Swastika in Old Europe


  • Pe teritoriul României, cele mai vechi semne ale svasticii au fost găsite în Transilvania, la Bod (Brenndorf), lângă Brașov, la Turda, dar și în alte localități, datând din epoca pietrei. De la arieni svastica a trecut în cultul creștin, și este forma primitivă a crucii. Cultul svasticii a continuat să existe și în Dacia Romană. Astfel, pe o inscripție a cohortei Dacice I, Aelia Dacorum, se găsește semnul svasticii cu brațele spre răsărit. Ea a continuat să fie păstrată de popor de-a lungul timpului și putea fi găsită pe monumente, pe cusăturile naționale, pe podoabele bisericești vechi. Acoperământul mormântului Mariei de Mangop, a doua soție a lui Ștefan cel Mare, din 1477, este împodobit cu svastici. Ele se găseau și pe pictura bisericii Trei-Ierarhi din IașimangopÎn cultura rusă, zvastica deține un loc special. Ea poate fi găsită în aproape toate categoriile de artă populară rusă, în broderie și țesături, în sculptură și pictură pe lemn, ceramică, în religia ortodoxă, pe prosoape, draperii, șorțuri, fețe de masă, curele, tricouri, cufere, tapițerie, bijuterii.[3]În prezent, naționaliștii ruși și neopagânii utilizează în mod activ simbolul “Kolovrat“, care este considerat având origini “străvechi slavo-păgâne”.[4]
  • cruce îndoită
  • cruce cu colțuri, în heraldică ( Winkelmaßkreuz în germană.)
  • cruce gammadiontetragammadion sau doar gammadion, pentru că fiecare braț seamănă litera greacă Γ (gamma). ( croiz gammée în franceza veche și croix gammée în francezăcruz gamada în spaniolă.)
  • fylfot, care înseamnă “patru picioare”, în special în heraldică și arhitectură (vezi și Fylfot)
  • cruce încârligată, (olandezăhakenkruisislandezăHakakross germanăHakenkreuzfinlandezăhakaristinorvegianăHakekors italianăcroce uncinata și suedezăHakkors)
  • roata soarelui (germană Sonnenrad), un nume folosit ca sinonim pentru crucea soarelui.
  • tetraskelion, greacă “cu patru picioare”
  • Ciocanul lui Thor, din presupusa asociere cu Thor, zeul trăsnetului în mitologia nordică, dar care poate fi folosire greșită a numelui care desemnează de fapt simbolul în formă de Y sau de T. (vezi Thomas Wilson, subsol.)
  • crucea fulgerului (letonăperkonkrusts)

sw bsrbThe earliest swastika known has been found in Mezine, Ukraine, the never ending cycle symbolised the Sun, that grants us life and warmth. It is carved on late paleolithic figurine of mammoth ivory, being dated as early as about 10,000 BC.mezincucuteni-tripolia_pasare

Civilizatia-a-inceput-la-poalele-Carpatilor

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture (ca. 4800 to 3000 BC) extends from the Carpathian Mountains to the Dniester and Dnieper regions, centered on modern-day Moldova and covering substantial parts of western Ukraine and northeastern Romania, encompassing an area of some 350,000 km2 (140,000 sq mi), with a diameter of some 500 km (300 mi; roughly from Kyiv in the northeast to Brasov in the southwest).[2][3] The majority of Cucuteni-Trypillian settlements consisted of high-density, small settlements (spaced 3 to 4 kilometers apart), concentrated mainly in the SiretPrut, and Dniester river valleys.[4] During the Middle Trypillia phase (ca. 4000 to 3500 BC), populations belonging to the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture built the largest settlements in Neolithic Europe, some of which contained as many as 1,600 structures.[5]One of the most notable aspects of this culture was the periodic  destruction of settlements, with each single-habitation site having a roughly 60 to 80 year lifetime. The Old World Europe Danube Valley Culture was an early, relatively sophisticated agricultural culture that thrived before the foundation of the first cities in Mesopotamia and Egypt.  Its timeline roughly coincides with what is known as the copper age, or Chalcolithic period. Chalco is derived from the Greek word for copper, and lithic which generally refers a cultural phase with an emphasis on tool use.

cc1ancient-wisdom.com/SerbiaVinca In 1908, the largest prehistoric Neolithic settlement in Europe was discovered in the village of Vinca, just a few miles from the Serbian capital Belgrade, on the shores of the Danube. Vinca was excavated between 1918 and 1934 and was revealed as a civilisation in its own right. Indeed, as early as the 6th millennium BC, three millennia before Dynastic Egypt, the Vinca culture was already a fully fledged civilisation. A typical town consisted of houses with complex architectural layouts and several rooms, built of wood that was covered in mud. The houses sat along streets, thus making Vinca the first urban settlement in Europe, but being far older than the cities of Mesopotamia and Egypt. And the town of Vinca itself was just one of several metropolises, with others at Divostin, Potporanj, Selevac, Plocnik and Predionica. Archaeologists concluded that “in the 5th and early 4th millennia BC, just before its demise in east-central Europe, ‘Old Europeans’ had towns with a considerable concentration of population, temples several stories high, a sacred script, spacious houses of four or five rooms, professional ceramicists, weavers, copper and gold metallurgists, and other artisans producing a range of sophisticated goods. A flourishing network of trade routes existed that circulated items such as obsidian, shells, marble, copper, and salt over hundreds of kilometres.” Vinča settlements were considerably larger than any other contemporary European culture, in some instances surpassing the cities of the Aegean and early Near Eastern Bronze Age a millennium later. The largest sites, some more than 300,000 square metres may have been home to up to 2,500 people. (2)

