASCA actuala clasa politica, ca sa faca un nou fel de politica, nu in intereseul a 20% oligarhii si anexe ci in interesul a 80% populatie decenta.

Daca e sa gindim solutii structurale atunci ar trebui sa gandim si la felul in care se poate ajunge la structurare politica, la felul in care se poate ajunge la partide noi care sa implineasca solutiile structurale. Syriza/Grecia, 5*/Italia, ca model de structurare au fost mult timp o uniune de grupuri civice, de grupuri politice, de grupuri de activisti. La fel si Podemos a aparut ”subit” doar pt ca in ani de zile s-au format acele grupuri de activisti, mai ales dupa protestele Indignados.

Astfel de grupuri pot fi caramizile care pot duce la structurare mai serioasa, astfel de grupuri trebuie sa existe, sa apara cat mai multe, grupuri omogene, care sa se implice in diverse actiuni reale. Daca se face dintr-o data o oala mare in care ne aruncam cu totii, atunci grupuri obscure organizate vor sti sa preia controlul, sa deturneze constructia comuna, asa cum s-a intimplat cu FSN-ul anilor 90, controlat rapid de comunisti/securisti si urmasii lor sau cum pare sa se încerce acum cu Uniti Salvăm=noul FSNeco. Cei care vor sa faca mai mult decit sa comenteze, ar trebui zic eu, sa caute in jurul lor 5-10-50 de oameni cu care se cunosc bine, sa faca grupuri omogene, daca vor unii ideologic mai la stinga sau mai la dreapta bine si asa, da sa fie grupuri reale cu oameni in care au incredere, cu actiuni cit de cit concrete, reale. Nu poti cunoaste un om dupa ceea ce zice, dar il poti cunoaste dupa ce face si vorba aia spune-mi cu cine te insotesti ca sa iti spun cine esti. Doar pornind de la astfel de caramizi, se poate face structurare pe nivelul urmator, grupuri de grupuri colaborând pe acțiuni mai mari și apoi noi partide care sa inlocuiasca actuala clasa politica, noi partide care trebuie sa se bazeze pe cat mai multe astfel de grupuri civice. Într-adevar este esential sa ramina cat mai multe astfel de grupuri in zona civica, fara sa se implice politic, dar sprijinind concret candidati si partide, atit timp cit acesti candidați si aceste partide ii reprezinta.

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I2+R1a+R1b Contact Area – PIE Urheimat


In the archaeology of Neolithic Europe, the burned house horizon is the geographical Burned_House_Horizon_Mapextent of the phenomenon of intentionally burned settlements. This was a widespread and long-lasting tradition in what is now Southeastern and Eastern Europe, lasting from as early as 6,500 BCE (the beginning of the Neolithic) to as late as 2000 BCE (the end of the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age). A notable representative of this tradition is the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, which was centered on the burned-house horizon both geographically and temporally.
The roots of Cucuteni-Trypillian culture can be found in the Starčevo-Körös-Criș and Vinča cultures of the 6th to 5th millennia,[6] with additional influence from the Bug-Dniester culture (6500-5000 BC).[20] During the early period of its existence (in the 5th millennium BC), the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture was also influenced by the Linear Pottery culture from the north, and by the Boian-Giulesti culture from the south.[6] Through colonization and acculturation from these other cultures, the formative Pre-Cucuteni/Trypillia A culture was established. Over the course of the fifth millennium, the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture expanded from its ‘homeland’ in the PrutSiret region along the eastern foothills of the Carpathian Mountains into the basins and plains of the Dnieper and Southern Bug rivers of central Ukraine.
<<1]Prut-Siret homeland > 2]4800-4000bc extend over Dniester-Bug basins > 3]4000-3500bc extend to Eastern Transylvania and to the Dnieper basin >
4]3500-3000bc extend to N Ukraine/Kiev and E to Don&Volga + transformation into a patriarchal structure + different forms of ritual burial were developed
>> Thus the last phase of the Cucuteni culture is already ap_bulg5d mixture, the transformation into a patriarchal structure and the different forms of burial show the mixture between the farmers and the kurgan people. Over 1000years the farmers and the kurgan people traded, mixed, the last 500 year period there is a mixed population with a culture still dominated by the older ways, so there was not a violent and sudden end for the Cucuteni culture, there was a transformation that lasted many hundreds of years.
There was also a climate change – Beginning around 3200 BC the earth’s climate became colder and drier than it had ever been since the end of the last Ice age, resulting in the worst drought in the history of Europe since the beginning of agriculture.[27] The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture relied primarily on farming, which would have collapsed under these climatic conditions in a scenario similar to the Dust Bowl of the American Midwest in the 1930s.

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The Contact Area is where I2/Cucuteni people met first with R1a than with R1b.  I quote from the Eupedia page reffering to R1b, to the origin of ”indo-europeans”:
”It is not yet entirely clear when R1b crossed over from eastern Anatolia to the Pontic-Caspian steppe. This might have happened with the appearance of the Dnieper-Donets culture / c. 5100-4300 BCE, the first truly Neolithic society in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe. However, many elements indicate a continuity in the Dnieper-Donets culture with the previous Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, and at the same time an influence from the Balkans and Carpathians, with regular imports of pottery and copper objects. It is therefore more likely that Dnieper-Donets marked the transition of indigenous R1a and/or I2a1b people to early agriculture, perhaps with an influx of Near Eastern farmers from ‘Old Europe’. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from Dnieper-Donets culture showed clear similarities with those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Carpathians (haplogroups H, T and U3).
The first clearly Proto-Indo-European culture was Sredny Stog / 4600-3900 BCE <also in the Dnieper-Don area, just next to the Cucuteni area>… There is evidence of population blending from the variety of skull shapes. Towards the end of the 5th millennium, an elite starts to develop with cattle, horses and copper used as status symbols.

R1b-tree
The Maykop culture, the R1b link to the steppe – archeology also shows a clear diffusion of bronze working and kurgan-type burials from the Maykop culture to the Pontic Steppe, where the Yamma culture developed soon afterwards (from 3500 BCE)… R1b-M269 (the most common form in Europe) is closely associated with the diffusion of Indo-European languages, as attested by its presence in all regions of the world where Indo-European languages were spoken in ancient times, from the Atlantic coast of Europe to the Indian subcontinent. It has been hypothetised that R1b people (perhaps alongside neighbouring J2 tribes) were the first to domesticate cattle in northern Mesopotamia mayakopsome 10,500 years ago. The analysis of bovine DNA has revealed that all the taurine cattle (Bos taurus) alive today descend from a population of only 80 aurochs. The earliest evidence of cattle domestication dates from circa 8,500 BCE in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures in the Taurus Mountains. The two oldest archaeological sites showing signs of cattle domestication are the villages of Çayönü Tepesi in southeastern Turkey and Dja’de el-Mughara in northern Iraq, two sites only 250 km away from each others. This is presumably the area from which R1b lineages started expanding – or in other words the “original homeland” of R1b. Horses were first domesticated around 4600 BCE in the Caspian Steppe, perhaps somewhere around the Don or the lower Volga, and soon became a defining element of steppe culture. Nevertheless it is unlikely that R1b was already present in the eastern steppes at the time, so the domestication of the horse should be attributed to the indigenous R1a people.

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The Yamna period / 3500-2500 BCE is the most important one in the creation of Indo-European culture and society. Middle Eastern R1b people had been living and blending to some extent with the local R1a foragers and herders <and with I2 farmers/salt&pottery traders from Cucuteni> for over a millennium, perhaps even two or three. The close cultural contact and interactions between ,<I2>, R1a and R1b people all over the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, resulted in the creation of a common vernacular, a new lingua franca, which linguists have called Proto-Indo-European (PIE). It is pointless to try to assign another region of origin to the PIE language.” end of quote, I have inserted the <I2> parts.
The Yamna horizon was not a single, unified culture. In the south, along the northern shores of the Black Sea coast until the the north-west Caucasus, was a region of open steppe, expanding eastward until the Caspian Sea, Siberia and Mongolia (the Eurasian Steppe). The western section, between the Don and Dniester Rivers (and later the Danube), was the one most densely settled by R1b people, with only a minority of R1a people (5-10%). The eastern section, in the Volga basin until the Ural mountains, was inhabited by R1a people with a substantial minority of R1b people (whose descendants can be found among the Bashkirs, Turkmans, Uyghurs and Hazaras, among others). The northern part of the Yamna horizon was forest-steppe occupied by R1a people, also joined by a small minority of R1b (judging from modern Russians and Belarussians, the frequency of R1b was from seven to nine times less lower than R1a). The western branch would migrate to the Balkans and Greece, then to central and Western Europe, and back to their ancestral Anatolia in successive waves (Hittites, Phrygians, Armenians, etc.). The eastern branch would migrate to Central Asia, Xinjiang, Siberia, and South Asia (Iran, Pakistan, India). The northern branch would evolve into the Corded Ware culture and disperse around the Baltic, Poland, Germany and Scandinavia.

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The Yamna and Maykop people both used kurgan burials, placing their deads in a supine position with raised knees and oriented in a north-east/south-west axis. Graves were sprinkled with red ochre on the floor, and sacrificed domestic animal buried alongside humans. They also had in common horses, wagons, a heavily cattle-based economy with a minority of sheep kept for their wool, use of copper/bronze battle-axes (both hammer-axes and sleeved axes) and tanged daggers. In fact, the oldest wagons and bronze artefacts are found in the North Caucasus, and appear to have spread from there to the steppes.
Maykop was an advanced Bronze Age culture, actually one of the very first to develop metalworking, and therefore metal weapons. The world’s oldest sword was found at a late Maykop grave in Klady kurgan 31.
Its style is reminiscent of the long Celtic swords, though less elaborated.
Combined with advanced bronze weapons and their sea-based culture, the western branch (R1b) of the Indo-Europeans from the Black Sea shores are excellent candidates for being the mysterious Sea Peoples, who raided the eastern shores of the Mediterranean during the second millennium BCE.

03

The rise of the IE-speaking Hittites in Central Anatolia happened a few centuries after the disappearance of the Maykop and Yamna cultures. Considering that most Indo-European forms of R1b found in Anatolia today belong to the R1b-Z2103 subclade, it makes little doubt that the Hittites came to Anatolia via the Balkans, after Yamna/Maykop people invaded Southeast Europe. The Maykop and Yamna cultures were succeeded by the Srubna culture (1600-1200 BCE), possibly representing an advance of R1a1a people from the northern steppes towards the Black Sea shores, filling the vacuum left by the R1b tribes who migrated to Southeast Europe and Anatolia.

Haplogroup-R1b-S28Haplogroup-R1b-L23

Maybe when we talk about blending peoples, technologies & cultures in this Contact Area carto produce the PIE people and culture, we should consider that in this blending I2 Cucuteni culture/people had the following contributions:
1] farming came to the kurgan area from Cucuteni people/culture
2] first metal products, gold and copper came from I2/Cucuteni imports
3] pottery came from Cucuteni people which worked with fire at such high temperatures that today it is difficult to reproduce the way they used to burn their houses. Look to the maps refering to the Burning House Horizon! The Burning House Horizon covers all the PIE homeland.
4] and very important SALT came from Moldovia, from the Carpathian mountains. Salt EthnosalRo-Moldavia-attractors-Eneolithicwas important to people, to herding AND to food conservation. Food conservation helped people to travel on longer distances and for sure contributed to the increase of herds and populations. First salt went down the rivers from the mountains, there are some very nice studies regarding the relation between first neolithic sites and salt mines. Then salt was carried further with wagons and cattle. Cucuteni people for a long time made trade with the ”kurgan” people and mixed with them, Cucuteni culture and farming spread east, there is evidence that very large quantities of salt were transported east to the Pontic steppes from the Carpathians. Life is not possible without salt, salt mines were essential for first Thracian large settlements also, see the rich Varna Culture.
5] Also consider that the area between Cucuteni and Vinca, ie Transilvania, was later
wietenberg5.1]the turntable from where Urn culture spread to W Europe,
5.2]the area, turntable from where proto-celts conquered all W Europe and also
5.3] maybe the area from where indo-europeans invaded for the first time Greece, see the relation between Wietenberg and Micenian swords bronze technology. Wietenberg culture used tin from Bohemia and probably preceded Unetice and western bronze technology.
6] we could consider that the lower Danube next to the Cucuteni area was the entrance of Indo-Europeans in Europe.
7] Coming back to the way people from Cucuteni used fire at high temperatures, when they made pottery or when they burned the houses. These high temperatures are essential for copper technology – over 1100 degrees Celsius. The Cucuteni people were the first to use cremation, after Cucuteni people, the Wietenberg culture (cremation in Transylvania. From Transylvania, Urn culture spread W, later Dacians used also cremation. There seem to be a continuity in using a lot the fire: fine pottery / Cucuteni, the best bronze technology in their time / Wietenberg culture, Iron / the Dacians and all of them cremation of the dead.

