Miracolul Georgiei–No.1 Reformer acc.to World Bank 2007


http://cersipamantromanesc.wordpress.com/2010/12/31/miracolul-georgian/
Economiştii şi experţii politici care au vizitat Georgia sunt unanimi: echipa de reformatori în frunte cu Mihail Saakaşvili, care a preluat puterea în 2003 în urma „Revoluţiei rozelor”, a realizat reforme liberale care pot intra în manualele de economie ca un exemplu de cea mai rapidă şi radicală reformă din istoria lumii. Şi nu este o exagerare.
În clasamentul mondial privind facilitatea de a derula afaceri, realizat de Banca Mondială, Georgia s-a clasat pe locul 11, depăşind ţări precum Finlanda, Suedia şi Japonia, lăsând cu mult în urmă celelalte state din spaţiul CSI! Revista americană „Forbes”, care evaluează anual uşurinţa cu care oamenii de afaceri plătesc taxe şi impozite, a stabilit că Georgia are cel mai liberal regim din Europa şi e pe locul patru lume, după Qatar, Emiratele Arabe Unite şi Hong Kong! În doar şapte ani, dintr-un stat sărac, aflat în pragul falimentului, care s-a confruntat într-un conflict militar cu Rusia în 2008, Georgia s-a transformat radical, având o economie în plină expansiune care atrage investitori din întreaga lume.
În plan extern, ieşirea din CSI a fost deja realizată, iar aderarea la NATO şi Uniunea Europeană constituie o prioritate absolută a guvernului georgian. Reformatorii de la Tbilisi susţin că reţeta miracolului este foarte simplă: o voinţă politică de fier, liberalizarea economiei şi combaterea fermă a corupţiei.
Primele rezultate sunt deja vizibile. Veniturile bugetului din Georgia au crescut de la 558 de milioane de dolari în 2003, la 3,3 de miliarde de dolari în 2008. Ca urmare a reformelor, salariul mediu a crescut în aceşti ani de opt ori – de la 30 de dolari în 2005, la 240 de dolari anul trecut. Preşedintele Mihail Saakaşvili a formulat în termeni cât se poate de simpli noua ideologie de stat a Georgiei: „meritocraţia”, adică puterea celor merituoşi.
Sistem în care sunt alese persoane talentate, cu scopul de a fi promovate pe baza realizărilor obţinute. Nu în baza relaţiilor de rudenie, a şpăgii sau a aranjamentelor de culise, atât de familiare nouă. Drept urmare, cele mai spectaculoase au fost rezultatele luptei cu corupţia: au fost arestaţi şi judecaţi 250 de inspectori fiscali, 40 de procurori, 20 de judecători, 400 şefi de departamente, un viceministru şi doi parlamentari. A fost reformat Ministerul Afacerilor Interne, fiind desfiinţată poliţia rutieră. Guvernul a majorat salariile poliţiştilor de la 30 la 400 de dolari.
Înainte de a fi angajat în poliţie, candidatul trebuie să susţină teste psihologice, elaborate în comun cu specialişti străini. Foştii poliţişti nu au fost reangajaţi, iar cei care încercau să ia mită erau imediat concediaţi. În doar câţiva ani, nivelul de încredere faţă de poliţie în Georgia a crescut de la câteva procente la 82 la sută. Indice comparabil cu cel din Norvegia sau Danemarca.
Moody’s praises Georgia economic reforms, assigns Ba3 rating Georgia’s once-booming economy has suffered from investor flight since 2008, with foreign direct investment dropping 51 percent last year and the economy contracting by 3.9 percent in 2009. The economy has since shown signs of recovery, growing 8.4 percent year-on-year in the second quarter of 2010, according to government figures.

economist.com/georgia_good_at_reform_bad_at_war The Rose Revolution in 2003 inspired hopes for fundamental reforms and economic advance. In 2007, Georgia became “the number one economic reformer” (World Bank, 2007). Between 2006 and 2007, Georgia skyrocketed from 112th place to 18th by the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Index. Georgia is now just one place behind Estonia.

economy.ge Number of taxes and rates as well were significantly reduced from 21 to 6 (2004-2008) – according to the Georgian Tax Code, currently, the number of taxes is only 6, including 5 state taxes and 1 local tax. In 2007, important changes made in the Tax Code promoted the changes of tax system, namely, social tax was replaced by unified income tax (25% in 2008; 20% since 2009), also profit tax rate was reduced from 20% to 15%. Tax rates on dividends and interest are 5 percent, instead of 10 percent in 2005. It is foreseen further liberalization of tax system.

Modernized system of Licenses and Permits – due to the reform of the system of licenses and permits, the number licenses and permits was reduced by 84%. Currently, licenses and permits are only required in the production of highly risky goods and services, usage of natural resources and specific activities. The procedures of issuing licenses and permits were significantly simplified, the “One-Stop-Shop” and “Silence is Consent” principles were introduced. “One-Stop-Shop” which simplified relations between state and customers of state services and “Silence is Consent” implies that if person is not notified about argumentated rejection about issuance of license in limited framework, the license is considered as issued from the relevant body.

Creation of Free Industrial Zones”Free Industrial Zones” can be created on more than 10 hector territory on the basis of the government’s decision or by the initiative of physical person/legal entity. Companies acting within the zone are free from profit, property and value added taxes. Besides, the import of goods, produced in the free industrial zone to the other territory of Georgia (outside the free industrial zone), as well as the export of foreign goods to the free industrial zone are free from customs tax.

The reform of Technical Regulation System, Privatization of State Property, Liberal Labour Code,…

Customs Reform – simplified customs procedures. Customs Tariffs Reform significantly simplified and sharply reduced the costs connected to the foreign trade. Number of import tariffs were abolished on approximetaly 90% of products and only 3 tariff rates (0%, 5%, 12%) exist instead of previous 16.

Competitive Trade Regimes – starting from 2003, Georgian foreign trade turnover has been characterized with upward tendency that is supported by the liberal trade policy provided in the country. Competitive trade regimes in Georgia: Free Trade Regime – with CIS countries and Turkey (since November 1, 2008); Most Favored Nation Regime (MFN) – with World Trade Organization (WTO) member countries; Preferential Regime (GSP) – with USA, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, Norway; Preferential Regime (GSP+) – with EU (7200 items) since 2005. Georgia has concluded double taxation treaties with 33 countries and has bilateral treaties on investment promotion and protection with 32 countries. There is possibility of Free Trade Regime with European Union in the nearest future.

About Alex Imreh

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