vinca

Alternative Thinking: Two copies of votive carts discovered in the early 20th century near the village Dupljaja, represent the highest artistic achievements carriers DUBOVAČKA žutobrdske – cultural group, which was distributed at the end of the Bronze Age in the Serbian Danube and south Banat. Time and conditions at which the findings are poorly understood, it is the unusual structure carts contribute to some scientists express doubts as to their authenticity. Felix Mileker thought that both copies found 1903rd in the northeast part of the site Dupljaja – City. Collector from Bela Church Leonard Bem, bought the finder fragmented wheelchair and with the help of one’s craft, they are very skillfully reconstructed. In Bemovom property were located up in 1929. when his son Karl offered to sell Felix Milekeru curator of the Municipal Museum in Vrsac. Collecting just one part of the required sum, Mileker buys smaller carts with two wheels and anthropomorphic statetu with schematized bird face decorated with solar symbols – swastikas. Although damaged, votive carts from Dupljaja, are one of the most important items that are kept in the Municipal Museum in Vrsac. The second, larger and better preserved specimen acquired the National Museum in Belgrade.h5cyBUS

srbijomkrozvekove.rs/en/prehistory Two carts made of baked clay, which are believed to be approximately 3,500 years old, were discovered at the beginning of the 20th century in the Banat town Dupljaja. They belong to the Dubovac-Žuto Brdo culture, which was represented in the southern Banat, the Danube region, and Eastern Serbia during the Middle and Late Bronze Age. Both carts are driven by deity in the form of stylized human figure with bird’s beak, and each part is richly decorated with various geometric motifs. Also, the ancient symbol of the sun, the swastika, appears in four places. These objects had a great religious significance in the prehistoric cult of that time. According to the story which the scientist Felix Mileker heard from the locals, the carts were found by local villagers, but they were in pieces. However, it is possible that this story was created in order to conceal the true location of the discovery. Parts came into the hands of Leonard Bem, a passionate collector from Bela Crkva, who reconstructed them with the help of an unknown craftsman. In 1929, Leonard’s son sold the bigger cart to the National Museum in Belgrade and the smaller one to the museum in Vršac.

Mirror-image swastikas (clockwise and anti-clockwise) have been found on ceramic pottery in the Devetashka cave, Bulgaria, dated 6,000 B.C.

express.co.uk/Europe-s-oldest-swastika-unearthed  May 25, 2010 – archeologists have unearthed this swastika on the bottom of what appears to be a ritual drinking vessel – 2,500-years-old near the village of Altimir, in the northern Vratsa Region.  vrtsaDescoperă spectaculoasa civilizație care s-a dezvoltat pe teritoriul României în vremea Războiului TROIAN 
garla-mare-statueteÎn județele Dolj și Mehedinți din regiunea Oltenia există un număr de 10 monumente arheologice de interes național și local ce aparțin culturii Gârla Mare, datând din Epoca Bronzului. Aceste așezări se găsesc în județul Dolj în comuna Gighera (sat Nedeia) și în județul Mehedinți în municipiul Drobeta Turnu Severin (cartier Schela Cladovei), comuna Vlădaia (sat Almăjel), comuna Burila Mare (sate Crivina și Țigănași), comuna Devesel (sat Devesel), comuna Gârla Mare (sat Gârla Mare), comuna Obârșia de Câmp (sat Izimșa), comuna Gruia (sat Izvoarele) și comuna Gogoșu (sat Ostrovu Mare). Așa cum cultura Cucuteni e considerată apogeul artei neolitice, cultura Gârla Mare este considerată ca fiind cea mai importantă reprezentare a artei din Epoca Bronzului (1600 – 1150 î. Hr) din România, remarcându-se prin eleganța modelării ceramicii și prin tezaurul de obiecte de podoabă, asemănătoare celor miceniene.

După Romulus Vulcănescu, zvastica (care apare și pe unele monumente din Timoc si Bosnia) are o importanță fundamentală la români dată fiind frecvența cu care apare in cimitire, în biserici, pe broderiile costumelor naționale, pe pergamentele voevodale, etc.

 

Advertisements

About Alex Imreh

http://www.aleximreh.ro http://www.facebook.com/alex.imreh 0742-669918
This entry was posted in Archeology of symbols, Old Europe Art, Uncategorized and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

w

Connecting to %s