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So all in all when we talk about blending of haplogroups, technologies and cultures to produce the proto indo europeans we should not forget the I2 haplogroup, the HP that dominated Europe for 6.000 years after the last Ice Age, the Continuity theory of Alinei, the first human civilizations of the world ie Old Europe.
Cucuteni was there right in the eye of the storm, part of the Contact Area. Populations in Cucuteni and Vinca area, were so strong that R1b and R1a were not able to displace them. R1b spread to W Europe which was less populated, easier to be conquered, while R1a spread to N& Central Europe for the same reason. On their way up the Danube, the new haplos avoided the W of former Yugoslavia where today I2 has highest percentages.
Gimbutas said that kurgan people destroyed Old Europe. But for a long time, Cucuteni culture co-existed with ”kurgan” people, traded with them, even expanded to E. When Cucuteni culture ”vanished” the blending was over. A new mixtures took the place of the Old Europeans, stronger populations with better technology and more ”competitive” social behaviour. Stronger mixtures that had everything, just replaced not destroyed the older Cucuteni & Vinca cultures, maybe better adapted also to climate changes. The new mixture had all the new technologies, farming, herding, horses/chariots, metallurgy and also the more competitive social organization – they were fierce warriors but in the same time they were not using slavery, they had elites but no crushing state/aristocracy.

A team of archaeologists led by Dr Mykhailo Videiko of the Kyiv Institute of Archaeology has discovered the remains of a 6,000-year-old temple at a Trypillian culture village near modern-day Nebelivka, Ukraine. The culture is characterized by advanced agriculture, developed metallurgy, pottery-making, sophisticated architecture and social organization, including the first proto-cities on European soil. See on youtube. image_2223_1e-Trypillia-Temple

The remains dating from 4000 BC are covering an area of 600m2 – this is one of the largest structures ever built in prehistoric Europe. “The temple was a two-story building made of wood and clay surrounded by a galleried courtyard, five rooms were on the first floor and raised family altars made of clay were on the ground floor,” said Dr Videiko, who is a co-author of the paper published in the Journal of Neolithic Archaeology.

cucuteni trsrThe I2 Cucutenians were obviously smart people. They had a great peaceful way of life, but as the times changed, they learned to adapt. For more than a thousand years they traded and mixed first with R1a than with R1b in the Pontic steppes, in the end Old Europe was not wiped out by the kurgans, they simply produced together a more competitive mixture, they learned from each other how to make farming/pottery and how to make war with horse chariots  and advanced bronze technology.

pasthorizonspr.com/indo-european-languages-first-emerged-circa-6500-years-ago-on-the-steppe Using data from over 150 languages, linguists at the University of California, Berkeley provide evidence that this ancestor language originated 5,500 – 6,500 years ago, on the Pontic-Caspian steppe stretching from Moldova and Ukraine to Russia and western Kazakhstan.
“Ancestry-constrained phylogenetic analysis supports the Indo-European steppe hypothesis“, by Will Chang, Chundra Cathcart, David Hall and Andrew Garrett, will appear in the March issue of the academic journal Language. A pre-print version of the article is freely available from the Linguistic Society of America, the publishers of Language: http://www.linguisticsociety.org/files/news/ChangEtAlPreprint.pdf
This article provides new support for the “steppe hypothesis” or “Kurgan hypothesis”, which proposes that Indo-European languages first spread with cultural developments in animal husbandry around 4500 – 3500 BCE. (An alternate theory proposes that they diffused much earlier, around 7500 – 6000 BCE, in Anatolia in modern-day Turkey.)
Chang et al. examined over 200 sets of words from living and dead Indo-European languages; after determining how quickly these words changed over time through statistical modelling, they concluded that the rate of change indicated that the languages which first used these words began to diverge approximately 6,500 years ago, in accordance with the steppe hypothesis.
This is one of the first quantitatively-based academic papers in support of the steppe hypothesis, and the first to use a model with “ancestry constraints” which more directly incorporate previously discovered relationships between languages. In future research, methods from this study could be used to study the origins of other language families, such as Afro-Asiatic and Sino-Tibetan.

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An introduction to Archeometallurgy. Wietenberg, Santana. Ethnogenesis of the Celts, Geto-Dacians and Greco-Thracians.


Bellow pix – Part of the Cucuteni! treasure found at Zargidava in 1982 – the site has layers from eneolithic, middle bronze, Hallstatt B, La Tene (sec IVbc-sec II) and medieval era (sec. XV-XVIII) ie Cucuteni, Monteoru, Costișa and geto-dacian cultures.
cucuteni trsr

Gold, the most attractive and precious of metals in every society, is also the easiest for primitive man to acquire. Gold is bright, incorruptible, malleable, and appears in pure form in the beds of streams. Once seen, acquiring it is just a matter of picking it up. Nuggets of this gleaming substance must often have been kept and treasured. Pure gold also has the quality of softness. It can be easily shaped by hammering, but this malleability makes it useless for practical purposes. It always was just a luxury item. Copper which exists in nature in a pure form, can also be bashed into new shapes – with less ease than gold for it is much harder, but with more practical results for everyday use.

Bellow 2 charriots – left Butmir/Bosnia culture and right Wietenberg culture.1310845970_1557753571127497_867977896108097399_n

From about 7000 BC a few neolithic communities begin hammering copper into crude knives and sickles, which work as well as their stone equivalents and last far longer. Some of the earliest implements of this kind have been found in eastern Anatolia.
This intermediate period between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age, has been given a name deriving from the somewhat awkward combination of materials. It is called the Chalcolithic Period, from the Greekchalcos ‘copper’ and lithos ‘stone’. An accident, probably frequent, reveals another of nature’s useful secrets. A nugget of pure copper, or perhaps a finished copper tool, falls into the hot camp fire. The copper melts. When it cools, it is found to have solidified in a new shape. And the magic of fire has yet more to offer. Certain kinds of bright blue or green stones are attractive enough to collect for their own sake. It turns out that when such stones are heated to a high temperature, liquid metal flows from them. They are azurite and malachite, two of the ores of copper.cucuteni
The use of fire thus makes possible two significant new steps in the development of metallurgy: the casting of metal, by pouring it into prepared moulds; and the smelting of mineral ores to extract metal. Objects made from smelted copper, from as early as 3800 BC, are known in Iran.
Many mineral ores are found on the surface of the earth, in outcrops of rock. Chipping away at them, to pursue the metal-bearing lode down below the surface, leads inevitably to another technological advance – the development of mining.

Bellow picture – According to National Museum archaeologist Dušan Šljivar, experts found a “copper chisel and stone ax at a location near Prokuplje in which the foundation has 10392443_1558687581034096_3118940659047911408_nproven to be 7,500 years old, leading us to believe that it was one of the first places in which metal weapons and tools were made in prehistoric times.” The first miners: from 4000 BC. By 4000 BC deep shafts are cut into the hillside at Rudna Glava, in the Balkans, to excavate copper ore. This robbing of the earth’s treasures is carried out with due solemnity. Fine pots, bearing produce from the daylight world, are placed in the mines as a form of recompense to propitiate the spirits of the dark interior of the earth. By about 3800 BC copper mines are also worked in the Sinai peninsula. Crucibles found at the site reveal that smelting is carried out as part of the mining process.

The age of bronze: from 2800 BC. Sometimes the ores of copper and tin are found together, and the casting of metal from such natural alloys may have provided the accident for the next step forward in metallurgy. It is discovered that these two metals, cast as one substance, are harder than either metal on its own. The cast alloy of copper and tin is bronze, a substance so useful to human beings that an entire period of early civilization has become known as the Bronze Age. A bronze blade will take a sharper edge than copper and will hold it longer. And bronze ornaments and vessels can be cast for a wide variety of purposes.
The technology of bronze is first developed in the Middle East. Bronze is in use in Sumer, at Ur, in around 2800 BC, and in Anatolia shortly afterwards. It then spreads spasmodically. It appears in the Indus valley in about 2500 BC, and progresses westwards through Europe from about 2000. At much the same time it is found in crude form in China, where it later achieves an unprecedented level of sophistication. From about 1500 BC the Shang dynasty produces bronze objects of exceptional brilliance.
In all these regions it is the rulers who use bronze, as a luxury for themselves or as a weapon for their armies. For ordinary people the Stone Age survives well into the Bronze Age.
weitenberg minoic swordLeft pix – ”Mycenaean” sword / Wietenberg culture / National Museum of Transylvanian. The Mycenians came to Greece from the North of present day Romania, where this sword was found.
As the most valuable of commodities (in addition to being compact and easily portable), metals are a great incentive to trade. The extensive deposits of copper on Cyprus bring the island much wealth from about 3000 BC (Cyprus, in Latin, gives copper its name –cyprium corrupted to cuprum). Later, when the much scarcer commodity of tin is required to make bronze, even distant Cornwall becomes – by the first millennium BC – a major supplier of the needs of Bronze Age Europe.
There are various opinions about which methods were used to introduce the arsenic, but by the 1970s most researchers believed that the arsenic was there because Bronze Age metalworkers had selected copper ores that were naturally rich in the element. Copper ore deposits are usually laid down in rock fissures or veins as primary copper sulphide minerals. Exposed areas of such deposits are converted to secondary minerals such as oxides and carbonates. Within some primary copper deposits are the ‘fahlerz’ ores, which contain arsenic and the metal antimony. The metalworkers had apparently discovered that these ores yielded a superior product.
While some archaeologists were classifying metal artefacts by their physical appearance others began to analyse their composition, especially after spectrographic methods became widely available in the 1930s. This approach, pioneered by the German chemists Helmut Witter and Wilhelm Otto and the Austrian scientist Richard Pittioni, culminated in a massive programme, based in Stuttgart, which was responsible for more than 16 000 analyses of Early Bronze Age metalwork by the mid-1970s.

Copper_Age_Europe

The magic of iron: from 1500 BC. The Hittites are the first people to work iron, in Anatolia from about 1500 BC. In its simple form iron is less hard than bronze, and therefore of less use as a weapon, but it seems to have had an immediate appeal – perhaps as the latest achievement of technology (with the mysterious quality of being changeable, through heating and hammering), or from a certain intrinsic magic (it is the metal in meteorites, which fall from the sky). Quite how much value is attached to iron can be judged from a famous letter of about 1250 BC, written by a Hittite king to accompany an iron dagger-blade which he is sending to a fellow monarch (see Letter from a Hittite king).

The discovery of steel: 11th century BC. By the 11th century BC it has been discovered that iron can be much improved. If it is reheated in a furnace with charcoal containing carbon, some of the carbon is transferred to the iron. This process hardens the metal; and the effect is considerably greater if the hot metal is rapidly reduced in temperature, usually achieved by quenching it in water.
The new material is steel. It can be worked just like softer iron, and it will keep a finer edge, capable of being honed to sharpness. Gradually, from the 11th century onwards, steel replaces bronze weapons in the Middle East, birthplace of the Iron Age. It becomes essential, from now on, to have a good steel blade rather than a soft and indifferent one.

Cast iron in the east: 513 BC. Thus far in the story iron has been heated and hammered, but never melted. Its melting point (1528°C) is too high for primitive furnaces, which can reach about 1300°C and are adequate for copper (melting at 1083°C). This limitation is overcome when the Chinese develop a furnace hot enough to melt iron, enabling them to produce the world’s first cast iron – an event traditionally dated in the Chinese histories to 513 BC. In this they are a thousand and more years ahead of the western world. The first iron foundry in England, for example, dates only from AD 1161. By that time the Chinese have already pioneered the structural use of cast iron, using it sometimes for the pillars of full-size pagodas. Read more @ historyworld.net

640px-Central_Europe_Reinecke_BA1

Central Europe Bronze Period A1, 2300-1950 BC; Key:(1) Late Eneolithic;(2) Beaker culture;(3) Riesenbecher;(4) Únětice culture; (5)Adlerberg group; (6)EBA of north Alps,incl.Singen&Neckar-Ries-Lech groups;(7) Straubing culture;(8) Unterwölbling culture;(9) Early Bronze Age of South-East Alps;(10) Wieselburg culture;(11) Nitra culture;(12) Kisapostag culture; (13) Nagyrév culture; (14) Perjámos culture; (15) Otomani culture;(16) Hatvan culture;(17) Košťany culture;(18) Mierzanowice culture;(19) Dobre group; (20) Płonia (Buchholz) group.

wiki about cooper archaeometallurgy: The theory that metallurgy was imported into Europe from the Near East has been practically ruled out. Nowadays, the general opinion is that the development of metallurgy took place independently in different places, at different times, with various techniques. One fact that supports this interpretation is that, although the final products are quite similar throughout Europe, the method of production is not.
The earliest recorded metal employed by humans appears to be gold which can be found free or “native.” Certain metals, notably tin, lead and (at a higher temperature) copper, can be recovered from their ores by simply heating the rocks in a fire, a process known as
smelting. The first evidence of this extractive metallurgy dates from the 5th and 6th millennium BC and was found in the archaeological sites of Majdanpek, Yarmovac and Plocnik, all three in Serbia. To date, the earliest evidence of copper smelting is found at the Belovode site,[6] including a copper axe from 5500 BC belonging to the Vinča culture. Around 3500 BC, it was discovered that by combining copper and tin, a superior metal could be made, an alloy called bronze, representing a major technological shift which began the Bronze Age. Europe has very few sources of tin. It was therefore of extreme importance throughout ancient times to import it long distances from known tin mining districts of antiquity, namely Erzgebirge along the border between Germany and Czech Republic, the Iberian Peninsula,Brittany in France, and Devon and Cornwall in southwestern England. Another minor source of tin is known to exist at Monte Valerio in Tuscany, Italy.
The extraction of
iron from its ore into a workable metal is much more difficult than for copper or tin. The process appears to have been invented by the Hittites in about 1200 BC, beginning the Iron Age. The secret of extracting and working iron was a key factor in the success of the Philistines.[5][8]

Copper is the eighth most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust, available all over the world and one of the few that can appear in pure state (Atkinson 1987). It is not complicated to work with, a bare hammering can be enough to transform a nugget into a bead.
tcasting_setupStage A: Although
native copper nowadays is frequently displayed in museum showcases of mineral collections, it once occurred copiously during prehistoric times. In Cyprus or Crete, collecting the mineral was once as easy as simply picking it up from the ground. In fact, native copper is no longer as easy to find in that state these days. The treatment of this native mineral was also uncomplicated through cold-hammering. This only permitted the production of a limited range of artifacts like awls, pins, or beads. In larger objects, the metal cracks when it is cold-hammered.
Stage B: Annealing the metal on an open fire (200–300 °C) reduces its hardness considerably and gives in malleability. This permits the manufacture of slightly more sophisticated objects, like bracelets, but is still a rather limited technique.
Stage C: In the first two steps, the mineral used was
native copper with no specialized smeltingtechnology. Probably, due to the situation that native copper was increasingly difficult to find, copper ore was used in the third step. This was a very significant development, in fact this was truly the beginning of metallurgy. Separating the copper from the gangue was possible only by smelting, using furnaces that were able to reach at least 1,089 °C.
Numerous examples of mines are known all over Europe (Craddock 1980, Mohen 1992 and 1996, Shennan 1999, Bartelheim et al. 2003) from the east: Rudna Glava (Serbia), Ai Bunar (Bulgaria); to the west: Mount Gabriel (Ireland), Great Orme, Alderley Edge (United Kingdom); crossing Central Europe: Mitterberg (Salzach, Austria), Neuchâtel (Switzerland), Cabrierés (France); to the south: Riotinto,Mola Alta de Serelles (Spain); and the Mediterranean: Corsica, Cyprus, and the Cyclades islands. It is remarkable that, usually, it is not a single mine but a complex, with a variable, large number of mineshafts, as in Rudna Glava (30) or Mount Gabriel
(31).

One of Greece’s most famous archaeological sites, the Middle Bronze Age city of Akrotiri is the Pompeii of Greece.  Inhabited in c.1600-1525 BC, Akrotiri was once a prosperous trading centre but was abandoned after a volcanic eruption buried the site in several metres of ash. Its houses – many preserved up to two or three stories high, along with furniture and pottery – lay undisturbed for 3,500 years until the site was Akrotiri-credit-Klearchos-Kapoutsisexcavated by Spyridon Marianatos in 1967.  It’s eerie walking through there. Beds are upturned on top of one another, as if the occupants would come back for them. Jars and jugs lay scattered. The ash formed a sort of cast for some of the furniture, leaving behind beautifully sculpted tables and even a keepsake box with a gold ibex. Akrotiri even had a sewage system. Santorini Island itself didn’t have such technology until the mid-1900s. These people were bloody brilliant. “Thera” was the original name of Santorini Island, and this museum houses most of the artifacts collected from Akrotiri. Perfectly preserved pieces of wall murals and frescoes are on display here, and even 7000-year-old fossilized olive leaves from some of the island’s earliest eruptions. Other interesting tidbits: the world’s first portable oven and pieces of jewelry.

Relation between salt mines and copper workshops in late Bronze age. Deja în urmă cu sare-bronzaproape o jumătate de secol, M. Rusu atrăsese atenţia asupra unei posibile legături între marile depozite de bronzuri transilvănene şi resursele de sare, ipoteză reluată şi de alţi cercetători.
Hartă cu localizarea exploatărilor de sare din Bronzul târziu (^) şi a principalelor depozite-atelier (*):1. Dipşa ; 2. Figa ; 3. Uioara de Sus
şi Şpălnaca ; 4. Ocna Mureş; 5. Aiud ; 6. Pănade; 7. Ocnişoara ; 8.Guşteriţa; 9. Ocna-Sibiului ; 10. Bicaz ; 11. Coştiui – Şugatag ; 12.Valea Florilor ; 13. Band.

Middle Bronze 1800BC: The modest huts were replaced by larger houses and some settlements were fortified with earthworks and stone walls. Four wheel wagons were common throughout the Balkans, central Europe and Asia Minor.
Wietenburg culture: Origins – Coţofeni & Baden, Area – Crisana, E Hungary, Slovakia spread west later, Pottery – high-necked cup, geometric & spira, Settlements – houses arranged in circles, fortified with ramparts, Technology – developed bronze metallurgy, Burials – inhumation.
The Únětice culture dated roughly to about 2300–1600 BC, originated in South East Europe history - 1,800 BC mapthe territories of contemporary Bohemia, the village Únětice is located  northwest of Prague. Today, this archaeological culture is known from Czech Republic and Slovakia from approximately 1400 sites, from Poland (550 sites) and Germany (approximately 500 sites and loose finds locations).[1] The culture corresponds to Bronze A1 and A2 in the chronological schema of Paul Reinecke: A1: 2300-1950 BC: triangular daggers, flat axes, stone wrist-guards, flint arrowheads ; A2: 1950-1700 BC: daggers with metal hilt, flanged axes, halberds, pins with perforated spherical heads, solid bracelets. Úněticean graves can be divided in two categories: flat graves and barrows.[26] The Únětice culture practiced skeletal inhumations, however occasionally cremation was also practised.In classic phase (approx. 1850-1750 BC), Úněticean burial rite displays strong uniformity, regardless of the gender or age of the deceased. Men and women were buried in the same N-S position.Coffins were made of single block of wood. The Únětice culture had trade links with the British Wessex culture. Cornish tin was widely traded as well.CBMP

The Carpathian arc from the Bohemia -Únĕtice culture, the upper Tiza Otomani culture and into Transylvania Wietenburg culture was the centre of the Bronze industry, trading up to the Baltic coast and east to the Caucasus. The ‘alliance’ of these three cultures used tin from Bohemia to produce Bronze in Transylvania and then their strength spread north of the Carpathians into the Ukraine (Komarów culture) and east to the Pontic Steppe.
Wietenberg and Otomani were the first cultures to develop bronze technology in Transylvania. While Otomani, Unetice and all the other cultures around still had inhumation, Wietenberg had cremation and urns. When all the other cultures had only stone tools, Wietenberg had a well develope bronze and gold technology, followed by Otomani culture. And in the above pix the Wietenberg battle ax looks nicer than the Unetice axe Smile Look also to the Mycenaean bronze sword found at Dumbrăvioara, Mureş County, Romania and consider that first ”aryan” invasion of Greece, came from this area! The period of Greek history from about 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is called Mycenaean in reference to Mycenae. At its peak in 1350 BC, the citadel and lower town had a population of 30,000 and an area of 32 hectares.[1] 

The first Bronze technology from Serbia/Vinca is probably related to the ancient copper & tin mines from W Serbia – Cer & Bukulja mountains (close to where Sava & Morava flows into the Danube). The Early Bronze Age from Spain can be explained through the tin mines from Spain. As well the Nuragic Culture was linked to the copper mines from Sardinia. Metallurgy appeared later in NW Europe but very soon became the most advanced technology in Europe, that could be linked to the tin mines from England/Cornwall, which were the most abundant from all Europe. Unetice Culture probably is closely connected with the Copper Tin mines from Bohemia/Erzgebirge. Metallurgy produced strong rich cultures, produced well armed  warriors that were able to conquer other people.
New technologies produced welfare, better living conditions, increased population. New products induced trade, traders had to protect the products they transported, ‘industrial areas’ and ‘rich comunities’ also had to be protected, I guess there is a good link between welfare/expensive products/trade and warriors/aristocracies.

arian-home 
Metallurgy and strong cultures in Transylvania could be linked with 1#the gold sources from Alburnus Maior, some of the richest in Europe, the main reason for Traian to conquer Dacia and 2#with salt mines from Transylvania. 3#Transylvania was in the middle of everything: it was between Vinca and Cucuteni. 4#It was the turntable from where R1b conquered W Europe and 5#close to the tin sources from Bohemia. 6#It was connected with the pontic steppes, and through this highway with the metallurgic centers from Urlas/Arkaim and Caucaz. 7#And finally it was close to the rich basins of lower Danube and Middle Danube+Tisa basin.
Bellow pix: left is Unetice from Germany, right is Wietenberg from Transylvania.

320px-Decorated_bronze_axe,_Central_Germanyweitenberg
The Wietenberg culture from Transylvania,  is the extension of the CONTACT AREA on the Dniester river, the melting pot area where the
1#Old Europe Cucuteni I2(+J1+E1+G) farmers met
2#the R1b coming on the N&S shores of the Black Sea and the
3#R1a coming from the northern forest steppes.
This melting pot ended the Cucuteni Culture around 3000BC but produced people with all the qualities to be more competitive than others around: they knew farming, metallurgy, they had horses & chariots, they were fierce warriors.  Cremation could come from Cucuteni who used to burn everything, cooper mining could come from salt mining typical for Cucuteni also, bronze technology seems to be connected with R1b who later conquered all Western Europe. All in all the Wietenberg area 2200–1600/1500 BC seems to be / could be :
1]in the center of the European bronze technology, which expanded from here North to Poland (Unetice), to West up the Danube to England and to East it related strongly over the Pontic steppes to the Urals,  to the
Sintashta-Arkaim culture 2100–1800 BC.
2]the starting area of the protoceltic Urnfield culture 1300 BC – 750 BC which led to the Hallstat Iron  Age culture. Urnfield is preceded by the
Tumulus culture   1600 BC to 1200 BC, descendant of the Unetice culture
3]may be the original area of the Greco-Macedonians & Thracians the – Mycenae 1600-1100bc and of course could be
4] origin of the Geto-Dacian people, who worked gold and iron in Transylvania mountains, simillar to Hallstat and LaTene celts in the Alps.

Eastern LinearProtoItaloCelts

Thus the Middle Danube & Tisa basins plus Transylvania were the turntable, the area from where 1#Linear Pottery spread to Central Western Europe than later 2#Pro Italo Celts  conquered all Western Europe.
1511011_1560341227535398_2685410854139634778_n

Wietenburg culture spread east to the Noua culture of Moldavia and Sabatinovka culture of the Steppe as far as the Dnieper. Pastoralism was practiced extensively in the central to South East Europe history - 1,400 BC mapeast of Romania. Seven of the nine superior Bronze “Mycenaean” swords found in Romania were found in Transylvania showing connections with the southern Balkans through the Morava-Vardar corridor.
Suciu de Sus – Felchesevch-Stanova Culture: Origins – either from Otomani & Sighişoara, or Vučedol-Zok-Nir, Area – Maramures & Ukraine sub Carpathians, & part of Crişana, Pottery – spirals & solar designs, also geometric, Houses – surface huts of wattle & daub, Economy – on trade route from central to north Europe, Technology – metallurgy, Burials – cremation, tumulus graves.

The shift to cremation rather than interment around 1300 BC, gave archaeologists a name for the burgeoning Urnfield culture. The typical Urnfield burial used a urn to contain the ashes of the desceased, capped by an upturned bowl, set into a pit. The usage had spread over much of Europe by 1000 BC.
Any type of cremation was uncommon earlier over most of Europe except the Carpathian Basin, where it appears urnamong the Makó and Bell Beaker groups as early as c. 2700 to 2400 BC. So this region has often been considered the starting point for the Urnfield tradition. Two of the Middle Bronze Age cultures of Hungary favoured cremation, but only one of them placed a capped burial urn in a pit. That was the Vatya Culture of sheep-breeders living in the settlements along the Danube. These were well-placed foUrnfieldCulturer trading, as well as having good grazing land nearby. So the idea could easily have travelled up the Danube to the trading nexus at its head. From there it spread west and north into Germany and Poland and south into Italy. Finally it moved into France and part of Spain. There was also a transition to cremation burial in Scandinavia and the British Isles in the Late Bronze Age, but without the vast cemeteries of Continental Europe.
The distribution of the Urnfield Culture is very similar to that of the Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b-U152. The origins of the cremation rite are commonly believed to be in Hungary, where it was widespread since the first half of the 2nd millennium BC.[3] The neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillian culture of modern-day northeastern Romania and Ukraine were also practicing cremation rituals as early as approximately 5,500 BC.

The village Malaya Kopanya (укр: Мала Копаня) is located on the banks of the river Tisa. The village is famous for its hill-fort (Gorodyshche) located one and a half kilometers Malaya Kopanya 2from the center of the village, where excavations were conducted for many years. The hill-fort reffers to the Dacian culture and occupies an area of almost 5 hectares of which only 2 were investigated. Here is a study about iron swords found at Malaya Kopanya, stating that the dava, the Dacian fort, was built around 60BC in the time of Burebista king, replacing the ”North Thracian environment”. The  settlement  was destroyed by the Romans in 107AD. All findings convey to Vynohradiv (Seleuşu Mare) State Museum.

La 20 de kilometri de graniţa cu România, (48° 10′ 0″, 23° 6′ 0″) la intrarea Tisei în bazinul Maramureşului istoric, săpăturile arheologice au fost demarate în 1977 si din anul 2.000 au continuat în baza unui acord de colaborare științifică dintre Muzeul Județean Satu Mare și Malaya Kopanya 1Universitatea Națională din Ujgorod, cu finanțare de la Ministerul Culturii şi Cultelor din România. Încununarea cercetărilor arheologice a venit o dată cu campania de săpături din 2008, când arheologii sătmăreni au descoperit mormintele şi, odată cu acestea, cea mai mare şi reprezentativă cantitate de bijuterii dacice după vestitele brăţări din aur. Săpăturile au fost oprite în 2011 pe fondul lipsei de finanțare. Acesta este al doilea cimitir-cetate dacic descoperit, pe lângă cel din Zemplen – Slovacia, aflat la 200 de kilometri de graniţa cu România.
Cea mai mare descoperire de la Malaya Kopanya se referă la cele 70 de morminte, mai Malaya Kopanya 3multe decât au fost descoperite vreodată în tot arealul Marii Dacii, ceea ce a determinat arheologii să afirme că suntem în fața celei mai mari necropole dacice. Cercetătorii speră să dea de câteva sute de morminte pe când vor finaliza săpăturile. Stratul de cultură coboară până la 3, 8 m. Este vorba despre un cimitir de incineraţie, în care defuncţii au fost puşi pe rug, osemintele calcinate depuse în urne şi îngropate în pământ. În mormintele de femei au fost descoperite bijuterii, fibule, catarame, inele şi verigi, în timp ce în mormintele bărbaţilor au Descoperirile-arheologilor-din-Satu-Marefost descoperite arme, printre care şi unele foarte spectaculoase, precum spade îndoite, o armă specială numită fica – un fel de sabie cu un singur tăiş, pinteni și vârfuri de lance. Mormintele datează din perioada lui Burebista. Sistemul de apărare al cetăţii este deosebit de complex, demn de un mare centru politic, comercial şi religios, cetetea de la Malaya Kopanya se aseamănă cu Sarmisegetuza Regia, doar că cetatea din Ucraina ar fi avut zidurile din lemn, pe când Sarmisegetuza le avea din piatră.

Epoca bronzului mijlociu cuprinde, conform datelor 14C calibrate, prima jumatate a mil. II i.Ch., sau conform cronologiei traditionale, sec. 17-14 i. Hr. Aceasta epoca, in toata Europa de Sud-Est si Centrala, se caracterizeaza prin cristalizarea unor entitati etnoculturale bine delimitate geografic si tipologic, prin trecerea treptata la forme de habitat mai stabile, prin cresterea complexitatii structurilor sociale, proces a carui expresie cea mai elocventa a reprezentat-o cresterea accentuata a numarului asezarilor fortificate, depunerea tezaurelor de piese de aur si argint – simboluri ale puterii sacrale si sociale; prin progrese baia mareremarcabile in metalurgia bronzului: inlocuirea treptata a tiparelor de lut cu cele de piatra, folosirea pe scara larga a cositorului pentru obtinerea bronzului de calitate. Avand in vedere lipsa cositorului in zacamintele din toata Europa de Est si Sud-Est, tehnologia bronzului nu ar fi fost posibila fara sa fi existat o retea transeuropeana de circulatie a acestui metal. Cositorul folosit in Transilvania provenea din Slovacia. Mai sus piese din colectia muzeului Baia Mare.
Perioada mijlocie a epocii bronzului in Bazinul Carpatic se caracterizeaza si prin manifestari artistice deosebite: eleganta formelor si ornamentare extrem de bogata si expresiva a vaselor ceramice, care in unele privinte repeta motivele ornamentale din eneolitic. Printre motivele decorative caracteristice bronzului mijlociu un loc aparte il ocupau simbolurile solare si reprezentari de plante, motive care sugereaza cultul solar, cel al fertilitatii si al fecunditatii. Probabil, un rol ritual au jucat si carele votive, figurine de animale si pasari.
Majoritatea cercetatorilor atribuie culturile arheologice ale epocii bronzului mijlocii din spatiul Carpato-Dunareano-Pontic unor grupuri prototracice sau tracice. Pe tot parcursul bronzului mijlociu, sudestul Transilvaniei a fost net dominat de cultura Wietenberg, raspandita in toata Transilvania.

Valea Muresului este ‘autostrada preistorica’ prin care au patruns in Ardeal toti migratorii care au venit din Zona Dunare/Tisa. Arheologii au inventariat 57 de situri pe traseele din judetul Alba ale viitoarei autostrazi de pe Culoarul IV Pan-European, practic, la fiecare 2,5 kilometri exista cate un sit arheologic. Cetatea preistorica de la Santana – Troia Romaniei – are 78 de hectare! si este cea mai mare cetate hallstattiana din Europa! Csantanauprinde o necropola din prima epoca a cuprului, cultura Tiszapolgar circa 4000BC, apoi o asezare ce dateaza de la sfarsitul epocii bronzului, de la circa 1200BC si o fortificatie ridicata de traci la inceputul primei epoci a brnz sntnfierului. o necropola din prima epoca a cuprului, cultura Tiszapolgar circa 4000BC, apoi o asezare ce dateaza de la sfarsitul epocii bronzului, de la circa 1200BC si o fortificatie ridicata de traci la inceputul primei epoci a fierului. În 1988, cu ocazia unor lucrări de modificare a terasamentului căii ferate ce leagă Aradul de Oradea, se descoperă un vas din pastă grosieră care conţinea oase umane, şi un tezaur compus din 23 de piese din aur.
În 1954, Ioan Mărinoiu a găsit, în urma bronz santanaunor lucrări agricole, un celt şi un fragment de seceră. Tot în această perioadă a mai fost descoperit (întâmplător) un brâu realizat din bronz aurit. În 1976, tractoristul Aurel Bulzea din Sântana, găseşte în spatele fostei halte C.F.R. Cetatea Veche, un cuptor plin (aprox. 200 de piese) cu proiectile (bile) de praştie din lut. Elevii cercului de istorie-arheologie de la Şcoala generală nr.1 din Sântana, aflaţi sub îndrumarea lui Augustin Mureşan, urmărind lucrările la un canal care a traversat fortificaţia, salvează în 1980 mai multe obiecte: un topor din piatră găurit şi şlefuit, proiectile din lut pentru praştie, două râşniţe din piatră, două greutăţi de la războiul de ţesut, ceramică şi un fragment dintr-un tipar de gresie, folosit probabil pentru turnarea unor piese de harnaşament.

Metsamor The citadel on top of the volcanic hill is about 10.5 hectares in size, but the entire city is believed to have covered 200 hectares at its greatest extent, housing up to armenia50,000 people. Excavations have shown strata of occupancy going back to the Neolithic period 7,000-5,000 BC, but the most outstanding features of the site were constructed during the early, middle and late Bronze Ages 5,000-2,000 BC.  Inscriptions found within the excavation go back as far as the Neolithic period, and a sophisticated pictograph form of writing was developed as early as 2000-1800 BC.  The “Metsamor Inscriptions” have a likeness to later scripts.
Metallurgy – The excavations uncovered a large metal industry, including a foundry with 2 kinds of blast furnaces (brick and in-ground).  Metal processing at Metsamor was among the most sophisticated of its kind at that time:  the foundry extracted and processed high-grade gold, copper, several types of LLchashen-chariot-museumbronze, manganese, zinc, strychnine, mercury and iron. Metsamor’s processed metal was coveted by all nearby cultures, and found its way to Egypt, Central Asia and China.  The iron smelting process was not advanced in Metsamor, probably due to the vast quantities of pure bronze alloys at hand, and Metsamor primarily mined and sold iron ore to neighbouring cultures which took better advantage of its properties.
The Foundry – The foundry dates from the Early Bronze Age – ca. 4,000 BC, though recent digs in the area uncovered signs of metal processing as early as 5,000 BC.  The Medzamorcoppersmelter3000complex of smelting furnaces and moulds date from the mid Bronze to Early Iron Age (3,000-2,000 BC).  The complex becomes more astounding the more you walk through it.  Several huge underground caves were uncovered that are thought to have been storehouses for base metal, as well as a granaries for winter months.  The first iron in the ancient world was probably forged here, though it was not considered as important as bronze, giving the jump on development to the Babylonians.

The Varna culture belongs to the late Neolithic of northern Bulgaria. It is conventionally dated between 4400-4100 BC, contemporary with Karanovo in the South. It is characterized by polychrome pottery and rich cemeteries, the most famous of which are varnaVarna Necropolis, the eponymous site, and the Durankulak complex, which comprises the largest prehistoric cemetery in southeastern Europe, with an adjoining coeval Neolithic settlement (published) and an unpublished and incompletely excavated Chalcolithic settlement.
294 graves have been found in the necropolis, many containing sophisticated examples of copper, some of the world’s oldest gold jewelry, pottery (about 600 pieces, including gold-painted ones), high-quality flint and obsidian blades, beads, and shells.
The findings showed that the Varna culture had trade relations with distant lands, possibly including the lower Volga region and the Cyclades, perhaps exporting metal goods and salt from the Provadiya rock salt mine. The copper ore used in the artifacts originated from a Sredna Gora mine near Stara Zagora, and Mediterranean spondylus shells found in the graves may have served as primitive currency.

The pix bellow – distribution of polymetallic deposits in the Western Carpathians including the Slovakian Erzgebirge. The triangles mark Early Bronze Age settlements.
The Mondsee group was a neolithic Austrian Pile dwelling culture spanning the period erzgbrgfrom roughly 3800 to 2800 BC, of particular interest due to its production of the characteristic “Mondsee Copper” arsenical bronze, apparently the first in central Europe to emulate the Serbian Vinča culture.  
Metalurgy in the Elbe-Saale (Harz) region. A recent paper (2012, in German) discusses a copper dagger that has been found in a late Neolithic grave from Aspenstedt near Halberstadt (15 km north of the Harz mountains), and uses the opportunity to, based on other finds in the region, reconstruct the early history of metallurgy in the area:
According to the paper, the process included the following stages:
1] 4.100-3.800 BC : Occasional import of copper tools from western Slovakia
2] 3.800-3.500 BC: Increased occurrence of copper artefacts and indication of local processing of imported copper. The supply source shifts towards East Alpine Mondsee copper. The Aspenstedt dagger, a Mondsee dagger that exhibits signs of local re-shaping, belongs into this group.
3]3.500- 3.350 BC: First indication of the use of local copper alongside imported one.
4]3.350 – 3.100 BC: Strong increase in copper finds (8% of all locations, compared to 4% before), mostly decorative items, increasingly produced from local copper.
5]3.100 – 2.800 BC: Further increase of copper finds (11% of all locations). The increased occurrence of copper axes, produced from local copper, indicates a well developed local tool making industry.

Eupedia Forum: I think it makes a lot of sense to associate baking pottery with copper age revolution. You do not need an oven to make simple pottery, that can be done in an open fire. But for fine pottery, with proper glazing, you need higher temperatures and also some control over the amount of oxygen inside the oven. It is true that copper in natural form could be found and cold molded for tools, and was in sporadic use very early, but ubiquitous copper use, the true copper revolution, only came with ability to smelt it and cast it.
Clay pottery to harden needs to be baked in fire/heat. But how hot kiln needs to be to achieve the ceramic state of clay? Required temperature turned to be no less than 1,000 C, and in some cases as high as 1,400C for best quality. Temperature needed for melting copper is 1,084C, pottery kilns were hot enough to melt copper.
Interestingly, to cast copper we need clay/ceramic molds. Should we mentioned that clay molds were readily available around pottery kilns? A very convenient circumstance.
Another interesting fact is that copper, copper oxide and dioxide, was used as pottery colorant. At this high temperatures copper evaporates in kiln and is absorbed by pottery, giving it greenish and reddish colour. This colouring technique could have been primary introduction of copper in kilns. From this it is only a short step to accidental invention of smelting copper.

Tainted ores and the rise of tin bronzes Excavations at Plocnik, a Vinca culture site in Serbia, recovered a piece of tin bronze foil from an occupation layer dated to the mid fifth millennium BC. The Plocnik and Gomolava objects are similar in composition to 13 previously analysed early tin bronzes from Bulgaria and Serbia. Their shape implies that they were used for decorative purposes; visual appearance played a significant role in their use. The foil from Plocnik was left in a soft annealed state so that it could be wrapped around a ceramic vessel, while the ring from Gomolava was left in the work-hardened state. This study provides archaeological and analytical evidence for the independent emergence of tin bronze production, from complex copper-tin ores, some 1500 years 6500-year-old-tin-bronze-from-serbiabefore the first tin bronze alloys of south-western Asia. They also preceded by almost half a millennium the earliest use of natural alloys of arsenical copper (Roberts et al. 2009). Thus the fifth millennium tin bronzes fundamentally challenge the established sequence of the evolution of metallurgy in western Eurasia.
Copper, tin bronzes and gold are not the only metals used in the Balkans at this period. There is evidence of mid fifth millennium BC use of both lead and galena from the Vinca culture sites of Selevac, Opovo, Autoput and Donja Tuzla (Glumac & Todd 1987). In the wider Balkan region the use of silver is attested by the hoard of more than 100 silver artefacts from the Alepotrypa Cave in Greece, and dated to the mid fifth–early fourth millennia BC (Muhly 2002). The near-contemporary use of tin bronze, gold, lead/galena and, most likely, silver in addition to the dominant copper in the Balkans during the mid to late fifth millennium BC defies the conventional narrative of a slow unilinear evolution of metallurgy. Quite the reverse, the early trajectory of metallurgy in the Balkans emerges almost from the very beginning as polymetallic in nature.
The production of complex tin bronzes in the Balkans declined towards the end of the fifth millennium BC. Significantly, this coincided with the collapse of the gold-using cultures in Bulgaria. Explanation could be sought in population dynamics, which were a powerful mechanism for both the generation and decline of innovations in prehistoric societies (Henrich 2004; Powell et al. 2009). Tin bronzes only re-appeared some 1500 years later, based on cassiterite tin.

cotofeniThe Coţofeni culture (Serbian: Kocofeni), also known as Usatove culture, is a Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age archaeological culture that in south-eastern Central Europe facing the Black Sea between the mouths of the Bug River and the Danube in present-day Romania, Moldova, and southern Ukraine, between roughly 3500 and 2500 BCE.

Mid fourth-millennium copper mining in Liguria, north-west Italy: the earliest known copper mines in Western Europe. PROTOHISTORIC METALLURGY IN LIGURIA. The earliest copper mining on the European continent (Figure 7) is in the Balkans and may be dated generically to the later fifth millennium cal copper-mine-02BC: Ai Bunar in Bulgaria (Cernych 1978) seems to be dated to Karanovo V (approximately 4230-4000 cal BC) and Rudna Glava in Serbia (Jovanovic 1979; Jovanovic & Ottaway 1976) to Vina D (approximately 4670-4980 cal BC). Copper mining in Liguria is thus about a millennium later than that in the Balkans.
To the west, an independent origin is now generally accepted for Iberian metallurgy, with Ruiz-Taboada and Montero-Ruiz (1999) recently publishing a radiocarbon date in the first half of the fifth millennium cal BC for copper smelting at Cerro Virtud in Almer´ıa. Other dates for copper metallurgy in Almer´ıa are in the mid fourth millennium BC, and Rothenberg & Blanco Freijeiro (1980) have claimed late fourth/third millennium BC copper mining at Chinflon (Huelva) – although the interpretation of this latter site is controversial.

Obsidian trade, amber trade, prehistoric flint are all related the early copper mines.  The mining history of Sardinia started probably around the 6th millennium BC with the mining of obsidian. About 3000 BC, the metal working practices expanded into Sardinia too, where they reached a highly practical level. Together with metal working, mining practices developed too allowing the mining of growing amounts of minerals and then of metals. The geographical position of the island, but also its mining asset, attracted between the tenth and the 8th century BC. Phoenician merchants, that were replaced by Carthaginians.

Haplogroup-R1b-S28

How did R1b come to replace most of the older lineages in Western Europe ?  Until recently it was believed that R1b originated in Western Europe due to its strong presence in the region today. The theory was that R1b represented the Paleolithic Europeans (Cro-Magnon) that had sought refuge in the Franco-Cantabrian region at the peak of the last Ice Age, then recolonised Central and Northern Europe once the ice sheet receded. The phylogeny of R1b proved that this scenario was not possible, because older R1b clades were consistently found in Central Asia and the Middle East, and the youngest in Western and Northern Europe. There was a clear gradient from East to West tracing the migration of R1b people (see map bellow). This age of the main migration from the shores of the Black Sea to Central Europe also happened to match the timeframe of the Indo-European invasion of Europe, which coincides with the introduction of the Bronze-Age culture in Western Europe, and the proliferation of Italo-Celtic and Germanic languages.

Haplogroup-R1b-S21

Historians and archeologists have long argued whether the Indo-European migration was a massive invasion, or rather a cultural diffusion of language and technology spread only by a small number of incomers. The answer could well be “neither”. Proponents of the diffusion theory would have us think that R1b is native to Western Europe, and R1a alone represent the Indo-Europeans. The problem is that haplogroup R did arise in Central Asia, and R2 is still restricted to Central and South Asia, while R1a and the older subclades of R1b are also found in Central Asia. The age of R1b subclades in Europe coincide with the Bronze-Age. R1b must consequently have replaced most of the native Y-DNA lineages in Europe from the Bronze-Age onwards.

Haplogroup-R1b-L23

However, a massive migration and nearly complete anihilation of the Paleolithic population can hardly be envisaged. Western Europeans do look quite different in Ireland, Holland, Aquitaine or Portugal, despite being all regions where R1b is dominant. Autosomal DNA studies have confirmed that the Western European population is far from homogeneous. A lot of maternal lineages (mtDNA) also appear to be of Paleolithic origin (e.g. H1, H3, U5 or V) based on ancient DNA tests. What a lot of people forget is that there is also no need of a large-scale exodus for patrilineal lineages to be replaced fairly quickly. Here is why.
1]Polygamy. Unlike women, men are not limited in the number of children they can procreate. Men with power typically have more children. This was all the truer in primitive societies, where polygamy was often the norm for chieftains and kings.
2]Status & Power. Equipped with Bronze weapons and horses, the Indo-Europeans would have easily subjugated the Neolithic farmers and with even greater ease Europe’s last hunter-gatherers. If they did not exterminate the indigenous men, the newcomers would have become the new ruling class, with a multitude of local kings, chieftains and noblemen (Bronze-Age Celts and Germans lived in small village communities with a chief, each part of a small tribe headed by a king) with higher reproductive opportunities than average.

Haplogroup-R1b-L21Haplogroup-R1b-DF27

3]Gender imbalance. Invading armies normally have far more men than women. Men must therefore find women in the conquered population. Wars are waged by men, and the losers suffer heavier casualties, leaving more women available to the winners.
4]Aggressive warfare. The Indo-Europeans were a warlike people with a strong heroic code emphasising courage and military prowess. Their superior technology – metal weapons, wheeled vehicles drawn by horses and attitude to life would have allowed them to slaughter any population that did not have organised armies with metal weapons i.e. anybody except the Middle-Eastern civilizations.
5]Genetic predisposition to conceive boys. The main role of the Y-chromosome in man’s body is to create sperm. Haplogroups are determined based on mutations differentiating Y-chromosomes. Each mutation is liable to affect sperm production and sperm motility. Preliminary research has already established a link between certain haplogroups and increased or reduced sperm motility. The higher the motility, the higher the chances of conceiving a boy. It is absolutely possible that R1b could confer a bias toward more male offspring. Even a slightly higher percentage of male births would significantly contribute to the replacement of other lineages with the accumulation effect building up over a few millennia. Not all R1b subclades might have this boy bias. The bias only exist in relation to other haplogroups found in a same population. It is very possible that the fairly recent R1b subclades of Western Europe had a significant advantage compared to the older haplogroups in that region, notably haplogroup I2 and E-V13. Read more

R1b-tree

Replacement of patrilineal lineages following this model quickly becomes exponential. Imagine 100 Indo-European men conquering a tribe of 1000 indigenous Europeans (a ratio of 1:10). War casualties have resulted in a higher proportion of women in the conquered population. Let’s say that the surviving population is composed of 700 women and 300 men. Let’s suppose that the victorious Indo-European men end up having twice as many children reaching adulthood as the men of the vanquished tribe. There is a number of reason for that. The winners would take more wives, or take concubines, or even rape women of the vanquished tribe. Their higher status would garantee them greater wealth and therefore better nutrition for their offspring, increasing the chances of reaching adulthood and procreating themselves. An offspring ratio of 2 to 1 for men is actually a conservative estimate, as it is totally conceivable that Bronze-Age sensibilities would have resulted in killing most of the men on the losing side, and raping their women (as attested by the Old Testament). Even so, it would only take a few generations for the winning Y-DNA lineages to become the majority. For instance, if the first generation of Indo-Europeans had two surviving sons per man, against only one per indigenous man, the number of Indo-European paternal lineages would pass to 200 individuals at the second generation, 400 at the third, 800 at the fourth and 1600 at the fifth, and so on. During that time indigenous lineages would only stagnate at 300 individuals for each generation.
Based on such a scenario, the R1b lineages would have quickly overwhelmed the local lineages. Even if the Indo-European conquerors had only slightly more children than the local men, R1b lineages would become dominant within a few centuries. Celtic culture lasted for over 1000 years in Continental Europe before the Roman conquest putting an end to the priviledges of the chieftains and nobility. This is more than enough time for R1b lineages to reach 50 to 80% of the population.
The present-day R1b frequency forms a gradient from the Atlantic fringe of Europe (highest percentage) to Central and Eastern Europe (lowest), the rises again in the Anatolian homeland. This is almost certainly because agriculture was better established in Eastern, then Central Europe, with higher densities of population, leaving R1b invadors more outnumbered than in the West. Besides, other Indo-Europeans of the Corded Ware culture (R1a) had already advanced from modern Russia and Ukraine as far west as Germany and Scandinavia. It would be difficult for R1b people to rival with their R1a cousins who shared similar technology and culture. The Pre-Celto-Germanic R1b would therefore have been forced to settled further west, first around the Alps, then overtaking the sparsely populated Western Europe.

R1b-M269 (the most common form in Europe) is closely associated with the diffusion of Indo-European languages, as attested by its presence in all regions of the world where Indo-European languages were spoken in ancient times, from the Atlantic coast of Europe to the Indian subcontinent. It has been hypothetised that R1b people (perhaps alongside neighbouring J2 tribes) were the first to domesticate cattle in northern Mesopotamia mayakopsome 10,500 years ago. The analysis of bovine DNA has revealed that all the taurine cattle (Bos taurus) alive today descend from a population of only 80 aurochs. The earliest evidence of cattle domestication dates from circa 8,500 BCE in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures in the Taurus Mountains. The two oldest archaeological sites showing signs of cattle domestication are the villages of Çayönü Tepesi in southeastern Turkey and Dja’de el-Mughara in northern Iraq, two sites only 250 km away from each others. This is presumably the area from which R1b lineages started expanding – or in other words the “original homeland” of R1b. Horses were first domesticated around 4600 BCE in the Caspian Steppe, perhaps somewhere around the Don or the lower Volga, and soon became a defining element of steppe culture. Nevertheless it is unlikely that R1b was already present in the eastern steppes at the time, so the domestication of the horse should be attributed to the indigenous R1a people.

It is not yet entirely clear when R1b crossed over from eastern Anatolia to the Pontic-Caspian steppe. This might have happened with the appearance of the Dnieper-Donets culture (c. 5100-4300 BCE). This was the first truly Neolithic society in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe. Domesticated animals (cattle, sheep and goats) were herded throughout the steppes and funeral rituals were elaborate. Sheep wool would play an important role in Indo-European society, notably in the Celtic and Germanic (R1b branches of the Indo-Europeans) clothing traditions up to this day. However, many elements indicate a continuity in the Dnieper-Donets culture with the previous Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, and at the same time an influence from the Balkans and Carpathians, with regular imports of pottery and copper objects. It is therefore more likely that Dnieper-Donets marked the transition of indigenous R1a and/or I2a1b people to early agriculture, perhaps with an influx of Near Eastern farmers from ‘Old Europe’. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from Dnieper-Donets culture showed clear similarities with those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the Carpathians (haplogroups H, T and U3).
The first clearly Proto-Indo-European culture was Sredny Stog (4600-3900 BCE), when small kurgan burials begin to appear, with the distinctive posturing of the dead on the back with knees raised and oriented toward the northeast, which would be found in later steppe cultures as well. There is evidence of population blending from the variety of skull shapes. Towards the end of the 5th millennium, an elite starts to develop with cattle, horses and copper used as status symbols.
The Maykop culture, the R1b link to the steppe? Another migration across the Caucasus happened shortly before 3700 BCE, when the Maykop culture, the world’s first Bronze Age society, suddenly materialized in the north-west Caucasus, apparently out of nowhere. The origins of Maykop are still uncertain, but archeologists have linked it to contemporary Chalcolithic cultures in Assyria and western Iran. Archeology also shows a clear diffusion of bronze working and kurgan-type burials from the Maykop culture to the Pontic Steppe, where the Yamna culture developed soon afterwards (from 3500 BCE). Kurgan (a.k.a. tumulus) burials would become a dominant feature of ancient Indo-European societies and were widely used by the Celts, Romans, Germanic tribes, and Scythians, among others.
<<So the blending of Cucuteni I2 and R1a herders produced the first elites, herders with horses and copper from Cucuteni. Maykop could correspond to the crossing of  Caucasus by the R1b-M269, and the mixture of Cucuteni farmers with R1a&R1b produces the first ”arians”, the first true kurgan society, with superior bronze technology from R1b Maykop, horses from R1a and farming&pottery&salt from Cucuteni culture.>>
The Yamna period (3500-2500 BCE) is the most important one in the creation of Indo-European culture and society. Middle Eastern R1b people had been living and blending to some extent with the local R1a foragers and herders for over a millennium, perhaps even two or three <<and with I2 Cucuteni culture>>. The close cultural contact and interactions between R1a and R1b people <<I2>> all over the Pontic-Caspian Steppe resulted in the creation of a common vernacular, a new lingua franca, which linguists have called Proto-Indo-European (PIE). It is pointless to try to assign another region of origin to the PIE language.

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Sardinia – Vinca I2a1 + Beaker R1b >> Nuragic culture. 1200bc The Sea Peoples>First Dark Age. R1b & R1a ‘Aryan’ waves.


At the site near Prokuplje called Pločnik, serbian archaeologists found evidence of what could be the oldest metal workshop in all of Europe. According to National Museum 10392443_1558687581034096_3118940659047911408_narchaeologist Dušan Šljivar, experts found a “copper chisel and stone ax at a location near Prokuplje in which the foundation has proven to be 7,500 years old, leading us to believe that it was one of the first places in which metal weapons and tools were made in prehistoric times.”  Archaeologists hope that this find in southern Serbia will prove the theory that the metal age began a lot earlier than it was believed to have, Šljivar said.

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After the Last Ice Age most of Europe was I1,2. Old Europe, Cardium Culture and Western Europe had I1,I2 as dominant substratum into which neolithic farmers J2,E1&G inserted. So oldest bronze items were discovered in Vinca area, where I2a1 concentration is highest. I2a1 continuum is also very high in Cucuteni area but Sardinia is the area with highest I2a1 concentration after Bosnia, S of Croatia & W of Serbia.
Consider the Nuragic Civilization,  lasting from the Bronze Age (18th century BC) to the 2nd century AD. They were one of the Sea Peoples that wiped out most of Middle Asia, around 1300-1200Bc.

I2a1

Butmir culture existed in Butmir, near Ilidža, Bosnia and Herzegovina, dating from the Neolithic period. It is characterized by its unique pottery, and is one of the best researched 13European cultures from 5100–4500 BC.[1][2] It was part of the larger Danube civilization.
The Butmir culture was discovered in 1893, when Austro-Hungarian authorities began construction on the agricultural college of the University of Sarajevo. The finds caused interest among archaeologists worldwide. They were largely responsible for the International Congress of Archaeology and Anthropology being held in Sarajevo in August 1894. The most impressive finds were the unique ceramics, which are now found in the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Certain characteristics of the Butmir pottery designs (e.g. its resemblance with Kamares Butmir-vdvdv14style Minoan pottery) made some suggest a connection to the Minoan culture on Crete. The Butmir culture was the home for several large settlements, among them was the site of Okoliste in Bosnia dating to 5200-4500 B.C. with a population size of 1000-1500 people. The settlement was largest in the early phase (5200 B.C) with an area of 7.5 hectare, from there it gradually declined to reach the size of 1.2 hectare in 4500 B.C. The site likely consisted of parallel rows of houses that ranged in size from four to ten meters in length.

European_Late_NeolithicDating to the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the nuraghe are megalithic towers with a truncated cone shape, which are widespread in the whole of Sardinia, about one nuraghe every three square kilometers. According to Massimo Pallottino, a scholar of Sardinian prehistory, the architecture produced by the Nuragic civilization was the most advanced of any civilization in the western Mediterranean during this epoch, including those in the regions of Magna Graecia.
Sardinia, a land rich in mines, notably copper and lead, saw the construction of numerous furnaces for the production of alloys which were traded across the Mediterranean basin and nuragic people became skilled metal workers; they were among the main metal producers in Europe [8] and with bronze they produced a wide variety of objects and new weapons as swords, daggers, axes, and after drills, pins, rings, bracelets, typical bronze statuettes, and the votive bronze boats show a close relationship with the sea.nuragic
The late Bronze Age (14th-13th centuries BC) saw a vast migration of the so-called sea people, described in ancient Egyptian sources. They destroyed Mycenaean and Hittite sites and also attacked Egypt. According to some scholars the Sherden, one of the most bebeb945571e3674e32fffdae6fc986cimportant tribes of the sea peoples, are to be identified with the Nuragic Sardinians.[12]Another hypothesis is that they arrived to the island around the 13th or 12th century after the failed invasion of Egypt.
Archaeologists define the nuragic phase as ranging from 900 BC to 500 BC (Iron Age) the season of the aristocracies. The handicraft produced fine ceramics and more and more elaborate tools, and the quality of the weapons increased.
With the flourish of the trade, metallurgy products and handcrafts were exported to every corner of the Mediterranean, from the Near East to Spain and the Atlantic. The huts in the villages increased in number and there was generally a large increase in NURAGHE BARUMINI (1)population. The construction of the nuraghi stopped and individual tombs replaced collective burials (Giant’s Tombs). But the real breakthrough of that period, according to archaeologist Giovanni Lilliu, was the political organization which revolved around the Parliament of the village, composed by the heads and the most influential people, who gathered to discuss the most important issues. The nuragic people dominated Sardegna until they were defeated by the Carthaginians around 500 BC and forced to take refuge in the mountainous interior. The Carthaginians were defeated in turn by the Romans, and Sardegna became a Roman province. The nuragic civilization still maintained a separate identity until around 200 AD.

europe-map1383px-Beaker_culture_diffusion.svg

The Bonnanaro culture is the last evolution of the Beaker culture in Sardinia (c. 1800 BC), and shows several similarities with the Bronze-Age Polada culture of northern Italy. These have been connected with prehistoric settlements from the Italian peninsula through Corsica.[4] The introduction of bronze from the new people arriving from the mainland brought numerous improvements, such as in agriculture, in which more effective tools could be used, but also in war and hunting. To this period date the construction of the platformlike so-called proto-nuraghe.
Throughout the second millennium and into the Etnie_Nuragiche-2.svgfirst part of the first Sardegna_Barbariamillennium BC, Sardinia was inhabited by the single extensive and uniform cultural group represented by the Nuragic people. Centuries later, Roman sources describe the island as inhabited by numerous tribes which had gradually merged culturally. They however maintained their political identities and the tribes often fought each other for control of the most valuable land. The most important Nuragic populations mentioned include the Balares, the Corsi and the Ilienses, the latter defying the Romanization process and living in what had been called Civitatas Barbarie.

Abb2_klein
The most ancient settlements have been discovered both in central Sardinia and Anglona; later several cultures developed in the island, such as the Ozieri culture 3200−2700 BC. Remains from this period include more than 2,400 hypogeum tombs called Domus de Janas, the 3rd millennium BC statue Copper Age walled city, Los Millares, Iberiamenhirs representing warriors or female figures, and the stepped pyramid of Monte d’Accoddi, near Sassari, which has some similarities with the monumental complex of Los Millares (Andalusia) and the later Talaiots in theBalearic Islands. According to some scholars, the similarity between this structure and Mesopotamian ones is due to cultural influxs coming from the Eastern Mediterranean.[3] During this period copper objects and weapons also appeared in the island. The altar of Monte d’Accoddi fell out of use starting from c. 2000 BC, when the Beaker culture, which at the time was widespread in almost all western Europe, appeared in the island.

bell1

Thus in Sardinia, the dominant I2a1 (+J2/E1/G) substratum, related to the Vinca/Cucuteni cultures via the Butmir Culture from Bosnia, Croatia, via the sea, was ”fertilized” around 2000bc by the R1b warriors coming from North via Corsica, to produce the Nuragic civilization. On the other hand it’s interesting to note that the R1b migrations coming to Europe from the Middle East through the N of Anatolia and Thracia, went AROUND Bosnia, where they probably met a I2a1 population too strong to go through. The I2a1 economy was based on agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing and trading with the mainland just as in Old Europe and already had metalurgy, R1b brought weapons&war, they came for the copper mines, they conquered military the island but they were absorbed by the substratum.

Haplogroup I1 I2*/I2a I2b R1a R1b G J2 J*/J1 E1b1b
Corsica 0 18.5 1 0 49 7.5 14 0 8
Sardinia 0 37.5 2 1 18.5 12 9 4 9.5
Croatia 5.5 37 1 24 8.5 2.5 6 1 10
Bosnia 3 55.5 0 15 3.5 1.5 4 0.5 12
Bosniaks 4 56 0 16 3 2 3.5 0.5 10
Bosnian Croats 0 71 2 12 2 1 1 0 9
Bosnian Serbs 2.5 31 2.5 13.5 6 1 8.5 0 22.5
Romania 4.5 26 2.5 17.5 12 5 13.5 1.5 15
Moldova 5 21 3 30.5 16 1 4 4 13
Kosovo 5.5 2.5 0 4.5 21 0 16.5 0 47.5

Above you can see present day percentages of Y haplogroups. We can see that the Cardial_map‘farming’ substratum remained dominant in Sardinia: I2/39.5%+G/12%+E1/9.5%+J2/9%. R1b brought the aristocracies, but as I2a1 substratum remained dominant, the overall resulting civilization remained pretty much egalitarian. Present day Sardinian haplo structure is similar to Croatian percentages with 2 differences: Croatians received an R1a influx in second stages from Thracia & Pannonia, while Sardinians received the R1b influx from Western Europe through Corsica.
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I2a1: Vinca/Cucuteni> Butmir>Mediterranian Neolithic>Nuragic Sardinia>Sea People
1]Farming came to Old Europe from Middle East through J2+E1+G haplos resulting Old Europe with 2 epicenters in Vinca & Cucueni areas.
2]Bronze technology starts in Vinca/Serbia, Vinca farmers go West to the sea through Butmir culture
3]When they hit the sea, they learn shipping technology and start spreading from Croatia to Italy and further, producing the farming Meditteranian Neolithic Cultures.
4]Cardinal culture in Sardinia 5000bc. Farmers arrive in Sardinia 3000Bc. According to wiki during this period copper objects and weapons also appeared in the island!!
5]Around 2000Bc R1b warriors from Beaker culture arrive from N, through Corsica. They bring the bronze technology, they find in Sardinia the copper mines. wiki:the Bonnanaro culture is the last evolution of the Beaker culture in Sardinia (c. 1800 BC), and shows several similarities with the Bronze-Age Polada culture of northern Italy.e3

e4In the second millennium BC, Mycenae was one of the major centers of Greek civilization, a military Pozzo_Sacro_Santa_Cristinastronghold which dominated much of southern Greece. The period of Greek history from about 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is called Mycenaean in reference to Mycenae. At its peak in 1350 BC, the citadel and lower town had a population of 30,000 and an area of 32 hectares. Some of the pottery and architecture (above picture) of older Nuragic culture, show resemblance with the Minoan culture. Between 1600-1200bc there were obvious commercial relations between the 2 areas.

BACollapse936In around 1200 BC the Sea Peoples produced the Late Bronze Age collapse.  In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter: examples include Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit.[3] Drews writes “Within a period of forty to fifty years at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the twelfth century almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed, many of them never to be occupied again” (p. 4). The palace economy of the Aegean Region and Anatolia which characterized the Late Bronze Age was replaced, after a hiatus, by the isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages. The Sea Peoples from the north weakened and destroyed the Egyptians and the Hittites respectively. In the resulting power vacuum, a number of Phoenician cities rose as significant maritime powers to dominate the Medeterana.1200Bc – The Dorian invasion of Greece ends the Mycenian culture. Expanding R1b Hallstatt Culture is probably the main wave behind the Sea Peoples and the Dorians are one of those ‘Sea Peoples’ pushed down by the The Alpine Celts. The Iron technology produced the more competitive weapons, the R1b warriors mixed with growing populations from Sardinia, Sicily, S of Italy and Anatolia destroyed all the palace empires.

Egypt survived with great effort and Phoenicians were the only area NOT invaded in Levant.  Phoenicia  was the enterprising maritime trading culture the spread in Mediterana starting with 1550Bc, that dominated the Mediterranean shores from 1200BC PhoenicianTradeto 300 BC, after the raids of the Sea People. Their civilization was organized in city-states, similar to ancient Greece. The Phoenicians were the first state-level society to make extensive use of the alphabet. The Phoenician phonetic alphabet is generally believed to be the ancestor of almost all modern alphabets.  Through their maritime trade, the Phoenicians spread the use of the alphabet to North Africa and Europe, where it was adopted by the Greeks, who later passed it on to the Etruscans, who in turn transmitted it to the Romans. Phoenicia was an early example of a “world-economy” surrounded by empires. The high point of Phoenician culture and sea power is usually placed c. 1200–800 BC.

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# 1800bc-200ad Nuragic Civilization from the Bronze Age – metal industry; in 500bc Cartagina invades the island.
# 1850-1600bc first Indo-Aryans invade Greece – the Ionians & the Aeolians – according to Eupedia this wave is mainly R1a, the Thracians, the Macedonians and the Mycenians are R1a warriors over Old Europe substratum.
# The Indo-European invasions brought the Hittites 1750bc, the Lydians & Lycians 1450bc, the Phrygians 1200bc and the Proto-Armenians 1200bc. All were probably predominantly R1b-L23, considering its high percentage in the regions they settled.
# 2000-1200bc Crete navy dominates Mediterana
# 1600–1150bc – Mycene, aristoi palace society
# 1194–1184bc legendary war of Troy
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# 1200bc –R1b Dorians are pushed south by Illyrians, end of Mycene & Crete, end of all Middle East empires. End of Bronze Age, start of Iron Age and start of Bronze Age collapse.
# 1200-300bc –  Phoenicia dominates the seas from. So first ‘Greek wave’ was R1a, the second was R1b, that is why Macedonians, Athenians, Spartans and Asian Ionians were never too united, having the  Peloponesian war between Athens & Sparta  and later Alexander conquered Athens and  RAZED Thebes!
# 750bc – starts the big Greek colonizations, Sparta rules the South, Athens rules the North of Greece.
# around 700bc t
he Cimmerians are probably the last wave of migration  from the Pontic Steppe. They push into Anatolia and later into Pannonia. By that time the Pontic Caspian steppe would have been thoroughly overrun by R1a people.

Haplogroup_G2a

# 10.000-6.000bc, after last Ice Age, I2 go E to W, I1 go S to N to Scandinavia, from Danube/Carpathian area, to recolonize deserted Europe, following the ice retreat.
#6.000-4000bc, J2+E1+G neolithic famers go from E to W and S to N, to spread farming in Europe, coming from Middle East, along the Danube and by sea.
#4.000-2.000bc – R1b enters in Europe around the Black Sea, S&N of Black Sea, go over Romania from E to W, than to the W along the Danube. First base on Western shores of Black Sea, second base in Transylvania, final base above the Alps. R1b becomes dominant haplogroup in Western Europe.
#3.500-1500bc – R1a goes W to E becomes dominant in Central and NE Europe.
# 2.000-1.500bc R1b accumulation in W Europe, population grows. R1b becomes ruling elite, military dominant in Anatolia also.
First tide which is not E to W: first Aryan migration to Greece – R1a from N to S, over Romania –  Thracians, Macedonians, Mycenians.
# 1.200-1.100bc – the Hallstatt accumulation produce the first wave W to E, the celt explosion produces the Sea People raids in Mediterana. R1b Italics occupy N of Italy, Dorians end Mycenian & Mynoic cultures, Sea People end all palace empires in Anatolia. The First Dark Age of Europe ends aristocratic ‘civilizations’, destroy the cities, egalitarian/rural area begins.
#700bc – Starting with the Cimmerians, the tide changes again, from now on there will be waves only from E to W – R1a Scytians, the Big Hun tsunami that will be the beginning of the End for the Roman Empire, the Goths that will bring the Second Dark Age and so on, Avars, Magyars, Mongols, Slavs (N to S), Turkish peoples…

Europe-diffusion-farming

Let’s take a look to the Eupedia neolithic maps:
1] Expansion of agriculture (above)
1.1] 6300-5800 bc: Old Europe and western coast of Italy – that implies expansion BY SEA from Croatia to W Italy, if we consider that the farming arrived to the northern shores of Adriatic Sea in a later phase
1.2] 5800-5300 bc: Sicily, Sardinia/Corsica, NW shores of Italy, S shores of France and SE shores of Spain, all that BEFORE central Italy – this implies also expansion BY SEA to western Mediterana and Sardinia – the subject of this article. Thus the neolithic I2, E1, J2, G farmers seem to arrive to Sardinia by sea from Old Europe. The ‘Fenician’ route by sea around the N shores of Africa seems to be not so continuous at this time, to my logic it was developed in a later phase.
1.3] Obviously the Croatian Alps were not inhabited in neolithic, but it is hard to believe for me that people were not able to travel over these mountains, so I guess we can talk about a link between #neolithic farmers from Bosnia – Butmir culture and #the Croatian shores, so we can talk about an expansion to W – Vinca >> Butmir >> Croatia by land than E of Italy >> Sicily >> Sardinia by sea

Copper_Age_Europe
2] So we have farming in Sardinia by 5000bc according to Eupedia maps, now let’s consider the expansion of bronze technology, Copper Age.
2.1] 5800-5000bc – Now this map is fascinating to me. For one, we see that copper technology appeared in Serbia and on the Lower Danube BEFORE spreading to Greece.
2.2] 4000-3000 bc – Vinca&Lower Danube is the epicenter, from there Copper Age arrives to Croatia. According to wiki during this period copper objects and weapons also appeared in the island.
2.3] Copper expands in Anatolia from ANOTHER epicenter, and in Pontic-Caspian steppes from a THIRD epicenter. At about 3500bc there seems to be a connection between all the 3 epicenters, around the Balck Sea, through the areas in between.
2.4] 3000-2500 bc Copper expands to Central Europe than to N&W of Italy, the classic Celtic area. BY LAND not by sea, with R1b expansion up the Danube.
2.5] Copper technology arrives from N to Sardinia by sea through Corsica, brought by R1b around 2000 bc.
2.6] Here is a nice study on academia.edu about Sardinian bronze figurines, which dates the first famous bronzetti around 1200bc.
Thus I can conclude/speculate:
3.1] I2 basic layer arrived to Sardinia after last Ice Age and remained dominant according to present day percentages.
3.2] farming and J2/E1/G haplos arrived to Sardinia BY SEA from Old Europe around 5000bc
3.3] copper technology and R1b expanded up the Danube BY LAND to Central Europe than to Sardinia by sea through Corsica, around 2000bc

On Eupedia Forum sparkey: A recent study on 1200 Sardinians is raising a question. The type of I2 dominant in Sardinian Y-DNA Phylogeny per Francalacci et al. 2013_thumb[2]Sardinia is a young branch of I2-M26. The I2-M26 in Sardinia is not even one of the oldest haplogroups in Sardinia, see here: eupedia.com/forum/threads-2013. In addition, I2-M26 has its greatest diversity around France, not SE Europe, and every indication is that it diversified in Western Europe by the Neolithic. Some ancient I2-M26 from Neolithic France have been found already to help substantiate that. It branched from I2a1b, nowadays dominant in SE Europe, well before it spread to Sardinia. Not that I2a1b spread from SE Europe itself; it seems to have spread from farther west as well, based on both modern diversity and ancient samples.
adamo/eupedia: Haplogroup I-M26, the “Sardinian” I2a variety, is found in 40-45% of Sardinian males for example; most people do not realize it is also about 19-20% of Spanish Castillan male lineages in Central Spain. In fact, the very center of Spain, the countries nucleus has a high of 33% hg I. Most of Portugal has 5-10% hg I. But Spain has 10-30% I across most of the country. This means that these men certainly moved from southeastern Europe towards Central Europe, then to Iberia, from where they arrived in Sardinia.
sparkey/eupedia: The days of supposing an I2-M26 origin in Sardinia are over; it’s clearly a founder effect there. Iberia has significant diversity, considering that the most common subclade (L160+) has high diversity there, and an outlier (L277+ L247+) is found there. See Cullen. That could indicate that most modern I2-M26 passed through Iberia, at least visigoths_thumb[2]northeastern Iberia near the Pyrenees. However, it’s worth noting that the greatest I2-M26 outlier is in fact German, as is a cousin of the Iberian outlier, indicating that before arriving in Iberia, it was indeed in or around Germany, or at least expanded that direction as well between the end of the Ice Age and the beginning of the Neolithic.
adamo again: That is correct. It actually seems to have arrived in central Spain/Castile where 33% of males are I, and 20% of it is I-M26 like in 40-45% of Sardinians. About 10% of spaniards are I on a national level though. There was probably an I migration from the Balkans to Central Europe a very long time ago. From there, it would move towards central Iberia. From here it somehow reached Sardinia.
wiki on Sardinian people : Sardinia was first colonised in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic from Iberian and Italian peninsulas, during the Neolithic from Italy, Spain and Aegean [farming], during the Early Bronze Age by Beaker folk from Central Europe and Franco-Iberian area [bronze technology].
i-m26.blogspot.ro : According to most theories, Haplogroup I is associated with Gravettian culture. The western Gravettians were responsible for the cave paintings at Lascaux, and other sites in France. I-M26’s Overlay with the Distribution of Megaliths. Conclusion: It is likely that small groups of megalithic mariners influenced greatly the religious, political, cultural (and physical) landscape of the lands to which they ventured during the Neolithic. M26 is a strong candidate for the marker of a “single population of colonizers, navigators and cultivators” (Cavalli-Sforza 1995) which likely originated somewhere in the vicinity of the Pyrenees shortly after the LGM. As Cavalli-Sforza noted, “the Megalithics may have even been a priesthood or some kind of prehistorical aristocracy, who had good ships and perhaps good weaponry, as well as a much more advanced understanding of astronomy and architecture than their contemporaries.”

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The Getes big-bang theory


neolithic-expansionfarming

Byzantine Creation Era  ”The Making of the World”- Facerea Lumii – 5600 BCthe Indo-European_isoglossesbreaking of the Bosphorus, the Fresh Water Lake becomes the Salt Water Black Sea.
The Proto Getes living around the banks of Black Sea migrate outwards. ProtoGetes going up the Danube to Western Europe became ProtoCelts and ProtoGetes going east became Massagetae / IndoAryans – vedic & iranian cultures. Present day Romania is the turntable, the intersection of all indo-european branches!!

5kBC1pastoralR1b origin is SE of Caspian sea. R1b goes round S of Caspian Sea than to the N of Black Sea. Here we have the SECOND BIG BANGThe southern Steppe R1b culture  culture mixed with northern forest-steppe R1a culture AND Old Europe I2+J1/E1/G Cucuteni farming culture!! This mixture produced the Arian Getes. 

r1b-migration-mapBut the center of gravity in my opinion is not the N of the Black Sea – it is the Cucuteni/Vinca/Hamangia area, ie Old Europe around present day Romania, which is the area with BIGGEST population. I2 is the basic layer which absorbed first Haplogroup_I-bordersthe J1/E1/G neolithic farmers that came from Middle Asia producing the Old Europe civilization. This is the FIRST BIG BANG, based on FARMING the first mixture that produced a stronger culture, better technologies, better living conditions, population growth!! The farming, the east shores of the Black Sea and the lower Danube basin produced the biggest population growth &concentration whichlater started to expand, to Western Europe – the ProCelts and than through the Aryan migrations, to the Pontic Caspian steppes and down to the vedic and iranian cultures.arian-home europa1000bc

The Cucuteni culture also had a big asset – SALT.   The Salt Industry is essential for the Second Big Bang!! First Cucuteni started to develop farming and living close to the salt area in the Carpathians, but slowly they were able to transport the salt to the Dniester, Don are and further.

salt1Salt2

The provision of salt was a major logistical problem for the largest Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements. As they came to rely cucuteni_trypillianupon cereal foods over salty meat and fish, Neolithic cultures had to incorporate supplementary sources of salt into their diet. Similarly, domestic cattle need to be provided with extra sources of salt beyond their normal diet or their milk production is reduced. Cucuteni-Trypillian mega-sites, with a population of likely thousands of people and animals, are estimated to have required between 36,000 and 100,000 kg of salt per year. This was not available locally, and so had to be moved in bulk from distant sources, probably from the Carpathian Mountains by river.

romanianhistoryandculture.com/indoeuropean Sites: A]Mikhailovka, B] Petrovka, C]Arkhaim; D]Sintashta, E]Botai, F]Namazga, G]Gonur, H]Togolok, I]Dashly Oasis, J]Sapelli, K]Djarkutan, L]Hissar, M]Shahr-i-Sokhta, N]Sibri, O]Shahdad, P]Yahya, Q]Susa.
Cultures: 1]Cucuteni -Tripolye, 2]Pit Grave/Catacomb, 3]Sintashta/Arkhaim, 4]Abashevo, 5]Afanasievo, 6]Andronovo, 7]Bactrian Margiana archaeological complex, 8] Indus, 9]Akkadian, 10]Hurrian, 11]Hittite

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The Afanasievo culture is the earliest Eneolithic archaeological culture found until now in south Siberia. Radiocarbon estimates give a date of around 3300 BC for the start of the culture. The culture is mainly known from its inhumations, with the deceased buried in Tarimconic or rectangular enclosures, often in a supine position, reminiscent of burials of the Yamna culture. Settlements have also been discovered. The Afanasevo people became the first food-producers in the area by breeding cattle, horses, and sheep. Metal objects and the presence of wheeled vehicles are documented. These resemblances to the Yamna culture make the Afanasevo culture is a strong candidate to represent the earliest cultural form of a people later called the Tocharians. The Afanasevo culture was succeeded by the Andronovo culture as it spread eastwards.
Haplogroup_R1b_WorldR1a1a_distributionThe Abashevo culture is a later Bronze Age (ca. 2500–1900 BCE) archaeological culture found in the valleys of the Volga and Kama River north of the Samara bend and into the southern Ural Mountains. Artifacts are kurgans and remnants of settlements. The Abashevo culture does not pertain to the Andronovo culture and genetically belongs to the circle of Central European cultures of the Fatyanovo culture type corded ware ceramics. The economy was mixed agriculture. Horses were evidently used, inferred by cheek pieces typical of neighboring steppe cultures.[3] The population of Sintashta derived their stock-breeding from Abashevo, although the role of the pig shrinks sharply. It follows the Yamna culture and Balanovo culture[5] in its inhumation practices in tumuli. There is evidence of copper smelting, and the culture would seem connected to copper mining activities in the southern Urals. The Abashevo culture was an important center of metallurgy[9] and stimulated the formation of Sintashta metallurgy. The Abashevo ethno-linguistic identity can only be a subject of speculation, reflecting both northern penetration of the earlier Iranian steppe Poltavka culture as well as an extension of Fatyanovo-Balanovo traditions. It was preceded by the Yamna culture and succeeded by the Srubna culture and the Sintashta culture.

steppes

The last Ice Age covered most of the Eurasia, the Europe population was reduced to a few pockets of resistance. When the ice started to retreat all Europe was re-colonized from the Danube/Carpathian are with I1/I2 populations. So first we have the first big-bang – I2 Europeans absorb the J1/E1/G migrations form Middle Asia, we have the first technologies, farming and pottery.
Based on salt the Cucutenians go East to the fertile areas north of the Black Sea where they meet the R1b people coming form the S of Caspian sea and the R1a hunters from the northern forest steppes. The second big bang is based also on a second wave of ”technologies”: the Salt mining coming from the Carpathians and the horse domestication coming from the Sredny Stog culture on Dnieper.
Farming + salt/food preservation + transportation/trade + ”a sparkling ethnic mixture” produced POPULATION GROWTH and competition which will produce EXPANSION. This Second Big-Bang will expand to East, to the next basins that are offering good living conditions – Donets, Volga, Caspian Sea steppes, Aral Sea and the Oxus/Amu_Darya, and down to Indus and Middle Asia again.
The I2/R1a/R1b mixture is not based so much on farming, it is based on animal herding and horse domestication with transportation based on primitive chariots. At about 2000BC we have a THIRD BIG-BANG the Aryan Getes going east develop the ”modern chariot technology” AND copper mining and bronze metallurgy while they mix with asian populations. They are retracing the R1b route, going back the original area of R1b, where they will meet again with big farming culture/cities of BMA Complex.  The peak of this culture will produce the amazing Arkaim/Sintashta cities.

arkaim

The Arkaim/Sintashta cities/area, are based on copper mining, arsenical bronze industry and on the trade with the rich BMAC farming cities/areas. The empires and city-states of Iran and Mesopotamia provided an almost bottomless market for metals. These trade routes later became the vehicle through which horses, chariots and ultimately Indo-Iranian-speaking people entered the Near East from the steppe.
The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilization of Central Asia, dated to ca. 2300–1700 BCE. The inhabitants of the BMAC were sedentary people who practised irrigation farming of wheat and barley. With their impressive material culture including monumental architecture, bronze tools, ceramics, and jewellery of semiprecious stones, the complex exhibits many of the hallmarks of civilization. In the same time Arkaim features sewerage, fireproof impregnation of walls and other technologies. Climatic pressure, maybe pressure from asian populations, the attraction of the rich BMAC cities probably pushed the Getes to migrate south.
Around 1700BC #1-Arkaim is suddenly abandoned, #2 it’s the end of the BMAC culture and #3 we have the first aryan migration into the Indus valley! This is the FOURTH BIG-BANG, the mixture between scythia-parthia”kurgan Aryans” with farming southerners, the Getes will become MassaGetes, the Big Getes. R1b has returned to origins, farming and all the technologies are coming together with the best warriors, to produce the strongest mix, the most competitive hybrid culture. These warriers/aristocracy will conquer the Indus Valley, will produce the big Hittite, Mittani Empires, the IndoIranien and Vedic civilizations.  Massageteans/on the Oxus, south of Aral Sea, are in the center of Scythian/Getae/Jet continuum from Dniester to Indus, the Great Scythia. This epicenter on the Oxus river of the Great Getes (the MassaGetes) will produce resistance to Persians & Alexander the Great, will produce the Greco Bactrian Kingdom and the Kushan Empire. The eastern Getes will have a natural affinity with the western Getes, the Macedonians of Alexander the Great. greco-bactriankingdommap1Kushan-Empire_100ad

Under the pressure of the rising Turkish populations-the Huns, the most eastern branch of the indo-europeans, the Tocharians / The Yuezhi  and the the Hephthalites, with a mixed blood, will produce the last Aryan invasion of the Indian subcontinent. Yueh-Chih Migrations_thumb[4]Hephthalites_500ad_thumb[3]

And that is the beginning of the END!! The Huns, the Mongols and the Turks will wipe out the Aryan Getes of the Asia, the Aryan Cultures/States, Turkish populations will become dominant in all the Asia.hunsmongol-empire-large

 

So again let’s see the cultures going from Cucuteni area to the East, from river to river, aquiring new technologies in time.
>> 0] Old EuropeVinca + Cucuteni/Dniester
>> 1] Sredny Stog/Dnieper 5th millennium Bc, horse domestication
>> 2] Yamna/Dnieper-Donets 36-23rd century BC, kurgan proto IE
>> 3] Poltavka /Volga 2700—2100BC

BC4500-3500SrednyStogSitesAndronovo_cultureForestSteppeCultureshorsepower%20map%20yamnayaAbove the maximal extent of the Andronovo culture, in orange. The formative Sintashta-Petrovka culture is shown in darker red. The location of the earliest spoke-wheeled chariot finds is indicated in purple. Adjacent and overlapping cultures (Afanasevo culture, Srubna culture, BMAC) are shown in green.

>> 4] ”bi-etnic” Abashevo 2500–1900BC Volga and southern Ural Mountains
>> 5] THIRD BBSintashta-ARKAIM-Petrovka/North of Caspian Sea 2100–1800BC earliest known chariots (with spoked wheels) & copper mining and bronze metallurgy
>> 6] Andronovo/East of Caspian Sea 1800–1400BC, copper ore in the Altai Mountains
>> 7] Tocharians/Tarim Basin maybe linked with the Afanasevo culture of eastern Siberia (c. 3500 – 2500 BC), the Tarim mummies(c. 1800 BC) and the Yuezhi of Chinese records >> 8] FOURTH BB: kurgan warriors meet  BMAC 2300–1700 BCE farming civilization/ Oxus/Amu_Darya – results a much stronger hybrid culture
>> 9] Indus 1700BC first arian conquest
>> 10] Anatolia Hittites 1600-1500Bc and Mittani 1400bc
>> 11] Vedic Indus Culture 1750–500 BC
>> 12] Massageteans/on the Oxus, south of Aral Sea, are in the center of Scythian/Getae/Jet continuum from Dniester to Indus. Resistance to Persians & Alexander the Great, the Greco Bactrian Kingdom and the Kushan Empire.

r1a-y-dna-eupedia

Then the direction of the tides changes again, the migrations are starting to flow from E to W, from the Caspian Pontic steppes to Europe, with the Huns and the Mongols pushing from behind the biggest waves.
>> The Cimmerians were an ancient Indo-European people living north of the Caucasus and the Sea of Azov as early as 1300 BC[1]until they were driven southward by the Scythians into Anatolia during the 8th century BC. Linguistically they are usually regarded as Iranian, or possibly Thracian with an Iranian ruling class. After their exodus from the Cimmerians[6]Pontic steppe the Cimmerians probably assaulted Urartu about 714 BC, but in 705, after being repulsed by Sargon II of Assyria, they turned towards Anatolia and in 696–695 conquered Phrygia. In 652, after taking Sardis, the capital of Lydia, they reached the height of their power. Their decline was rapid, and their final defeat is dated between 637 and 626, by Alyattes of Lydia. There are no further mentions of them in historical sources, but it is likely they settled in Cappadocia. Herodotus thought the Cimmerians and the Thracians closely related, writing that both peoples originally inhabited the northern shore of the Black Sea, and both were displaced about 700 BC, by invaders from the east. Whereas the Cimmerians would have departed this ancestral homeland by heading east and south across the Caucasus, the Thracians migrated Odrysian.svgsouthwest into the Balkans, where they established a successful and long-lived culture.
>> The Sarmatians were an Iranian people during classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.[1][2] They spoke Scythian, an Indo-European language from the Eastern Iranian family. At their greatest reported extent, around 1st century AD, these tribes ranged from the Vistula River to the mouth of the Danube and eastward to the Volga, bordering the shores of the Black and Caspian seas as well as the Caucasus to the south.[5] The Sarmatians declined in the 4th century with the incursions connected to the Migration period (Huns, Goths). The descendants of the Sarmatians became known as the Alans. Strabo in the 1st century names as the main tribes of the Sarmatians the Iazyges/Pannonia, the Roxolani/Moldavia, the Aorsi and the Siraces.
>> The Odrysian Kingdom was a state union of Thracian tribes that endured between burebista3the 5th and 3rd centuries BC.
>> Burebista was a king of the Getae and Dacians, who unified their tribes for the first time and ruled them between 82 BC and 44 BC. He led plunder and conquest raids across Central and Southeastern Europe, subjugating most of the neighbouring tribes. After his assassination in a palace coup, the empire was divided into smaller states.

2000px-roman_empire_125

Huns_450ad

The Getes were known by the Greco-Romans to the west, by the Chinese to the east, and by the Indians and Persians to the south. In the fourth and third centuries BC, after IE expansionresisting Alexander the Great, the Massagetae subdued nearly all the nomad tribes of Central Asian north of the Macedonian frontier, eastward to the Tien-Shan Mountains, and possibly many tribes of the Kazakhstan steppes; this led to a tremendous extension of their culture. Sakas, Dahae, Daae, Sacae, Daks, Alans, Sarmatians, ThracoGetians, Thyssagetae, Tyrigetae, Great Yuezhi, Ephthalites or White Huns, Kushans, Tochari, Cimmerians,  Goths, Iazygians, Roxolani, Dacians, there seems to be a continuity between the vast steppes, from neolithic to the Middle Age.

Metallurgical_diffusion

Diffusion of metallurgy in Europe and Asia Minor. The darkest areas are the oldest.
#1. The first evidence of extractive metallurgy dates from the 5th and 6th millennium BC and was found in the archaeological sites of Majdanpek, Yarmovac and Plocnik, all three in Serbia. To date, the earliest evidence of copper smelting is found at the Belovode site,[6]including a copper axe from 5500 BC belonging to the Vinča culture. Metallurgists of the Cucuteni Trypilliaculture knew various procedures of copper processing, cucuteni spiralbut also of obtaining alloys, such as the one of copper and silver. To a smaller extent, gold was also being processed, being meant for creating prestigious jewelry. Metal items sometimes accumulated within treasures (such as those discovered in Ariuşd, Hăbăşeşti, Brad, Cărbuna, Horodnica etc.). Thus, the treasure of Ariuşd (Romania) contained 1992 copper items, and the treasure of Cărbuna (Rep. Moldova) brought to light 444 metal items; the treasures of Ariuşd and Brad (Romania) also contained golden items.

#2. Social changes which began in Eastern Europe and Western Asia around 2300 BC were consolidated across Europe during the Bronze and Iron Ages. Warrior aristocracies developed. Travelling on horseback, warriors could travel long-distances. Wietenberg_culture_axes_at_National_Museum_of_Transylvanian_History_2007The invention of the spoked wheel made the war chariot possible. There was a marked increase in the manufacture of weapons. In the Stone Age, axes and daggers could be made, but the long sword was the work of bronze-smiths and clearly a weapon of war. Sheet-metal working developed in the Urnfield Culture of the Late Bronze Age, making possible shields and armour. With this focus on conflict came thecar-ritual development of fortifications. Warfare itself was not new. What we see in the Bronze Age is the development of a society in which the warrior had a special place – indeed a leading role.
According to ‘wiki’ the sword developed in the Bronze Age, evolving from the dagger; the earliest specimens date to ca. 1600 BC. in the Black Sea region and the Aegean. A good article here- The Greek Age of Bronze. The Mycenaean culture starts around 1700BC when Indus has Mycenaean_sword_and_Wietenberg_culture_axes_at_National_Museum_of_Transylvanian_History_2007the first Aryan invasion.
The Wietenberg culture was a Middle Bronze Age archeological culture in Central Transylvania that roughly dates to 2200–1600/1500 BCE. The above pix – Wietenberg culture battle axes found at Valea Chioarului, Maramureş County,Romania. In display at the National Museum of Transylvanian History, Cluj-Napoca and Mycenaean bronze sword found at Dumbrăvioara, Mureş County, Romania. The Mycenians came to Greece from the North of present day Romania, where this sword was found.

2000bc

#3. The shift to cremation rather than interment around 1300 BC, gave archaeologists a name for the burgeoning Urnfield culture. The typical Urnfield burial used a urn to contain the ashes of the desceased, capped by an upturned bowl, set into a pit. The usage had spread over much of Europe by 1000 BC. Any type of cremation was uncommon earlier over most of Europe except the Carpathian Basin, where it appears urnamong the Makó and Bell Beaker groups as early as c. 2700 to 2400 BC. So this region has often been considered the starting point for the Urnfield tradition. Two of the Middle Bronze Age cultures of Hungary favoured cremation, but only one of them placed a capped burial urn in a pit. That was the Vatya Culture of sheep-breeders living intellsettlements along the Danube. These were well-placed for trading, as well as having good grazing land nearby. So the idea could easily have travelled up the Danube to the trading nexus at its head. From there it spread west and north into Germany and Poland and south into Italy. Finally it moved into France and part of Spain. There was also a transition to cremation burial in Scandinavia and the British Isles in the Late Bronze Age, but without the vast cemeteries of Continental Europe. The distribution of the Urnfield Culture is very similar to that of the Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b-U152.  herodot

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